Institutions Violent – What Should Do And Factors Free Writing Sample


Human service professionals often encounter acts of violence in their daily work. James, Gilliand, and James (2008) have noted that violent behaviors in institutions are mainly precipitated by such elements as gender, mental illness, drug and alcohol abuse, gangs, as well as deinstitutionalization. Increased cases of violence have been linked to a rise in the number of people abusing drugs. Gender stereotypes can also play a role in precipitating violence as some of the social and cultural stereotypes associate males with increased cases of violence, in comparison with females. On the other hand, the elderly are identified as being more vulnerable to violent attacks compared with the youth. The following essay shall examine the precipitating factors of violence as well as the institutional and staff culpability, legal liability, and the nine stages of intervention as discussed by Piercy (1984).

Precipitating Factors

The American Psychological Association published a report in 2000 which critically showed the urgent need for improved clinical education and training in the management of behavioral emergencies in clinical practice (American Psychological Association, 2000). Newly recruited clinicians are at a higher risk of falling victim to cases of violence owing to their inexperience, compared with older therapists who are more experienced. This is because they are not alert and may not identify possible cases immediately.

Some of the psychiatric clinics assign severely sick patients to clinicians who are still undergoing training thereby contributing to the increased susceptibility for attacks by patients. Patients with specific disorders are more prone to attacking their therapists in comparison with the rest of the patients. In addition, patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia and Axis II disorders have been known to be violent towards their therapists. The research conducted before the publishing of the report indicates that violent patients tend to be young and predominantly men. Furthermore, these patients are more aggressive than the female and old male patients.

Therapists are exposed to violent behavior by patients because they do not want to be accused of malpractice. Also, when therapists are attacked by patients, they do not take any measures to defend themselves. This leaves them vulnerable to random attacks by aggressive patients because they know that nothing will be done in self-defense (American Psychological Association, 2000).

Institutional Culpability

The report by the American Psychological Association advises that medical practitioners need to be formally educated and trained to deal with patients’ violent behavior. This can be done by including behavioral emergencies in their training program. Medical institutions have a role to play in ensuring continuous improvement by organizing post-doctoral workshops and courses to discuss new trends in their field as well as sharing knowledge on the treatment and handling of patients with mental disorders. Psychology graduates and professional programs need to teach skills necessary for handling behavioral emergencies (American Psychological Association, 2000).

Staff Culpability

The therapists and clinicians are advised to learn and observe life-threatening behaviors and know how to handle them professionally. Psychologists are required to perform their duties in a professional manner and must possess sufficient education and training in handling behavioral emergencies. Psychologists are not meant to practice outside their area of competence and if at all they should handle cases that are outside their area, they will require additional skills and competencies to handle them. New staffs with no experience in handling trauma undergo emotional and psychological difficulty and as such, they need to work under supervision in hospitals where such cases exist (American Psychological Association, 2000).

Legal procedures should be fair to clinicians who have been exposed to violent behavior from patients by allowing them to give their medical opinion and prevent them from being accused falsely without considering their position as caregivers. The legal aspect ensures that the psychiatrists adhere to specified standards of care while managing behavioral emergencies. This means that they can be held liable for malpractice and negligence and legal action can be taken where necessary to punish those who do not adhere to the regulations (American Psychological Association, 2000). The legal discovery process applies to clinicians who choose to divulge patient information to external people as this is considered non ethical. There are cases where violent patients hold institutions and their employees liable for failure of duty of care owed to them. In this case, the patients accuse institutions and their staffs of lack of proper diagnosis and treatment (James, Gilliland & James 2008, pp. 545).

Stages of intervention

There are nine stages of intervention as discussed by Piercy (1984). These are education, avoidance of conflict, appeasement, deflection, time-out, show of force, seclusion, restraints and sedation. In all these stages, personal dignity and responsibility are important. Also, it is important to uphold personal dignity and respect during treatment. It also worth noting that talking to the violent patient is a dominant feature of the first five stages of the intervention as it helps to alter the patient’s violent status and establish a sense of control (James, Gilliland & James 2008, p. 555).


American Psychological Association (2000). Report on education and training in behavioural emergencies. Web.

James, K., Gilliland, B. & James, L. (2008). Crisis Intervention (7th Edition). Stamford, Mass.: Cengage Learning.

Piercy, D. (1984). Violence: The dry and alcohol patient. In J. T. Turner (Ed.), Violence in the medical care setting: A survival guide. Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems.

Body Found In Ravine At Local Lumber Camp

A body was found in the ravine outside the lumber camp in Nanaimo on the morning of 2nd July 1966. Matthew Gardner, a lumberjack, discovered the body at around 7 AM while going to work. The police were called to the scene and initiated an investigation. The body was identified as Moose Maddon, one of the lumberjacks working in the camp. Fellow workers were stunned by the incident but said they believe the death to be accidental.

The ravine is located just outside of the lumber camp, and workers cross it via a tree trunk to get to the road leading to Camp Three. One of the Lumberjacks, Greg Anderson, commented, “Moose must have fallen, coming home drunk during the night” (Garner 43). The police identified the cause of death as blunt force trauma to the side of the head. Police detective Jason Star said that the injury was probably acquired as a result of the fall.

