International Relations: The Coming Of The Micro-States Essay Example

Summary of the Article

Montenegro’s proclamation of independence inspired statelets like Kosovo to demand the same (Weir par. 1). Kosovo’s independence had not been recognized by the international community. Hence, it resorted to the conflict to demand recognition, just like Montenegro. The greatest fear then, however, was that, should the international community accept Kosovo’s bid for independence, ethnic violence would be inevitable since other statelets would use the same tactic, but granting them independence would result into creation of many unviable little states (Weir par. 5). Most of these statelets are supported economically by the superpowers, which consider them their colonies, hence, granting them independence would make them lose this support.

Weir reiterates the United Nations Charter claiming that all nations are equal and have two fundamental rights, self-determination and territorial integrity, but also warns statelets against compromising the peace and stability of other nations in the name of enjoying these rights (Weir par. 7).

However, statelets with valid reasons should not be denied the right to independence. Independence should be based on fairness to reduce the associated conflicts and wars. The United Nations should take the responsibility of determining states that deserve to be independent to ensure that independence is achieved in a fair and peaceful manner (Weir par. 19). World leaders should bear in mind that denying smaller states with valid reasons the right to independence is unfair.

Response

It is paramount to view all nations as equal, despite of their economic power, geographical location and/or population size, if the number of conflicts and wars across the world are to be reduced significantly. Weir presents Dmitri Suslov’s view and argues that granting independence to statelets like Kosovo would not only further fragment the global order, but also lead to creation of more unviable little states (Weir par. 5).

This fear came out clear in President Vladimir Putin’s answer to journalists, in which he asserted, that precedents in the former Yugoslavia would also be the same in the post-Soviet space. He further stated that it would not be possible to deny Georgian breakaway republics, South Ossetia and Abkhazia, independence if Albanians in Kosovo are granted the same (Weir par. 9). I partly agree with Suslov, however, the situation could be different if independence is granted to states without discrimination. Independence should not be discriminative as it would be unfair to deny deserving states their rights.

However, states that aspire to disintegrate should have valid and convincing reasons before they are allowed independence to avoid unnecessary reorganization of borders because disintegration might destabilize an otherwise stable state. The United Nations should take charge of some of these cases, as a neutral body, to ensure that all states are recognized and are at peace.

Although some leaders may claim that certain states are privileged, because their case is different, this is rarely true in most cases. Even if it were so, other states would not be understanding or even care to find out what those reasons are. Therefore, it would just be fair and right to treat all nations the same, without favor, no matter what reasons they have.

It is a noble course for some states to take up the responsibility of helping, economically or otherwise, small upcoming states. Russia is a good example of this. However, such philanthropic states should be careful not to ignite conflicts as they try to help since some states might view such help us unfair if they are not the beneficiaries.

Works Cited

Weir, Fred. “The Coming of the Micro-States.” Christian Science Monitor. 2006. Web.

Hindi And English Comparison: Syntax Terms

Use of English and Hindi Prepositions

Unlike Hindi, where a postposition is used, the English language is more likely to apply to prepositions. For instance, in the English language, this part of speech is placed before the identified noun whereas Hindi postposition is put after the noun or pronoun. In case there is a special construction where other than pronoun/noun word precedes a post-position, they are to be converted into a noun. For example, “After Sam has spoken” is an English phrase where after comes before the noun. In Hindi, however, the phrase “has spoken” comes before the word “after” (Shreedharan, 2006, p. 53).

Comparison of Hindi and English Adjectives and Adverbs

In English, adjective have comparative and superlative degrees (for example, good-better-the best). In Hindi, the comparative degree is created by means of placing the Hindi version of the English than after a thing or person (Sreedman, p. 40). The superlative degree in the Hindi language is formed by means of placing the Hindi Analogue of the English word of all (Sreedman, 2006, p. 40). If the noun to be compared is absent, the adjective is repeated after the Hindi analogue of the word then. Adverbs serve to modify a verge to indicate the character of an action. Like in English, Hindi adverbs do not change in a form while applied in a sentence, irrespective of verb gender and number (Sreedman, 2006, p. 43).

