Information Systems In Healthcare: We Can, But Dare We? Sample Paper

A variety of patient data is given to healthcare workers. Healthcare professionals are free to act in any way they see fit because massive amounts of information are available. We Can, But Are We Daring? The patient’s day-to-day care is specifically the responsibility of nurses. They spend the most time with patients and eventually develop a trusting relationship in which patients freely share every aspect of their lives. What will be done with all of the information, especially in this technologically advanced age? In this day and age, technologies are within our reach. Healthcare workers leverage technology to provide more evidence-based practice, improve patient care, and educate patients. Sadly, disclosing sensitive patient personal information violates patient safety and privacy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) was enacted by the federal government to safeguard patients’ private information (Moore & Frye, 2019). It is a problem and a violation of HIPAA when patient information is stolen from healthcare facilities’ use of these technologies. HIPAA is occasionally broken, and those who are supposed to guard it, intentionally or unintentionally, occasionally leak vital information.

HIPAA, Legal, and Regulatory Discussion

In August 1996, President Bill Clinton signed the HIPAA law for the first time (Moore & Frye, 2019)). The patient’s name, date of birth, address, and other information identifying the patient are examples of information that HIPAA protects. Additionally, HIPAA safeguards the patient’s present, future, and past medical records.

Smartphones are changing the game regarding giving patients the best care possible.

It makes it easier for the patient’s healthcare team to communicate with each other. Some facilities also allow physicians to manage patient care using personal devices. Additionally, no law prohibits healthcare workers from carrying cell phones at work. Because of this, the individuals tasked with safeguarding patients’ personal information are committing an increasing number of data breaches, both intentionally and unintentionally. Physicians must adhere to specific HIPAA guidelines when using smartphones for patient care. If a personal device is used, it must be password-protected, not set to automatic login, fingerprint-protected if possible, have an automatic lock for idle time, and have a remote wipe feature in case it is lost or stolen, according to the guidelines (Nethers & Milstead, 2022). The HIPAA regulations are further broken down into rules based on how the device is used. The developer should not have access to the information or the right to store it if an app is encrypted on a mobile device. Email should also be encrypted if it is being used on the device.HIPAA does not recommend texting, but if necessary, the patient’s information should be protected using a secure and encrypted texting app.

More than 1.7 billion people have access to social media websites like Pinterest, Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter (Hannahcurrey, 2022).

These social media websites make it easy for people to share their personal information. They geotag everything and post pictures. Some people even post free photos and videos of their daily lives online, giving everyone access to their routine. Healthcare professionals have access to information about a patient’s day-to-day life that they can easily share with social media. We Can, But Are We Dating? Any site that uses a patient’s information, picture, or medical data, whether for research or advertising, must obtain the patient’s consent (Nettrour et al., 2019). Patients want to know exactly how their data is consumed.

Scenario Ending and Recommendations

After assessing the patient, the nurse leaves the phone on the bedside table and walks out. The shift came to an end, and the nurse departed for home. When she got home, she realized she had left her phone at the hospital but could not remember where. She starts heading back to the hospital. Meanwhile, day shift nurses noticed a cell phone on the bedside table. Without knowing whom the phone belonged to, she unlocked it to see if she could figure out who it was. She sees pictures of the patient lying in the hospital bed the night before. In shock, she stares at the pictures and quickly locks the phone. Patients should be confident in nurses’ ability not to divulge sensitive personal information to unauthorized persons. The nurse took pictures of the star for her interest, breaking the patient’s trust even without realizing it. Taking explicit pictures of patients, basic or health information, and results break HIPAA protocols. The nurse should have implemented several other things to avoid violating the patient’s confidentiality. The nurse should have prioritized the delivery of exceptional services to the patient. As this nurse delayed the patient’s treatment to take pictures, she ignored the patient’s privacy and security concerns and proceeded to interact with her friends instead of attending to the patines.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The use of cell phones has numerous advantages and disadvantages. A primary benefit of cell phones in healthcare settings is seamless communication. Physicians cannot always be in the same building as all their patients, so they rely heavily on nurses to call them when their patients’ conditions change. A disadvantage is social media. Society is so caught up in social media that some forget the rules of the land, aka hospital. In this scenario, we see a nurse who takes pictures of her patient to send to her friend. However, the nurse cannot prevent her friend from sharing the photos on Instagram, Facebook, or elsewhere. People use social media as a significant source of communication with friends, family, and even strangers.

