Interesting People In History: Bjork Essay Example

Bjork originally gained fame as a lead vocalist in the acclaimed Icelandic group, the Sugarcubes. However, after the band disbanded in 1992, she embarked on a solo career that quickly overshadowed her former band’s success. In contrast to the Sugarcubes’ artistic guitar rock style, Bjork immersed herself in the world of dance and club culture. Collaborating with notable figures such as Nellee Hooper, Underworld, and Tricky, she ventured into this genre. Her debut album, named Debut, not only marked her artistic shift but also achieved worldwide popularity, making her an unexpected star of the 1990s.

Although Debut was titled as Bjork’s first-ever solo project, she had been a professional vocalist since her childhood. During her time at elementary school in Reykjavik, she took classical piano lessons and eventually her teachers submitted a tape of her singing Tina Charles’ “I Love to Love” to Iceland’s Radio One. Falkkin, a record label, offered Bjork a record deal after the song was aired. At the young age of 11, she released her self-titled debut album which included covers of various pop songs such as the Beatles’ “Fool on the Hill.” The album featured artwork by her mother and guitar work by her stepfather. Although it gained popularity in Iceland, Bjork’s debut album was not released in any other country.

Bjork’s music taste was influenced by the punk revolution in the late 1970s. In 1979, she formed a post-punk band called Exodus and, in the next year, she performed in Jam 80. In 1981, Bjork and Jakob Magnusson, the bassist of Exodus, teamed up to create Tappi Tikarrass. This group released a EP called “Bitid Fast I Vitid” on Spor later that year and then a full-length album named “Miranda” in 1983. Following Tappi Tikarrass, Bjork collaborated with Einar Orn Benediktsson to form KUKL, a goth-tinged post-punk band. KUKL released two albums, “The Eye” (1984) and “Holidays in Europe” (1986), on Crass Records before transforming into the Sugarcubes in the summer of 1986.

The Sugarcubes achieved international success with their debut album, Life’s Too Good, in 1988. This made them one of the few Icelandic bands to break out of their home country. While they were popular stars in Iceland, the group also developed a devoted following in the UK and the US for the next four years. In 1990, Bjork collaborated with the Icelandic bebop group Trio Gudmundar Ingolfssonar to record a mix of jazz standards and original songs. Their album, Gling-Glo, was exclusively released in Iceland. However, by 1992, tensions between Bjork and Einar had escalated significantly, leading to the band’s ultimate breakup.

After the group disbanded, Bjork relocated to London where she embarked on a solo career focused on dance music. Prior to this, she had featured as a vocalist on 808 State’s track “Ooops,” which ignited her fascination with club and house music. Bjork established a professional alliance with Nellee Hooper, a producer who had previously worked with Soul II Soul and Massive Attack. Their collaboration produced their first achievement, “Human Behaviour,” which came out in June 1993. The song climbed the charts in the UK, landing in the Top 40 and paving the way for Bjork’s unexpected debut album success with Debut, which debuted at an impressive third position. In 1993, Bjork also had several hit singles in the UK such as “Venus as a Boy,” “Big Time Sensuality,” and “Play Dead,” a non-album track she created in collaboration with David Arnold for the movie Young Americans. These tracks were well-received on modern rock radio stations in the US and UK, and critics showered her with praise in both countries. At the close of the year, Debut was honored as NME magazine’s album of the year, and Bjork herself received accolades at the BRIT Awards for International Female Solo Artist and Newcomer. Debut attained gold certification in the US and platinum status in the UK.

In 1994, Bjork collaborated with various artists for her second album. These artists included Nellee Hooper, Tricky, Graham Massey from 808 State, and Howie B from Mo’ Wax Records. She also released a remix EP and co-wrote the title track for Madonna’s Bedtime Stories. Additionally, she performed on MTV Unplugged.