Matthew Gardner discovered the body as he was heading to his work site next to the ravine. He noticed the body and called other workers to pull Maddon out of the ravine. Gardner said that he checked Maddon for a pulse and called 911 immediately. The police arrived at the scene at 7:30 AM.

The workers were questioned by the police for more details. The last person to see Maddon was Lefèvre Donson. Donson said that Maddon went camping Three to “drink and play poker” at 8:00 PM on 1st July, and he has not seen him later that night (Gardner 43). Another witness, Greg Anderson, said that he heard Maddon coming back to the camp at about 2:00 AM, but Maddon never reached the bunkhouse.

Moose Maddon worked in the camp since 20th May alongside other lumberjacks to cut Douglas firs. Maddon came to Nanaimo from Vancouver to work during the summer. He had a wife and a 5-year-old son at home. The police stated that they would transport Maddon’s Body to Vancouver for the funeral next week. The family refused to provide any comments about the incident.

Maddon was well-liked by most of his coworkers. At work, Maddon was a strong and hardworking man. During his 15 years of service, Maddon had worked all around the country. He sent most of the money home to his wife and son and used the rest for entertainment. According to Gardner, he spent most of his free time playing poker with fellow lumberjacks. Gardner also stated that despite agreeing to a few beers on occasion, Maddon was not a heavy drinker. “He probably drank more last night, enough to trip and fall,” he added later.

Some of the lumberjacks remembered that Maddon had a perpetual conflict with a fellow worker Cecil Dawson, a 19-year-old student of the University of Vancouver. Cecil went to the camp to earn money during the summer break and was planning to return home next week. Anderson said that Maddon was taunting Cecil from his arrival, and the conflict has escalated recently. He reported that Maddon broke Cecil’s glasses and burned his hand with a heated saw. The police stated that they would consider comments about Maddon’s character during the investigation.

Other lumberjacks confessed fearing to cross the ravine after Maddon’s death. Taking extra caution while walking on unstable surfaces in the forest can help to prevent accidents.

Work Cited

Garner, Hugh. “The Moose and the Sparrow.” Men and Women: Stories. Simon & Schuster, 1973, pp. 41-45.

Treadle Pump Technology: A Potential Improvement


Science is the marvel of the present world and modern technologies are an application of science to fulfill man’s long-cherished dreams to control and manipulate the forces of nature for his relevance. But at the same time, it is also very true that the blessings of science depend upon its application. Let us take the example of a bamboo stick which can be used to make a flute, but the same bamboo stick can also be used to bit a person to death. It is the application and intention that are most important. One such simple technology is the Treadle Pump. It is a very beneficial tool but at the same time, it has a disadvantage too. (Abbey, 2006)

Treadle Pump

The main usage of the Treadle pump is to use human labor to lift water. However, it has a limitation of 7.7 meters. (NDE, 2008) Nevertheless, it is economical and does not use fossil fuel. This device is used for irrigation and is fast becoming popular in Bangladesh, East Asia, and several parts of Africa. Bangladesh alone uses 500000 treadle pumps daily. (IPTRID, 2000) On average and with optimum labor this toll can lift 7.7 cubic meters of water from underground in an hour. (Laser, 2009)


A treadle pump is a very helpful tool. First, it is very cheap compared to other irrigation tools. It has been reported that this tool is 70% less costly than motorized pumps. This makes the technology most affordable for poor farmers. Secondly, it is very environmentally friendly. This is purely human-powered and therefore it lacks the use of motor and thus no fossil fuel is needed. This is a very good example of green technology. (White, 2007)


However, there is a serious disadvantage. Treadle pump lifts water from underground. This underground water is an essential part of the ecology. With such popularity of the Treadle pump in Bangladesh, East Asia, and Africa, it is assumed that the groundwater storage level would soon fall and cause enough damage to the environment. This is a very serious situation and policymakers should investigate this sooner than later. (Laser, 2009)


Thus, it is clear that technology like the Treadle pump has both advantages and disadvantages. This is completely aligned with the component of technology. There are bound to be good and bad sides at the same time. Modern scientific equipment like television sets, mobile phones, computers, etc. has no doubt improved the living conditions of man and made day-to-day life more comfortable. These devices eased our working conditions, saving time and money, and energy, facilitated remote communications, bringing the entire world under one roof, at the same time entertaining and educating us, keeping us informed about all current affairs, facts, and events occurring throughout the globe, have proved to be a boon on human life. (White, 2007)


Nowadays, with the advancement of technology man are becoming increasingly dependent on it. Thus, the whole generation is in jeopardy of losing the Sovereignty of emancipated thought and self-confidence. Instead of all disadvantages, and shortcomings, it can never be denied that modern technology is the outcome of man’s tireless challenging work, long perseverance. It is a miracle of the human mind and a gauge for measurement of human development. Thus, it can be concluded that modern technology is a blessing to mankind.


Abbey, E. (2006). Polemic: Industrial Tourism and the National Parks. LA: Tucson University or Arizona Press.

IPTRID. (2000). Treadle pumps for irrigation in Africa. Web.

Laser, M. (2009). Large-scale production, harvest and logistics. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 3(2), 124-141.


White, R. (2007). Are You an Environmentalists or Do You Work for a Living?: Work and Nature. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York, W.W.Norton.

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