Moreover, cell phones provide healthcare workers with seamless access to reference materials and associated healthcare data. Nurses can easily access information on medications, procedures, and health conditions by searching the internet. A second disadvantage is that smartphones are an increasing source of distraction. Several things can be distracting while working, but cell phone usage is in the top five. If you hear a notification on your phone, you automatically think about who and what it is. However, distractions can impair a nurse’s ability to provide optimal healthcare services.

Conclusion and Reflections

In the healthcare industry, technology can be beneficial as well as harmful. It is a great way to raise awareness about a subject, find emotional support groups, meet new people, and possibly look for a job. Sadly, technology facilitates access to patient information without their consent, intentionally or unintentionally. It is never acceptable to take a picture of a patient with a smartphone, regardless of whether the patient is a celebrity.

It is against the NPA, the ANA code of ethics, and HIPAA. Patient privacy violations can result in license suspension and job loss. In an oath, patients’ privacy was pledged to healthcare workers, and nothing should violate that promise (Nethers & Milstead, 2022). As can be seen, both our personal and professional lives are significantly impacted by electronic devices. We must learn when to turn off social media and when to use it now that it is so accessible. A nurse has a lot on her plate, so we cannot be ignorant about how to use social media. While providing care to patients, we should always keep the confidentiality of our patients and our understanding of HIPAA regulations at the forefront of our minds.

The issue is not with social media use; The problem lies in how we use it. Social media is usable in healthcare for many good reasons, but it can be hard to do so with caution. According to Giustini et al. (2018), nurses can use social media to their personal and professional advantage without sacrificing patient confidentiality or privacy. Before it is too late, ask a nurse manager or supervisor to direct you in the right direction if you are doubtful.


Hannahcurrey. (2022, April 21). More than 5 billion people now use the internet. We Are Social Hong Kong.

Giustini, D. M., Ali, S. M., Fraser, M., & Boulos, M. N. (2018). Effective uses of social media in public health and medicine: A systematic review of systematic reviews. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, 10(2).

Moore, W., & Frye, S. (2019). Review of HIPAA, Part 1: History, protected health information, and privacy and security rules. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology, 47(4), 269–272.

Nethers, S. B., & Milstead, J. A. (2022). Future perspectives on nursing policy, technology, education, and practice. Nursing Clinics of North America, 57(4), 627–638.

Nettrour, J. F., Burch, M. B., & Bal, B. S. (2019). Patients, pictures, and privacy: Managing clinical photographs in the smartphone era. Arthroplasty Today, 5(1), 57-60.

Integration Of Care For People With Acute And Long-Term Needs Sample Paper


This essay is built on showing the assessment progress of a patient who has been under my care for a while now. The patient is a male diagnosed with type two diabetes mellitus. This patient also suffers from schizophrenia, a condition since childhood. This progress will aid in showing the appropriate way to care for him to regulate both conditions simultaneously without triggering the other, as he had been off the clozapine medications due to a trip that he was having in Bangladesh. It is important to note that he frequently suffers from paranoia, in that his food is poisoned, escalating his hypoglycemia levels, and resulting in low blood sugar levels. He also suffers from drug-induced psychosis. He also suffers from COPD, which he regulates using inhalers.

In every healthcare position, it is necessary to ensure that patient confidentiality is upheld to ensure discretion between the healthcare providers and the patients (Farouk et al., 2020). In this case, all the health situations this man and the doctors discussed remain between them. Since his condition requires frequent follow-up, his details have been fed into the hospital’s patient database, which is protected by a massive firewall to prevent hacking hence leakage of the patient details (Lv and Qiao, 2020.). In case he falls ill in a different place and is treated at another hospital other than our own, his medical details are strictly sent only to the concerned healthcare unit he has visited.

Since he has fallen ill while away from our hospital, it is necessary that his record, as explained above, are sent to the healthcare unit providing the care services to him. It is recommended that he is immediately put under clozapine titrations. Further, a medication list should be sent showing the dosage for each prescription at the healthcare unit.

Identified healthcare priorities

This middle-aged man has a pair of healthcare priorities; physical and mental. Under physical health care, the priority is type two diabetes mellitus which primarily manifests in this case due to the high paranoia that he is offered poisoned food hence declining food. This resultantly leads to a reduction of blood sugar levels. The patient is also suffering from COPD.

