Investigating A Business: Iceland Foods Ltd Free Writing Sample

Iceland Foods Ltd is a British supermarket chain operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is not run or paid for by the government and falls into the tertiary sector. While it primarily specializes in frozen foods, Iceland also sells fresh groceries, cupboard foods, body hygiene products, and appliances like shampoos, conditioners, and cloths.

In 1970, the history of Iceland began with Malcolm Walker and another detailer who aimed to open a shop to seek their fortunes. With a capital of just EYE, they paid one month’s rent and established the first Iceland store in Sweetest, Shorebird in November 1970. During this time, refrigerators and freezers were not yet commonplace, so Iceland focused on selling loose frozen food. By 1984, Iceland had expanded by opening new stores and acquiring smaller chains, resulting in a total of 81 stores. This growth led to Iceland becoming a public company in 1984.

In 1995, Iceland was regarded as one of the most successful new companies to ever debut on the London Stock Exchange. By that year, Iceland had established 752 stores and achieved an impressive 25 years of continuous profit growth. However, Iceland’s dominance began to face challenges from stronger competitors when larger food superstores were granted permission to open on Sundays for the first time. Additionally, these competitors gradually extended their weekday opening hours. In 2001, Bill Grimier assumed the role of the new chief executive at Iceland. Shortly after his arrival, he hired a new finance director named Bill Haskins who claimed to have identified significant issues within the company.

These problems resulted in a loss of a million dollars for the business, following an exceptional item gain of 145 million euros. The shareholders of The Big Food Group accepted an offer from a group of investors, making it a private limited company again. Revenue started to steadily increase every week during the new team’s first year in charge, as customers returned to the stores. By the end of the financial year ending in March 2006, like-for-like sales were 20% higher compared to the previous year, making Iceland the Auk’s fastest-growing food retailer. In February, Iceland achieved triple success in the Sunday Times Best Companies Awards. Furthermore, in February 2013, Iceland was ranked among the Elks Top Ten organizations for Customer Satisfaction by the Institute of Customer Service. Iceland’s primary goal for its customers is to be a responsible store, focused on providing safe, healthy, and ethically sourced food. The company aims to achieve increasing profits year after year to support business expansion and development.

In 1989, Iceland purchased Became, its competitor, which was three times larger in terms of business size. By February 2004, the combined chain had 760 stores throughout the United Kingdom. In 2013, Iceland Foods Group opened 36 new Iceland stores, resulting in a net addition of 33 stores after three closures. The year ended with a total of 790 Iceland stores. Additionally, the Group owned the 57 Accelerator chain, bringing the total number of stores to 814. The opening of these new stores has also led to the creation of over 2,600 new jobs.

Scale Iceland has expanded its operations in multiple countries. In the Republic of Ireland, it operates through a franchisee called AIM Group. The franchisee, AIM Group, aims to increase the number of stores operating in Ireland to 40 by 2014. Currently, there are 8 stores in Ireland. Iceland also established a franchised store in Tripoli, the capital of Libya, in August of the previous year. This store is a joint venture between Libyan and Maltese entrepreneurs who approached Iceland’s export business, IT EX, to source products. Moreover, Iceland recently opened a new store in the Czech Republic in February of this year. Apart from these countries, Iceland has also expanded its presence in its home country and has thirteen stores in Spain, Portugal, and the Canary Islands.

Ownership of the company was held by Malcolm Walker from 1970 until 2000. After his intended retirement, Walker saw an opportunity to start another business and opened a new frozen food franchise named Accelerator. In 2001, the face of Iceland changed as a new executive, Bill Grimier, took over. Shortly after joining Iceland, Grimier and the new finance director, Bill Haskins, discovered significant problems within the business. These problems resulted in a loss of £20 million after £145 million worth of stock had been sold.

In February 2002, The Big F-DOD Group was renamed and became the Iceland-Booker business. However, the new management struggled to improve the business even after implementing a 5-year recovery plan. By 2005, sales were down 10% compared to the previous year, marking a decline in sales every year since 2001. As a result, The Big Food Group’s shareholders accepted an offer from a group of investors to take the company private. One member of this investment group was Malcolm Walker, the founder of Iceland in 1970, who returned as Iceland’s Chief Executive. Under his leadership, the business underwent a remarkable transformation, becoming one of the most successful stories in UK food retailing once again. Over the course of eight years since Malcolm’s return, Iceland’s like-for-like sales have grown by over 50%.

A vision statement outlines the future goals and achievements of a company. It is a broad statement set by a director or executive, and it provides a general overview of what the business aspires to achieve.

For company directors, it is crucial to comprehend the current status of the business and the potential options that can be pursued. This understanding enables directors to determine specific actions and establish goals and objectives. Malcolm Walker, the visionary behind Iceland Foods, envisions expanding the company’s global presence by establishing additional stores in various countries worldwide. While progress has already been made through store openings in Europe, Walker aspires to expand even further.

The owner of Iceland Foods Ltd has a key vision to become the top frozen food chain, offering great value for money on all products. The aim and objectives of the business are focused on achieving this vision. The aim of a business is its main goal, but a company can have multiple aims at once. A primary aim is to generate profit and add value in the private sector. Other tactical aims include expansion, market leadership, and brand building.

A business objective is a specific and measurable plan that a business creates to achieve a goal. These objectives should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound. Organizational objectives are divided into different levels, from top-level objectives at the head office to team and individual objectives at the front line.

These objectives are frequently placed into targets that serve as motivation for staff in meeting short-term goals. Therefore, objectives provide a step-by-step framework for all the different activities taking place in the business to achieve their aim. By assessing the success or failure of an objective, managers can make necessary adjustments to ensure progress and achievement within a specified time frame. There are various types of objectives depending on the time limit.