In spring of 1995, Bjork released “Army of Me,” which was the first single from her upcoming album. The song achieved success in both the UK and as an alternative rock hit in the US. Her second album, titled Post, received positive reviews upon its release in June 1995. It reached number two in the UK and number 32 in the US. Post earned her a gold certification in the US and her second BRIT Award for Best International Female Artist.

Post featured successful British singles such as “Isobel,” “It’s Oh So Quiet,” and “Hyperballad.” However, it did not gain much traction on American radio or MTV.

In late 1996, Bjork released Telegram in the UK. This album consisted of radical remixes of all the songs from Post. It was later released in America in January 1997.

Later that same year, Bjork released Homogenic which became her most experimental studio effort to date. This album led to numerous remix releases over the following years.

In the spring of 2000, Bjork won Best Actress at Cannes Film Festival for her role in Lars von Trier’s Palme d’Or-winning film Dancer in the Dark.Her collaboration with Mark Bell on Homogenic led to the release of Selmasongs, the film’s score released in autumn 2000 concurrent with its U.S. release. A year later, Bjork followed up with her album Vespertine. In late 2002, she released a collection of her greatest hits and the Family Tree box set. After performing at several shows in 2003, she prepared for an eventful 2004 that included the release of Medulla, an album solely comprised of vocals and vocal samples. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, she performed one of its songs called “Oceania.”

Henry VIII And Louis XIV

Henry VIII and Louis XIVHenry VIII and Louis XIV were both men whose accomplishments on anational level for their respective countries of England and France were great,but whose very different personal problems gave them a negative impression inhistory.

The two leaders had very different ruling styles, but with a few similarthemes throughout. Perhaps the best thing to look at first is their verydifferent attitudes toward God and Gods power in monarchy and state. HenryVIII on England grew up as a very strong Catholic, at the insistence of hismother and father. He was known to be a man of daily devotionals, setting anexample for his people (Canon 76). His own writings, most especially a book ofCatholicism entitled The Sanctoreum earned him the title from Pope Leo III thetitle Defender of the Faith. His book had served as an answer to theteachings of Martin Luther, a man whose principals Henry later put into effectin his very own country, in the Protestant Reformation.

France, however, was a very strongly Catholic country where the Romanchurch had a great deal of influence. Louis, although supposed not to be a veryfastidious devote of the religion, or any religion, took part in a minorreorganization of the Roman Catholic Church inside France. It is apparent nowthat Louis basically went along with the reforms dictated by the pope in regardsto religion.

In economic matters, the two rulers perhaps differed even more greatly.

Henry was a fastidious economist, often commenting about the expense of thingsat the royal court, and taking action to have whatever the latest offense to thetreasury happened to be. Louis, however, spent extravagantly, sparing noexpense for himself or his nobles. His ultimate goal was once again to make thecourt of France the center of fashion and art once again. He created Versailles,a monstrosity of Baroque art, most of it gilded with pure gold and otherprecious metal. It is a sprawling country estate with an even more spectacularexterior than interior. Louis bankrupted the Treasury of France through anotherextrvangance as well: his wars. Louis fought four major wars. His great aimwas to make himself supreme in Europe. As a start, he planned to conquer alllands west of the Rhine River. He gained several important territories, but wasalways checked by the alliances that other countries formed to oppose him. Inthe War of Spanish Succession, England took an important part in defeating him,leading to animosity between the two countries and their respective rulers.

This war, which ended in 1714, left France exhausted and weakened.

Both men had a common ability to see the goodness in other men as royaladvisors. Both hired surprisingly intelligent and wise men to run their affairsfor them, perhaps Henry even more than Louis XIV. One of Henrys chief advisorsis immortalized in Shakespeares The Life and Times of Kind Henry VIII.

Cardinal Wolsey is spoken of there as a man such as history had never yet laidtheir eyes upon, a man who could have others get his own will enforced(Shakespeare 78). Wolsey spent little time at the British court, but the timehe spent was valuable. He served as chief advisor to a young, newly crowned,and impressionable King Henry. He formed Henrys ideas about government, spokefor the monarch in assembly, and reputedly taught Henry everything he knew abouteconomics from an early age.Two other advisors are also known to history asserving in Henrys later life, Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More.