Sentence Structure and Analysis of Will and Would in English and Hindi

The word order in an English sentence contrasts that of an average Hindi sentence. For instance, in an English language, the subject appears first followed by the verb, objects, and circumstances. In Hindi, the subject is followed by the object; the verb usually located at the end (Kashru, 2006, p. 2). In interrogative sentences, Hindi sentence is deprived of auxiliary verbs, which is not typical of the English language. Finally, English sentences are much more complicated in structure in comparison with Hindi structure. Use of will also differ in the languages under analysis. For instance, In Hindi language, the future tense as used by English learners with the Indian accent is essential in the dependent clause used for first provisional sentences leading to intervention mistakes including, if weather will be fine, we will go for a walk (Kashru, 2006, p. 104). Unlike Hindi, the word will does not change with regard to gender and number in the English language.

Assessment of the Sources

Kashru, Y. (2006). Hindi. US: John Benjamins, Publishing Company.

The book provides the Hindi structure, including sentence construction and analysis of parts of speech in comparison with the English language. The book is constructed to understand the differences between Hindi and English languages and, therefore, they are useful to ESL learners of the English language. The examples presented in the books incorporate the similarities and disparities in sentence structures.

Sreedharan, N. (2006). Learn Hindi through English. US: Sura Books.

The author provides a holistic approach to discussing the structures of the English and Hindi language. It provides a comparative analysis of examples from both languages and, therefore, ESL teachers can explain these examples to learners.

Usefulness of Sources Chosen

Using these two sources for studying English is essential because they both provide practical information that is strongly supported by theoretical approaches. In addition, the main benefit of both sources consists in appropriate examples comparing sentence structure of the English and the Hindi languages.

Evaluation In Nursing Education And Healthcare Organization

Research peer-reviewed sources that discuss the importance of assessment and evaluation in nursing education and health care organizations as a whole

Nursing education and healthcare practice are crucial and need constant quality improvement. Evaluation and assessment are key components of nursing education and healthcare practice since they are concerned with quality appraisal and revealing the need for improvement (Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012).

As such, continuous, systematic, and frequent assessments should be done on nursing students and nursing practitioners by accreditation bodies, governments, nurse educators, and other pertinent stakeholders, including peer students (Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012; Mehrdad, Bigdeli, & Ebrahimi, 2012).

This paper discusses key elements of evaluation and assessment in nursing education and healthcare organization, which include the roles of evaluation, how they are carried out, and the consequences of not carrying out assessment and evaluation. Moreover, a student’s experience with an assessment and evaluation framework is described.

The Role Assessment and Evaluation Play in Nursing Education and Healthcare Organization

Assessing and evaluating nursing students is vital. Mehrdad et al. (2012) indicated that assessment and evaluation provide judgments on the level of skills and aptitude of practitioners and students. Nurse students and practitioners should possess certain skills and requirements for them to meet personal and organizational goals, which oftentimes include provisions of optimal care while augmenting clinical outcomes, in efficacy and effectiveness.

As such, evaluation and assessment are the surest ways of judging skills such as interpersonal communication, problem-solving abilities, and professional predispositions (Mehrdad et al., 2012).

Quality in nursing education and healthcare organization is significantly important since quality determines outcomes. Assessment and evaluation play critical roles in measuring quality in healthcare settings. Accrediting bodies, government, medical associations, and other stakeholders provide sets of standards upon which nursing students and practitioners should maintain (Khodaveisi et al., 2012).

Evaluation and assessment provide the chance to judge whether nurses comply with the set standards. In cases where nurses fall short of the expectations, evaluation and assessment play the role in the improving of quality in care provision (Khodaveisi et al., 2012).

In medical settings and nursing schools, promotions and upward mobility among nurses should be done according to merit and with extreme caution. As such, duties and responsibilities should be given to deserving practitioners (Adib-Hajbaghery & Safa, 2013).

Moreover, nursing education is made up of more than one level starting from the undergraduate level to Ph.D. (Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012; Adib-Hajbaghery & Safa, 2013). Before a nurse is promoted or before a nursing student moves from one level of learning to another, assessment and evaluation should be carried out. In addition, evaluation and assessment are vital for the issuance of certificates of practice among nurses (Adib-Hajbaghery & Safa, 2013; Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012).

