Infrastructure As A Service By Amazon Essay Example For College

The demand for infrastructure as a service (IaaS) services is growing worldwide due to its cost-effectiveness and simplicity of use. While the competition in the sector is high, the sphere is dominated by major providers, which may hurt the competition in the future (Osborne, 2019). The present paper aims to describe the IaaS services provided by Amazon and revealing its advantages and flaws in comparison with its competitors. Even though the growing demand may cause the emergence of new IaaS service providers, Amazon will remain the leader in the industry in the nearest future.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a promising technology, which serves as an alternative to traditional IT systems. It can be characterized as a pool of resources, including both hardware and software, that can be accessed using a web interface from any geographical point. Accruing to Freet, Agrawal, John, and Walker (2015), the method of computing is characterized by accessibility, availability, and scalability. Cloud computing is especially popular with small businesses that cannot afford capital investments and maintenance costs associated with traditional computing. However, the method is associated with increased security risks and a lack of direct access to servers and networks (Freet et al., 2015). Therefore, the method is not likely to replace traditional computing entirely.

There are three types of cloud computing, including Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and IaaS. SaaS is a service delivery model that provides access to applications over the Internet (Freet et al., 2015). One of the most successful providers of SaaS is Google through applications called Google Docs. The model is an easy-to-use way of managing small amounts of data that does not require specified training for set-up and maintenance. At the same time, the possibilities and means of controlling SaaS are somewhat limited. PaaS is similar to SaaS, except it delivers a platform for creating applications, instead of an application (Freet et al., 2015). This method allows increased flexibility; however, it presupposes that the user has some coding skills. One of the most famous examples is Google App Engine.

IaaS is the most flexible model of cloud computing since it provides the infrastructure that can be used for accessing and monitoring computers, networking, storage, and other services. IaaS providers usually give their clients access to cloud servers through a dashboard or an application programming interface (API). However, the method implies that the management of the information stored in these virtual servers is under the complete control of the customer. Table 1 provides information for comparing customer’s control over different layers in the described service models.

Table 1. Levels of Control.

Aspect SaaS PaaS IaaS
Access Control V V V
Application X V V
Data X X V
Operating System X X V
Servers X X X
Network X X X

Amazon as an IaaS Service Provider

One of the most significant players in the IaaS service provision is Amazon Web Services (AWS). According to Osborne (2019), AWS dominates the IaaS market with total revenues of $15,495 million and yearly growth of 26.8%. Even though the market share of the company decreased by 1.6% in 2018, AWS is still far ahead of its competitors with 47.8% of the market share. The primary competitors of AWS are Microsoft, Alibaba, and Google, which are also experiencing tremendous growth taking the market from small service providers. However, despite the growth of other companies, Amazon is not likely to lose its position in the nearest future.

AWS offers an incomparable variety of services, servers, and networks around the globe. The company has 22 data centers in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Australia, with three more coming up in Milan, Jakarta, and Cape Town (AWS, n.d.). The company offers round-the-clock customer support in 15 languages about more than 200 services divided into 23 categories (AWS, n.d.). AWS can serve any client due to pricing flexibility beyond comparison. According to Bernstein (2015), Amazon’s top priority is innovation in all spheres, which is vital for the majority of cloud service users.

However, AWS is going beyond the traditional IaaS services for its customers. In 2014, Amazon introduced a new toolchain, new middleware, and several avant-garde programming models (Bernstein, 2015). In other words, it has aggressively entered the PaaS market since it has developed CodeCommit, Code Pipeline, and CodeDeploy (Bernstein, 2015). The introduction of the new platform has enabled the company to provide hybrid services for its customers, ensuring its leading position in cloud computing.

Conclusion

The demand for cloud computing is proliferating due to its cost-efficiency, scalability, and simple management. Three primary models of service provision are SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS, which are meant for varying tasks. Amazon is the largest provider of IaaS services due to its flexible pricing policies, a wide variety of products, and the company’s orientation on innovation. Even though the competitors are also experiencing unprecedented growth, Amazon is not likely to lose its leading position in the nearest future.

References

Amazon Web Services. (n.d.). Cloud products. Web.

Bernstein, D. (2015). Is Amazon becoming the new cool software company for developers? IEEE Cloud Computing, 2(1), 69–71. Web.

Freet, D., Agrawal, R., John, S., & Walker, J. J. (2015, October). Cloud forensics challenges from a service model standpoint: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Management of Computational and Collective intElligence in Digital EcoSystems (pp. 148-155). Caraguatatuba, Brazil: ACM.

Osborne, C. (2019). Amazon dominates IaaS cloud services market, small enterprises lose out. ZDNet. Web.

