Influence Of Mathematics In Ancient Greek Architecture Essay Example

Introduction

Ancient Greek architecture is one of the most iconic in the world, utilizing many elements that are used in the modern day. At the same time, Greek scholars were also some of the most advanced; building on the foundations of Egyptians and Persians, the Greeks made significant advances in mathematics. From a historical standpoint, architecture has always been part of mathematics, with the two disciplines closely aligned, which is not surprising given that math is, at its core, a study of patterns. Ancient Greek architecture was influenced by mathematical advancements at its time, particularly the Pythagorean theorem and the Euclidian system.

Pythagorean Mathematics

Pythagoras was one of the initial major mathematical breakthroughs for the Greeks. At first, he established a connection between music and numbers, determining the ratios of the sequence of notes in a scale. This resulted in the principle of ratios of small integers, which led to the creation of a ‘module,’ a basic unit of length in a building with the dimensions being small integer multiples of basic length. Furthermore, for Pythagoras, numbers took on geometrical properties. He is known for developing the Pythagorean theorem. It was after his death, and the war with Persia did the Greeks begin the reconstruction of the destroyed Pantheon, using ideas of ratios as well as Pythagorean triangles to determine the accuracy of right angles and measurements (Chiotis 57). The combination of these Pythagorean shapes and ratios allowed us to construct the much bigger elements and shapes of the building.

Euclidean Geometry

Euclid’s Elements was a breakthrough publication gathering and organizing already existing knowledge in geometry and mathematics and contributing his own. Many of these concepts are the foundation of modern-day geometry studied at the school level. Euclid ordered prepositions and created a logical structure to work, and it is considered a masterpiece of Greek intellectual tradition. The Euclidian geometry system became the basis for most of the architecture from antiquity to the Romanesque period. The geometry was applied in the construction of temples, as it served as vital to defining the proportions of the component parts of the buildings. Euclid further contributed to the proportions discovered by Pythagoreans by ultimately calculating them and applying them in the so-called ‘golden ratio’ utilized by Greek architects, where the ratio is repeated multiple times in the façade (Artmann 59). This is believed to be intentional, as described in the next section, to achieve symmetry.

Symmetry

One of the key principles of Greek architecture is known as symmetric or mathematical harmony. It is believed that the number, measure, and proportion in the architecture conferred beauty. Therefore, this perfection to perfect measurements, ratios, and symmetry was an obsession for both architects and builders. Symmetry was the basic organizing principle, with some great examples of balance and symmetry, including the Temple of Artemis at Corfu. It was present throughout the Greek Pantheon. Largely, symmetry had a much broader and symbolic meaning in classical Greece than in the modern-day. It is believed that the Pantheon was designed to an accuracy of 0.15%, and there are extensive measurements, in a theme of 4-7-9, to ensure there is ongoing symmetry and aesthetic beauty in the construction (Wilson Jones 275). This approach continued to apply to architecture through the next several millennia.

Conclusion

It becomes evident that some of the greatest works of architecture were based on the mathematical discoveries achieved by Greek scholars. Notably, the Greeks were able to take the theoretical aspects and practically apply them to the complexities of architectural design, which once again highlights the integration between the disciplines in ancient times. This connection provides insight into the development of civilizations, which tied scientific progress in areas such as mathematics to practical applications in areas like architecture.

Works Cited

Artmann, Benno. Euclid – The Creation of Mathematics. New York, Springer Science and Business Media, 2012.

Chiotis, Eustathios. “Pythagoras’ Mathematics in Architecture and His Influence On Great Cultural Works.” Scientific Culture, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021, pp. 57–77, Web.

Wilson Jones, Mark. “Ancient Architecture and Mathematics: Methodology and the Doric Temple.” Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future, 2014, pp. 271–295.

Management And Leadership In Nursing

Nurse Manager

Abdulai Koroma is the Director of Nursing at Potomac Falls Health and Rehab. He received his first BSc Econs (Hons) education at Fourah Bay College, the University of Sierra Leone in the field of economics, and a second bachelor’s degree from Shenandoah University in the field of nursing. ​​Career growth took place within one clinic, as Abdulai Koroma started as a Registered Nurse at Potomac Falls Health and Rehab and spent over 11 years in this position before becoming a department director in 2019. He is also involved in public speaking, which allows him to share experiences and develop professionally.