Adib-Hajbaghery and Safa (2013) asserted that assessment and evaluation are vital elements for judging proficiency, the efficiency of healthcare structures, educational programs and curricular, supervisory systems and performance. Moreover, assessment is significant in clarifying nurses’ job descriptions.

Koharchik, Weideman, Walters, and Hardy, (2015) argue that there is a need for a nursing student to get information on their progress towards meeting course requirements.

Moreover, it is important that nursing educators provide positive feedbacks on progresses in clinical courses. As such, evaluation and assessment are crucial in providing positive, honest, appropriate, and well-timed criticisms.

A Critic of the Role of Assessment and Evaluation

As discussed above, it is evident that assessment and evaluation are important and play important roles including determining the level of skills and professional competencies among nurses, judging the quality of care, evaluating the efficacy of healthcare structures, and determining promotion and educational levels (Adib-Hajbaghery & Safa, 2013; Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012; Mehrdad, Bigdeli, & Ebrahimi, 2012).

Therefore, it is prudent for nursing schools and healthcare organizations to use assessment and evaluation as tools to make these critical determinations and judgments.

Nevertheless, it is important that evaluation and assessment are done in the most effective and efficient manners while maintaining scientific standards. Failing to adhere to set standards of assessment and evaluation may negatively influence their roles in nursing education and practice.

In some healthcare systems, assessments and evaluations in nursing education and healthcare organizations do not meet basic standards and, therefore, their roles are criticized negatively.

One of the roles of evaluation that has been criticized is the function of promotion. This role may attract external interest and unwarranted interference. In addition, the roles may be negatively affected if they are done irregularly, incompletely, and temporarily (Khodaveisi, Pazargadi, Yaghmaei, & Bikmoradi, 2012).

How Assessments and Evaluation Are Achieved

Assessment and evaluation are achieved in many ways and using different approaches. In some healthcare systems, they are achieved through two broad categories, including the internal techniques and the external methods.

Specific schools and healthcare organizations carry out internal evaluations. As such, the faculty members under various departments set the standards for assessment and evaluation and subject the nursing students to tests. The reporting and feedback are done within the institutions.

On the other hand, assessment and evaluation can be done from external stakeholders. External evaluation is achieved through involving accrediting bodies, government ministries, and other key stakeholders who set certain standards that nursing students and practitioners should meet.

Moreover, assessment and evaluation could be achieved through formative and summative techniques. While formative techniques involve time-to-time assessment and evaluation, summative methods are applied at the end of an academic period or at the end of a course (Koharchik, Weideman, Walters, & Hardy, 2015).

The Consequences of Skipping Assessment and Evaluation in an Academic Process

It is apparent that assessment and evaluation are critical in the nursing academic processes. As such, skipping the element of evaluation and assessment adversely affects outcomes in nursing schools and nursing practice.

First, nursing students will not get the feedback they need in understanding their progress in their courses as suggested by Koharchik, Weideman, Walters, and Hardy (2015). Without feedback, nursing students will study with no direction and this may negatively affect their practice since nursing is evidence-based.

Second, lack of evaluation and assessment in nursing schools compromises standards and quality. Compromised quality and standards could negatively influence care delivery and consequently result in poor medical outcomes. Lastly, lack of evaluation could result in nurses graduating with no basic skills.

An individual Experience with An Evaluator

In my nursing course, I have many experiences with educational assessments. One of my most memorable involvement was through an assessment performed before the opening of the Cancer Institute and it was administered based on what we had been taught.

The assessment involved testing on the ability to master nursing concepts, current knowledge, and other pertinent skills and information in nursing practice. Moreover, the assessment entailed testing the skills on serving and providing care for the specific population.

The experience was quite positive since the test administrator gave me a relevant and positive feedback. As such, I was able to apprehend my progress and I developed new skills to augment my practice.

Research various evaluation designs, frameworks, and models

Evaluation model Description
Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model (CIPP) Model The CIPP evaluation model systematically provides guidance to nursing evaluators, nursing students, and other pertinent stakeholders in healthcare settings in the formulation of relevant questions and conducting assessments in the initial/planning, the implementing, and the end stages of a course (Zhang, et al., 2011).
Competency-based assessment The model is designed to test the competency of nursing students on specific areas of practice (Ott, Baca, Cisneros, & Bates, 2014).
Tylerian Evaluation Rationale Tylerian Evaluation Rationale is a technique in the quasi-evaluation group that is centered on objectives and it majorly involves end-retroac­tive judging whether set objectives in nursing courses and healthcare organizations have been realized (Zhang, et al., 2011).