Abortions In Australia Discussed In Media

In modern Australia, the use of media services and digital technologies has been considerably increased and improved during the last several centuries. People may address media with different goals, including the necessity to explore their potential, contribute to their health, and discover new educational sources (Rice, Haynes, Royce, & Thompson, 2016). Nowadays, it is easy to find news and increase awareness of various subjects from social or political contexts. Abortion cases are frequent in Australia, but not much attention is paid to this issue. Only two states, Western and South Australia, officially analyze abortion data and indicate about 73,000 abortions in 2014 (Abort73, 2018). Abortion, as not only a health matter but a social and political concept that touches upon human rights and government control, has to be properly discussed in media, thus determining its impact and significance.

Abortion Description

Being one of the common women’s reproductive experiences, abortion causes many debates in media, politics, and society. Annual abortion services have dramatically increased since the 1970s: 1440 abortions among South Australian women in the 1970s and 5,048 cases in 2010 (Abort73, 2018). In Western Australia, numbers remain similar during the last several decades with slight deviations – 8,337 abortions in 2000 and 8,429 in 2012 (Abort73, 2018). Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women in their 20s demonstrate high rates for mental or medical reasons. Unwanted or unplanned pregnancies are usually ended by abortion when a fetus is removed before it can independently exist outside the uterus.

The major reason for the shift in numbers is the decriminalization of abortion and its reclassification from crime to health care. For example, in such Australian regions as Tasmania or Victoria, women got the right to choose if to have an abortion or not, relying on persona wants, issues, and abilities (Baird, 2017). However, in Queensland and New South Wales (NSW), abortion is still a criminal offense that can be excused if a doctor discovers a danger to the life of a pregnant woman (Doran & Hornibrook, 2016). High healthcare costs, negative attitudes towards abortions among doctors and nurses, and unstable guidelines and regulations make abortion a critical determinant of social and political media contexts.

Impact on Media

Regardless of a region, media is a combination of communication tools with the help of which information is stored and delivered to populations. There are many types of media, including print or online media (journals and newspapers), cinema, broadcasting, forums, or social media (Facebook, Twitter, or Linked In). As soon as a topic is characterized by multiple attitudes and opinions, writers and researchers start investigating a field and share as much information as possible. In Australia, Indigenous people are challenged by economic and social disadvantages in education, child safety, and criminal (Rice et al., 2016). They try to use media to stabilize their family connections, enhance their cultural identity, and promote positive educational and health outcomes (Rice et al., 2016). Abortion is one of the themes with a tremendous impact on the media. Being illegal in some parts of Australia and becoming just a healthcare issue with no criminal responsibility in other regions, abortion becomes a repeated topic. Media is a free space where people may share their opinions, observe recent changes, and learn coming interventions.

Importance of Media Use

Despite the positive intentions of media to spread information equally between all the populations, the misuse of social media is recognized. Rice et al. (2016) underline the growth of cyberbullying and cyber racism activities, as well as the impossibility of the Australian government to control the content that violates human rights. People find it necessary to use media as a weapon against abortion-related discrimination to “remove the shame and end the stigma” (Faruqi, 2017, para. 6). Another impact of abortion on media and the subsequent impact of media on people is a chance to change narratives and human minds (Cockburn, Raper, & Nguyen, 2019). The complexity of discussions around this topic lies in the obligation to follow the laws of the country and respect the decision to decriminalize or not to decriminalize abortion in different regions. One should remember that media freedoms should never determine human freedoms and rights.

Social vs. Political Contexts

The discussion of abortion in media gains several forms and is followed by various comments among the Australian population. There is no stand-alone right or law to abortion and its appropriateness for society (Sifris & Belton, 2017). At the same, it is possible to frame the right of a person to have an abortion through the prism of other rights. Sifris and Belton (2017) recommended analyzing the rights to life, health, privacy, equality, and freedom to investigate the circumstances and restrictions on abortion. For example, the intentions to decriminalize abortion in NSW were ambiguously defined. Some people considered it as a farce with no clear outcomes being achieved, many supporters recognized it as a long-expected woman’s right, and one minister explained it as the crisis of the government (Cockburn et al., 2019). Within social and political contexts, social media sentiments are gospels for politicians and food for the mind for ordinary readers.

Significance of the Issue

Many explanations why it is important to continue investigating the relationship between abortion and media can be given. The significance of the issue is not only to come to one common conclusion and attitude but to clarify what people know about abortion and how they should formulate their opinions. Media is not a standard or a guideline to be followed by Australians. It is a tool that offers options and discovers a variety of opportunities. Progress on women’s right to decide either to have a baby or not is evident in media (Faruqi, 2017). However, despite the offered political and social reforms, many Aboriginal women cannot cope with the existing barriers in health and reproductive care (Doran & Hornibrook, 2016). At this moment, the media has to pay much attention to abortion services in Australia and the conditions under which women have access to their rights.