His mental health care priority is drug-induced psychosis with very high distrust and paranoia symptoms. As seen above, this highly affects his social and personal life as it leads him to distrust those whore who is offering him home care support. Due to this distrust, he declines food that should help stabilize his blood sugar levels, dropping them below normal sugar levels.

Findings and nursing interventions.

Hypoglycemia or type 2 diabetes is characterized by having more deficient blood sugar levels than usual, 70mg/Dl (Silbert et al. 2018). While blood sugar levels sometimes fluctuate to these low levels in ordinary people, it is necessary to know that it is consistent; then, there is a high likelihood they are suffering from type two diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is essential to identify this condition early enough before it’s too late.

There are varying reasons that would lead to this condition. In our case, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is due to failing to eat. For regular body functioning, energy is needed. This energy is sourced from the food eaten, broken down into glucose necessary for energy production in the body, and raises blood sugar levels.

Type 2 diabetes also manifests in patients suffering from the latter, type 1 diabetes, when they inject themselves with too much insulin in trial to regulate their blood sugar levels by bringing them down hence going way below the average glucose levels. Not taking enough carbohydrates for the insulin-induced to work.

Bad timing intervals while administering the insulin where the time intervals are too close should increase the insulin levels in the blood, lowering blood sugar levels. Poor timing while undertaking exercises, where one activity too much reduces the sugar levels below the expected levels (Rossi et al. 2019). Further, too much intake of alcohol reduces blood sugar levels as most sugars are converted into energy to eliminate the alcohol from the blood.

Hypoglycemia mostly has symptoms like racing heartbeats, abnormal sweating and shaking, anxiety and confusion, dizziness, and poor clarity in seeing. To treat these low blood sugar levels, these patients must always be aware of their blood sugar levels. The blood sugar kit can do this by constantly checking the levels. Further, the patients should always take enough carbohydrates and glucose-generating foods to prevent their blood sugar levels from falling below normal blood sugar levels.

Low blood sugar patients should also ensure that they eat enough when taking alcohol. In adverse cases of low blood sugar, the patients should inject themselves with glucagon or ask for help infiltrating it (Freeman, 2019). Soon after, they should ensure they eat foods that help in glucose generation, such as carbohydrates. They should also visit the doctor to ensure that their blood sugar levels are well stabilized. Further, the patient should have their COPD checked to ensure that they are stable, as well as have their inhalers with them every time in case there is a need for emergency respiratory treatment.

Drug-induced psychosis is a mental health situation that leads one to perceive things differently from those around them (Rossi et al., 2020). It is most evident when one is experiencing psychotic episodes such as delusion, paranoia, and hallucination. Just as the name suggests, this results from abusing drugs or too much exposure to a specific drug, increasing its toxic levels in the blood hence provoking psychotic episodes. It may also result from consuming a combination of drugs and withdrawing from prescribed or abused drugs.

Drug-induced psychosis is most prevalent when an underlying mental condition has not been provoked, but the rise of the drug’s toxicity in the system worsens the mental illness (Patel et al. 2019). The symptoms are gradual depending on the level of risk of drug toxicity. For recovery, the mental condition and the drug addiction must be treated separately. In our case, the prevalence of schizophrenia will necessitate the administration of drugs such as clozapine is recommended to help stabilize the mental condition.

To control drug-induced psychosis, the drug triggering it must be identified and withdrawn immediately or systematically depending on the effects of withdrawal by medical detoxification. After successful medical detoxification, the patient should undergo cognitive behavioral therapy to learn the moods before the psychotic episodes to help manage the emotions and paranoia and identify the triggers (Kendler et al. 2019). The most effective therapy includes those closest to the patient to support the patient during recovery.

Healthcare and social interventions, and multiagency working to care for patients.

Healthcare interventions are actions taken to improve an individual’s health status or a group of people (O’Cathain et al., 2019). In our case, a hypoglycemic and drug-induced psychotic patient. For such a patient, the most effective healthcare intervention would be to administer counseling and therapy sessions to help manage the paranoia and distrust, which are drug-induced psychosis symptoms. Part of the therapy will encourage them to eat the food offered without being paranoid that it has been poisoned. This will be effective even in dealing with the hypoglycemia problem. Further, the patient can be provided free glucagon to help manage their blood sugar levels in case they fall below normal.