Nurse Leader

In his leadership style, Abdulai Koroma values the balance of time and quality. He always positions the services of the clinic as fast but at the same time of high quality for full rehabilitation. This is what he conveys to the staff as a value and what positively affects the rate of return visits. In addition, for Abdulai Koroma, employees are a priority; in conflict situations, he always clarifies the opinion of the staff about what happened before making a decision. This priority builds trusting relationships with employees. Moreover, decisions about changes in the clinic’s work, even as minimal as the schedule, are made by taking into account the opinions of employees. Democratic leadership is highly valued by employees.

Communication

The communication style of Abdulai Koroma is built through interactions, there is always a dialogue, not a monologue, which allows creating a degree of involvement in the processes. It would be even more effective through group discussions. Additionally, Abdulai Koroma possesses social-perceptual skills that allow him to feel the inner doubts and worries of employees, for example, if an employee is cheating, he will feel it. His application of this skill does not require modifications for greater efficiency. The tone of voice is one of the elements of non-verbal commutation (Park & Park, 2018). At the same time, the tone of Abdulai Koroma does not always correspond to the situation, expressing negative comments, it is usually still the same soft. Tailoring the tone of voice to the situation would increase the effectiveness of communication.

References

Park, S. G., & Park, K. H. (2018). Correlation between nonverbal communication and objective structured clinical examination score in medical students. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 30(3), 199-208. Web.

Discussion Of Virtual Museum Of Arts

I performed a virtual tour of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) through the organisation’s website. The top part of the homepage displays a bold statement in white with a black background reading, “We look forward to seeing you!” I wish I would have visited the museum physically but I promise to honor the invite in future to witness and experience the art masterpiece stored in there. While scrolling down the homepage I was amazed by its colorfulness, it strikingly displays pictures of modern art. The left side of the homepage is written “Change Is Modern” in black with a yellow background (MoMA, n.d.-b). There are several works that have been displayed on the homepage starting with Guadalupe Maravilla’s Luz y fuerza, which is shown below;

Virtual Museum of Arts

The images are so captivating, it may take more time to look at every piece of artwork displayed through the website. The main aim of visiting MoMA albeit online, is to study the works of art in the Impressionism and Post Impressionism periods. After studying the suggested literature by Frank on the chapter of Artforms titled: “Late Eighteen and Nineteen Centuries,” I choose to search for the works by Vincent van Gogh and Mary Cassatt.

Vincent van Gogh is a post impressionism artist who was active in painting from 1853 to 1890. He produced many artistic paintings majorly themed on color. Out of his many works listed on the MoMA website, my attention is attracted to his work, shown below, titled The Starry Night that was done in Saint Rémy in June 1889.

Virtual Museum of Arts

The image symbolizes the night sky illuminated by a bright moon to the right and Venus at the center left. The picture above depicts van Gogh’s expression, mood, and sentiment. In this painting, van Gogh was inspired by the outlook of the from his window at the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole refuge in Saint-Rémy, southern France, where he spent one year from 1889 to 1890 in search of absolution from his psychological sickness. Even though he looked at the sky at night, the painting was made during the day, showing his clearness of mind (MoMA, n.d.-c). The painting also shows a tiny village below the hills that he may have observed at another time. The hills seem to rise and fall in resonance to the terrific galactic forces in the sky whereas the tiny village illuminates the compactness of human life.

On Impressionism period, I preferred to choose one of the works done by Mary Cassatt who was active between 1844 and 1926. She is among the few Americans who made major contribution in the development of Impressionism. Being a woman, most of Cassatt’s art paintings involved silent moments between mothers and kids. I picked her work titled Under the Horse-Chestnut Tree, which is shown below;

Virtual Museum of Arts

In this painting, Cassatt portrays a child seemingly about to twist against the mother’s clasp. The painting is done against a flat area with a jewel like color. It reveals Cassatt’s interest in Japanese motifs that she saw at an artwork fair in Paris in 1890 (MoMA, n.d.-a). The painting also incorporates some form of Western approaches to printmaking, which entail the use of drypoint to craft a detailed graphic outline and aquatint to afford a deep color.

References

Frank, P. (2010). Prebles’ Artforms: An Introduction to the Visual Arts, 10th Edition (10th ed.). Pearson.

MoMA. (n.d.-a). Mary Cassatt. Under the Horse-Chestnut Tree. 1896–97 | MoMA. The Museum of Modern Art. Web.

MoMA. (n.d.-b). MoMA. The Museum of Modern Art. Web.

MoMA. (n.d.-s). Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. Saint Rémy, June 1889 | MoMA. The Museum of Modern Art. Web.

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