Conclusion

In total, many complex aspects of abortion-media relations exist today. Some citizens believe that women have deserved their right to terminate pregnancies not because of mental or physiological needs but because of personal demands or even without any reason. Medical workers, including doctors and nurses, must do their job and offer services without demonstrating their attitudes. The government has to introduce one common law, regardless of social statuses, geographical locations, or traditions. Until there are concerns and disagreements in the chosen areas, media aims to promote discussions, gather feedback, and share information on the topic. Although media seems to control human minds and decisions, abortion ambiguity in Australia is one of the urgent topics to set the tone in media in both political and social contexts.

References

Abort73. (2018). Australian abortion statistics.

Baird, B. (2017). Decriminalization and women’s access to abortion in Australia. Health and Human Rights Journal, 19(1), 197-208. 

Cockburn, P., Raper, A., & Nguyen, K. (2019). Social media tactics being used to shape the abortion debate. ABC News. 

Doran, F. M., & Hornibrook, J. (2016). Barriers around access to abortion experienced by rural women in New South Wales, Australia. Rural and Remote Health, 16(1). 

Faruqi, M. (2017). Abortion must be decriminalised in Australia: We can’t take our reproductive rights for granted. The Guardian. 

Rice, E. S., Haynes, E., Royce, P., & Thompson, S. C. (2016). Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: A literature review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1). 

Sifris, R., & Belton, S. (2017). Australia: Abortion and human rights. Health and Human Rights Journal, 19(1), 209-220. 

Cognitive Biases, Emotions, And Radical Actions

Introduction

Individuals’ cognitive biases and emotions may exert a significant impact on their lives. People are often known to take action and make decisions based exclusively on their feelings and beliefs, which may lead to severe consequences, a point that is crucial to keep in mind when considering terrorism and political violence. This research is significant because many people suffer from preventable attacks. Thus, it is critical to study cognitive biases and emotions that are potentially associated with violence to eliminate adverse outcomes.

Research shows that some emotions, such as anger or pride, may result in risk acceptance, increasing an individual’s willingness to be resistant (Pearlman, 2013) and possibly motivating violence and rebellion, even to the point of engaging in political violence and terrorism. Kaczynski (1995) supports this point of view and notes that those who commit crimes are emotionally involved in their actions. Bruneau (2016) adds that confirmation bias may lead to radical actions. Thus, emotional distress and cognitive biases may result in the outbreak of political violence and terrorism.

The Influence of Cognitive Biases and Emotions

Various studies support a link between specific facets of individuals’ cognition and emotions, especially anger. Canetti (2017) shows that emotional distress can lead to political violence and terrorism. Exposure to these issues may provoke their recurrence as this experience may be severely traumatizing for individuals. In addition, the desire to engage in political violence or terrorism may reflect a person’s coping response to stress.

Humans may unconsciously use counter-aggression to protect themselves from unfavorable feelings or emotions. Moreover, Cosmides and Tooby (2000) report that emotions are programs that direct people’s activities and interactions with reality. Through emotions, individuals engage with the events in their lives and develop perspectives regarding their experiences. The authors add that anger is a powerful mechanism that allows humans to attack an antagonist more easily (Cosmides & Tooby, 2000).

Cognitive biases can also lead to violence and terrorism as individuals who observe others’ behavior are likely to take similar actions (Gallese et al., 2004). This means that humans tend to perceive the actions they observe in others as correct. In addition, Bruneau (2016) reports that confirmation bias, a type of cognitive bias, may motivate individuals to take radical action. This happens because humans tend to uncritically accept information that corresponds to their opinion. Thus, a person who believes that a political party has won an election by dishonest means is more likely to express approval of this opinion and engage in political violence.

Conclusion

A direct link is evident between humans’ cognitive biases and emotions and their radical actions. The research in the field shows that crimes may involve high levels of emotional commitment on the part of individuals, while emotional distress and anger may cause counter-aggression and provide motivation for violence. Moreover, exposure to traumatic events associated with negative feelings may lead to their recurrence. Confirmation bias can trigger radical action as well because people tend to seek out support for their opinions.

Works Cited

Bruneau, Emile. “Understanding the Terrorist Mind.Cerebrum, vol. 2016. Web.

Canetti, Daphna. “Emotional Distress, Conflict Ideology, and Radicalization.” Political Science & Politics, vol. 50, no. 4, 2017, pp. 940-943.

Cosmides, Leda, and John Tooby. “Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions.” Handbook of Emotions, edited by Michael Lewis and Janette Haviland-Jones, Guilford, 2000, pp. 91-115.

Gallese, Vittorio, et al. “A Unifying View of the Basis of Social Cognition.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 8, no. 9, 2004, pp. 396-403.

Kaczynski, Theodore. Industrial Society and Its Future. 1995. Web.

Pearlman, Wendy. “Emotions and the Microfoundations of the Arab Uprisings.” Perspectives on Politics, vol. 11, no. 2, 2013, pp. 387-409.

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