Social interventions include helping the patients have a place in society (Pollock et al.2020). In our case, this patient social life may be very detrimental given that he suffers from a mental health issue too. Social intervention can be administered by providing the patient with financial support to aid their treatment and daily lives. This will reduce the pressure of thinking about finances, leading to better recovery, especially from a mental disorder. Further, they may be placed in an interactive institution to help build on their social lives.

Multiagency care means organization mechanisms that provide healthcare services to individuals with complex and long-term healthcare needs (Taberna et al., 2020). The agency comprises medical practitioners and specialists overseeing holistic healthcare and support. To achieve the holistic provision of health care and support, there is the coordination of multiple interventions and services depending on the specific complex needs of the patients.

In our case, multiagency care should look into the patient’s hypoglycemic condition and drug-induced psychosis disorder. In this, multiple health specialists would be involved, one who would ensure that the diabetes disorder is well managed and another who would help treat the schizophrenia disorder. Further, a therapist will be involved to deal with helping the patient get over the drug addiction and manage the psychosis episodes.

Implications in nursing practice and knowledge

From evaluating the treatment of the hypoglycemic and drug-induced psychotic patient, I have identified that one health problem could worsen the other. As seen from the disorders above, the paranoid situation affecting the patient led to the rise or manifestation of the hypoglycemic condition. For this reason, it is necessary to work on both health disorders to successfully treat them. As discussed, the medications offered to treat the diseases should not reduce the impact of the other or hinder the health improvement of the latter disorder.

It is also necessary to learn that with such a kind of treatment, there is a need to involve multiple health practitioners who specialize in each disorder to develop effective health stabilization for their patients. The patient is supposed to understand the importance of initiating the desired treatment and comply. Further, as a nurse, I should offer as much help to ensure that both conditions are well treated and maintain high levels of discretion to maintain trust with the patient.


Treatment of a patient with acute and long-term needs is very complex and crucial. As seen in this case, the acute disorder in our patient is diabetes and COPD, and drug-induced psychosis disorder. From the explanation above, the occurrence of the diseases should be looked into closely to beware if their event is interdependent. In this case, type 2 diabetes occurred due to failure to eat. Type 2 diabetes symptoms, which include increased heartbeat, might lead to COPD.

For this reason, glucagon should be injected into the patient’s body to help improve their blood sugar levels. Further therapy sessions should be offered to help with the paranoia management. To enhance the effectiveness of the therapy sessions, clozapine should be administered correctly to help deal with psychotic episodes.

As explained, the occurrence of the psychotic disorder could be triggered by the prolonged use of certain medications or their abuse. Therefore, it is clear that as much as these medications could be used for medicinal purposes, they could also be the sole reason for addiction and trigger underlying mental problems, making their occurrence severe as they are toxic. Therefore they must be administered correctly and with care so that patients do not get addicted. For example, some antibiotics are used in medication; they should be used only for prescription, and medical practitioners should be keen to see that the patients are not exposed for long, prompting addiction.

To manage a patient’s acute and long-term needs, it is necessary to involve multiple unique health practitioners to oversee the treatment and follow-up of the patient. Enough support should be offered to the patient to aid recovery, including support from those around the patient. The social lives of these patients should be encouraged. Further home based care should be sort to help in achieving successful patient treatment.


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Kendler, K.S., Ohlsson, H., Sundquist, J. and Sundquist, K., 2019. Prediction of onset of substance-induced psychotic disorder and its progression to schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample. American Journal of Psychiatry176(9), pp.711-719.

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Intercultural Communication Issues In Marketing Essay Example

Intercultural communication is significant in marketing and advertisement due to globalization and international marketing. Multinational firms like Coca-Cola and Apple Company’s products are used globally. Therefore, intercultural communication skills help marketers reach different markets segmented in terms of culture to promote and sell their products. Martin & Nakayama (2017) defines intercultural communication as sharing information on different levels of awareness between people of different cultural backgrounds or boundaries. Intercultural communication is crucial in establishing and harmonizing the relationship between cultures. It also avoids conflicts that may stir enmity or market failure in cases of advertisement and marketing. Communication across cultures is often marked with different barriers which limit the credibility and intention of the message being passed from one culture to the other. The core barriers include anxiety, racial discrimination, prejudice, ethnocentrism, and stereotyping. In contemporary society, stereotyping is common among the markets since their advertising messages, videos, and images often provide a generalized belief about a specific group of people. The essay explores stereotyping as a core intercultural communication issue hindering marketing and advertisement in business firms.