Likewise, Louis XIV, in a mark of true genius, was wise enough toappoint someone wiser than himself to run the government. He had many, andoddly, most of their names have been erased from history. Jean Baptise Colbert,advisor to Louis in his formative years as a monarch, later wrote in prison, The man was a fool, but would not surround himself with other fools (Olivier178).

In their personal lives, the monarchs had a great number of similarities.

Both Henry VIII and Louis XIV were fond of women, drink, and debate.

Henry is perhaps most famous for his six wives, and the bloody ends thatmost of them came to. Out of six, only two were not banished, publicly executed,or otherwise humiliated.A quick rundown: Katharine Aragon of Spain, Henrysfirst bride. She was banished from royal view and stripped of her title aftershe failed to produce sons and Henry fell in love with a young lady in waitingnamed Anne Boleyn. Anne Boleyn: was executed for adultery and charges ofwitchcraft. Jane Seymour: recorded in history as the only wife Henry trulyloved. Died a few weeks after giving birth to Henrys much wanted son. Anne ofCleves: Princess of Germany who was not beautiful in Henrys eyes, and was sentaway. Catherine Howard: Commoner executed for adultery. Catherine Parr:Outlived Henry.

Henry jousted in many tournaments until a leg injury prevented this typeof activity. He also grew quite ill and obese in later life, but never lost hislove of sports and other athletic activities.

Louis XIV liked to watch the tournaments more than he liked to actuallyparticipate in them. But his libidinous habits did not differ much from thoseof his neighbor across the Channel. He was married to Queen Marie Therese, butreportedly had at least ten other mistresses at one time. He had three childrenby his wife, but supposedly twelve other illegitimate children by his mistresses.

It was, in fact, some of these personal habits that led to the downfallsof the monarchs.

Henry VIII, who had been the great Defender of the Faith in hisearlier years, was in a bit of a dilemma. He no longer wanted to be married tohis aging wife, devoutly Catholic Katharine of Aragon. He was in love with ayoung lady named Anne Boleyn. Any Catholic knows that divorce is frowned upon.

But in order to marry Anne, Henry needed this divorce. He broke from theCatholic church, and, with the help of Thomas Cromwell, another top advisor,created the Church of England. Unfortunately, to wipe out all cells ofopposition, Henry was forced to destroy many who did not support this break withthe Church.

Another thing contributing to Henrys downfall was his illness. Legendhas it that Anne Boleyns spirit took revenge on the one who had ordered herexecution.It is more likely, according tomany modern historians, that Henryhad a virus much like that which his father died of. He suffered a painful end:constantly coughing up blood, and crippled by a flaring leg injury. For thelast few years of his life, he was unable to govern his country well, and powerfled from England.

Louis XIV had a very different problem. His difficulty was simply thathe spent more than France could afford. Not only had the building of Versaillesseverely disabled the Treasury, his extravagant spending on his variousmistresses and illegitimate children got out of hand. He was to the point, bythe end of his reign, of setting up a well-appointed and furnished estate foreach of these families. Not only that, but the Spanish War of Successionseverely crippled the treasury, and Louis never could truly raised the taxesenough to cover his love of these little wars and women.

Louis was known in Europe for being the longest reigning king in all ofmodern history. He kept court at his various palaces and fought in his wars foralmost 72 years. After his cheif advisor Jean Baptiste Colbert died in 1685,the reign of the Sun King became less glorified. He forced the noble familiesto stay at court at Versailles, creating the problem of absentee landlords forthe commoners, who lived in relative poverty compared to the great splendour ofVersailles. Louis died gradually of disease, and after his reign, politicalinfluence in France declined greatly for a number of years. However, Franceremembers him in a much better way than history admires Henry the VIII.