Evaluation framework Description
Logic The logic framework is an evaluating tool used in nursing education and health care facilities for courses and/or programs planning/implementation and performance management. It is a graphical demonstration of the intended practice and outcomes. As such, it is a demonstration of what a program would do and the intended results (Hayes, Parchman, & Howard, 2012).
The RE-AIM The framework involves the balancing of personal and organization elements that seek to establish the impacts of a course or a program (Jauregui, et al., 2015).
Precede-Proceed Evaluators can work with the framework to create a program/course blueprint by using intended outcomes or carry out evaluation using pilot study or efficiency study approaches (Nadrian, Morowatisharifabad, & Bahmanpour, 2011).

Evaluation design Description
Randomized control trials This design uses two groups in evaluation and assessment where one group is provided with interventions. The differences in outcomes between the two groups are associated with the provided interventions (Rozmus, Jones, Meyers, Hercules, & Schumann, 2014).
Quasi-experiments Uses two groups where one group is given intervention but selections are not randomized (Cerezo, Galceran, Soriano, Camps, & Moral, 2014).
Non-experiment The design uses one group with intervention and with no control group (Mansour, Skull, & Parker, 2015).

References

Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Safa, A. (2013). Nurses’ evaluation of their use and mastery in health assessment skills: selected Iran’s hospitals. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 2(1), 39-43.

Cerezo, P. G., Galceran, M. S., Soriano, M. G., Camps, L. M., & Moral, J. L. (2014). Design and evaluation of an educational course in cultural competence for nursing. Social and Behavioral Sciences 132(2014), 262-268. Web.

Hayes, H., Parchman, M. L., & Howard, R. (2012). A logic model framework for evaluation and planning in a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN). Journal of American Board Fam Medicine, 24(5), 576–582. Web.

Jauregui, E., Pacheco, A. M., Soltero, E. G., O’Connor, T. M., Castro, C. M., Estabrooks, P. A.,… Lee, R. E. (2015). Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in México. BMC Public Health, 15(162),. Web.

Khodaveisi, M., Pazargadi, M., Yaghmaei, F., & Bikmoradi, A. (2012). Identifying challenges for effective evaluation in nursing education: A qualitative study. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 17(7), 710–717.

Koharchik, L., Weideman, Y. L., Walters, C. A., & Hardy, E. (2015). Evaluating nursing students’ clinical performance. American Journal of Nursing, 115(10), 64-67.

Mansour, M., Skull, A., & Parker, M. (2015). Evaluation of World Health Organization multi-professional patient safety curriculum topics in nursing education: Pre-test, post-test, none-experimental study. Journal of Profesional Nursing, 31(5), 432-439. Web.

Mehrdad, N., Bigdeli, S., & Ebrahimi, H. (2012). A Comparative Study on Self, Peer and Teacher Evaluation to Evaluate Clinical Skills of Nursing Students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47(2012), 1847-1852. Web.

Nadrian, H., Morowatisharifabad, M., & Bahmanpour, K. (2011). Development of a Rheumatoid Arthritis Education Program using the PRECEDE_PROCEED Model. Health Promotion Perspectives, 1(2), 118-29. Web.

Ott, M., Baca, E., Cisneros, J., & Bates, E. (2014). A competency-based approach to the master’s degree preparation of higher education professionals. Journal of Case Studies in Accreditation and Assessment, 4, 1-19.

Rozmus, C. L., Jones, D., Meyers, S., Hercules, P., & Schumann, R. (2014). Pacesetter curriculum: An experimental design evaluation of a clinical immersion model for nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(6), 60-68.

Zhang, G., Zeller, N., Griffith, R., Metcalf, D., Williams, J., Shea, C., & Misulis, K. (2011). Using the context, input, process, and product evaluation model (CIPP) as a comprehensive framework to guide the planning, implementation, and assessment of service-learning programs. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15(4), 57-87.

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