Stereotyping in communication encompasses oversimplifying the idea of a group of people or a particular culture. The stereotype may be based on race, ethnicity, sexual orientation or gender, and any other trait. Though stereotypes can be positive, for instance, relating good mathematics scores to Asians, they are often negative and offend the targeted persons. An example is linking being overweight to being lazy or eating a lot. The marketing or advertising form may miss the market share by stereotyping a particular class or people intentionally or intentionally. An example of a stereotyping advertisement was made in 2017 by the Dove Company. The company’s marketing video demonstrated a black woman becoming white instantly after using Dove products (Brooks, Charland & Cox, 2020). The company was trying to inform the public of the significance of its products in enhancing the beauty and giving the users light skin; the advert takes people back to hundreds of years of racism which is diminishing in American society (Allen, 2022). The advert is offensive to the blacks because they never choose to be black. Also, it shows a higher degree of racial discrimination not only to the back community but also to the white who culturally co-exist with the black Americans.

Another marketing campaign that portrayed stereotyping of intercultural communication is the advert on Mr. Clean. The printed advert inquired people to celebrate Mother’s Day with a friendly sexiest reminder that cleaning is a role task for women. The P&G brand Mr. Clean presented an ad of a smiling mother and daughter cleaning with the slogan, “this Mother’s Day, get back to the job that matters (Weebly, 2022).” What was the company trying to imply? That women working in different professions do not deserve those jobs? Is the women’s role primarily attached to cleaning? Or is teaching the daughter to clean the most important job a woman should do? The company highlighted the highest degree of gender stereotyping in the adverts by dedicating them to cleaning as the most important work in their life. Stereotyping messages are a core intercultural communication barrier that may limit the sales of the company products and services to the stereotyped and predominant cultures.

Intercultural communication views the universe as a global village (19), where offending one culture may significantly offend another. The marketer, therefore, needs to apply ethics and diversify their bilinguals (249) to promote effective communication across cultures. For the Dove Company, considering persons of color and white was necessary for marketing to avoid offending the black community. The target message should also be communicated with humility and humanity to avoid conflict among different cultures. Martin & Nakayama (2017) also noted the significance of understanding other people’s cultures to avoid passing information that leads to cultural shock (339), particularly to the immigrants that may feel offended when information directly stereotypes them. Cognitive consistency is also needed to streamline communication among different cultures. In the second advertisement, P&G Company underrated the role of women in the company. The marketer lacked the cognitive conscience and intercultural relationship (397), which allowed the women to serve in the equal position as men and not mere washing.

Marketers often fall into stereotyping communities and cultures because they stick to the racial histories (136) in the case of Dove Company. The company still associates the black skin color with darkness and an unfulfilling future, thus prompting them to develop a product that may change their skin tone to white. Even though ethical identity (189) and family identity are important to the lives of individuals, they should never be used against them in a discriminating or stereotyping manner, as done in the two adverts. Avoiding cultural imperialism (384), where one culture is seen as predominant by the company, should also be stopped by the marketers to avoid stereotyping the customers. Dove saw the white community as predominant, thus stereotyping the black for the whites to have their way. Moreover, cross-cultural training (45) is also necessary among marketers and advertisements to limit discrimination (294), thus upholding the cultural values (95) of all communities. This will ensure that the information passed through marketing and advertisement is not interpreted otherwise by different cultures based on cultural stereotyping.

Conclusively, intercultural communication challenges often manifest in marketing and advertisement, where companies stereotype people differently. Marketers must be culturally cautious and avoid cultural imperialism that may dictate that one culture is superior to another. The stereotyping advertisement may lead to reduced sales due to the high level of cultural diversity, making the world appear as a village globe.


Allen, E. (2022). Jess Weiner and the Dove Real Beauty Campaign: Selling Feminism for Profit or Social Change? Women Leading Change: Case Studies on Women, Gender, and Feminism6(1), 18–37.

Brooks, B., Chanland, D., & Cox, S. (2020). Dove’s Advertising Campaign Highs and Lows: From Real Beauty to Real Success to Real Controversy. Business Case Journal27(1).

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2017). Intercultural communication in contexts Seventh edition. An Introduction. McGraw Hill.

Weebly. (2022). Modern Stereotypical Ad. Stereotypes in Advertising. Retrieved 18 October 2022, from