Both monarchs suffered troubled lives, and still managed to accomplishgreat things for England and France. Henry VIII raised scientific awareness andappreciation for art that had previously been absent from England. Louis XIVadded a new dimension to the arts such as the world had never seen. His reignwas known as ranking above all others in art and literature, as well as dancing.

And yet, even today they are remembered for the most part their failings, Henryfor his matrimonial troubles and Louis for his economic extravagances. It mightdo better to weigh the pros and cons of history instead of blind judgment on thebasis of few facts when thinking of Henry VIII and Louis XIV.

Creation Vs. Evolution

The theory of creation and the theory of evolution have sparked intense controversy in society. The science world supports evolution while the religious community is in favor of creationism. Due to lack of conclusive evidence, this conflict between church and science will persist. However, both sides present persuasive studies and documents to support their respective viewpoints.

To fully understand the current conflict, it is essential to grasp the diverse viewpoints on the origin of life in the scientific community. Scientists have different theories, with some being rejected and others embraced. For simplicity, I will concentrate on the widely accepted evolutionary theory called the Big Bang.

The Big Bang theory proposes that initially, there was a minuscule amount of pure energy, smaller than an atom. This energy started to expand and grow in intensity, eventually condensing and developing into matter. This process lasted approximately 100,000 years. At the end of this phase, force-carrying particles resembling photons emerged along with light atoms. Nebulas, huge gas clouds, drifted throughout the universe for countless trillions of years.

When nebulas undergo gravitational collapse, energy is released, initiating a fusion reaction within the nebulas’ cores that eventually leads to the formation of stars. During this process, carbon elements are also generated, becoming vital for life on Earth. Simultaneously, there exist larger clouds that possess higher energy levels. Consequently, the resulting stars formed from these clouds undergo a nearly complete fusion. This intense fusion process generates a significant amount of heat, enabling the production of elements as heavy as uranium. Thus, this abundant heat is responsible for providing the crucial metals required for planets such as Earth.

After undergoing several cycles of star formation and destruction, the universe now contains a significant abundance of heavy elements. As a result, when stars are born, planets also form. Eventually, our sun became the focal point around which nine planets revolved, with Earth being one of them – eventually becoming suitable for humans to live on. Nevertheless, it took approximately 500 million years for Earth to cool down enough for its atmosphere and oceans to come into existence. These formations ultimately allowed life as we know it today to flourish on our planet.

Although there are individuals who support evolution, there is a significant number of people who believe in creationism. Creationists hold the belief that God created the Earth and all living beings. To fully understand creationists’ perspective, it is essential to explore their beliefs.

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was bare until God commanded, “Let there be light!” When light appeared, God saw that it was good. He then declared, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, separating the waters from the waters.” One set of waters belonged to the heavens, while the other remained on earth. All of this occurred as God was just getting started. Oncefilled with water, God proceeded to separatefrom land.

God, with only seven days to complete his task, had to keep moving. To accomplish this, he commanded, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit after their kind, with seed in them on the earth.” And instantly, it occurred. Consequently, the third day concluded.

God created lights in the expanse of the heavens on the fourth day. These lights were meant to separate day from night, serve as signs, and mark seasons, days, and years. They also provided illumination on earth. God made two great lights – one to govern the day and one to control the night. This completed God’s work on the fourth day.

God established the necessities and dedicated the fifth and sixth days to the creation of animals and humans. To fulfill this duty, he granted his creatures the ability to reproduce and multiply. The sixth day came to an end.

On the seventh day, God took a break and admired his creations, which is why Sunday is still considered a day of rest.

After introducing the two objective theories advocated by both evolutionists and creationists, it becomes crucial to examine the weaknesses within each theory. Initially, the evolutionist theory displays multiple evident flaws that creationists capitalize on to reinforce their own convictions. These flaws are often scrutinized by creationists, particularly in matters pertaining to social issues.

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