A short term objective is a small part in achieving the main aim. Businesses use short term objectives to help employees move gradually towards the company’s long term aim. A medium term objective is a step towards achieving an aim within a relatively short period of time, usually longer than a short term objective. It is typically used by a company as an additional step from the previous short term objective.

Examples of Iceland’s short term objectives: These include the improvement of employee skills and attitudes towards customers and work, as well as the resolution of production equipment and product quality issues. Iceland food implements short-term solutions such as employee training courses, equipment servicing, and quality fixes to address these concerns.

Examples of Iceland’s medium term objectives: If the short-term problems are resolved through training courses for employees, Iceland has a medium-term objective of continuing to schedule training programs.

If Iceland is facing quality problems with specific products, their response in the medium-term would be to assess and enhance the company’s quality control program. To address equipment malfunction in the short-term, the machine would be repaired, while a medium-term solution would involve establishing a repair service contract to ensure prompt replacement of broken machinery. Iceland’s policies and procedures for medium-term planning primarily aim to prevent the recurrence of short-term issues, thus contributing to the achievement of Iceland’s goals. Currently, one of Iceland’s objectives is to make necessary preparations for a nationwide expansion of online shopping.

Iceland is currently conducting a trial at a few selected stores in the North West, North East, London, and the South West. The trial has yielded positive results thus far. The goal is to expand the trial to more Iceland stores across the UK in the next few months. Iceland is the first food retailer in the UK to offer customers the choice of paying for online orders using PayPal, credit card, or debit card. Additionally, Iceland plans to integrate its bonus loyalty card into its new e-commerce platform starting next year.

In essence, the upcoming card will be a TABLE that allows for customized promotions to be created for customers based on their previous in-store shopping experiences. Currently, the bonus cards solely provide discounts in the form of percentages and money off vouchers. However, the enhanced functionality of the bonus card will enable Iceland to gain insights into how their customers shop both in-store and online. To remain competitive against its rivals, Iceland’s main objective is to continuously increase its market share year after year. All major grocery retailers share the common goal of driving up sales by investing in improved frozen food quality and better display freezers for their products.

The company aims to capitalize on shoppers’ desire to reduce waste and save money. In 2012, Iceland had a 1.9% market share in the overall grocery market, which increased to 2.1% in 2013. In contrast, Farmyards currently has a 0.6% market share. Malcolm Walker, the owner of Iceland, stated to Retail Week: “We are the pioneers and leaders in frozen food, so naturally others imitate us.” Iceland Food was the company responsible for popularizing discounted products. Consequently, other supermarkets have followed Iceland’s lead by offering low prices to ensure consumers perceive their purchases as good value for money.

Both Farmyards and Iceland, two frozen food retailers, have been performing well. Farmyards, which has 300 stores, saw sales to Emma increase by 4% and its pre-tax profit jump to EYE. Mm between 2011 and 2013, as reported by Companies House. However, Iceland, with 814 stores, is still surpassing Farmyards’ performance. Iceland’s pre-tax profit is E mm, making it the leader among its main competitors even though they strive to offer cheaper products that provide good value for money.

Iceland is making progress towards Malcolm Walker’s goal of expanding internationally. In 2012, Paul Foley was appointed as the international business director to help grow Iceland’s presence overseas. The company is exploring various routes to market, including exports, franchising, acquisitions, and new store openings. They are currently considering opportunities in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and have even started exporting to South Africa. This expansion is aimed at establishing a stronger presence overseas. Iceland has already opened a new store in the Czech Republic this year and has stores in the Canary Islands, Spain, and Portugal. Building contacts is an important part of expanding the business. In March, Walker led a £1 billion management buyout with support from Lord Karma, Braid (a South African investor), and Landmark Group (based in Dubai).Iceland Foods Ltd relies on customer feedback to gauge their success in various aspects of their company including products, service, bonus card scheme, and the in-store environment. To accomplish this, Iceland sought assistance from Interspecies.

This company has established an online forum known as Ice-chat. Over 4,000 of Iceland’s customers actively participate in this forum, offering continuous feedback on the company’s products and campaigns. The advantages of this feedback forum are twofold. Firstly, it aids in shaping Iceland’s future planning by providing instant customer feedback. Secondly, by having live and up-to-date feeds, it reduces the risks associated with introducing new ideas and products. This is because the company can ask customers whether they would like a product or campaign before bringing it to the market.

Since 2008, Interspecies has been working together with Iceland. Ice-chat is more than just a customer forum; it also allows customers to participate in blobs, online polls, and surveys created by the company. In addition, customers can engage in what Interspecies refers to as “collaborative image annotation tasks.” These tasks involve providing detailed descriptions and feedback on Iceland’s packaging, store, and advertising based on templates and images shared on ice-chat.

Iceland emphasized the importance of understanding the “why” behind their customers’ actions. Through their research partnership with interspecies, they aim to uncover this crucial information. Without knowing the “why,” all the company has is a meaningless “so what.” This partnership enables Iceland to progress and determine the next steps. As a result of ice-chat’s suggested actions obtained from interspecies, Iceland has greatly benefited in making decisions regarding bonus card schemes, packaging, and advertising.

The assumption is made about Iceland Food’s method of measuring success through customer feedback. The company’s objectives are considered SMART, although some objectives may only partially meet the SMART criteria. For instance, one key objective is to continuously increase market share, which is specific and measurable.

The measurement method for this objective is to observe Iceland’s market share changes compared to previous years and analyze it as a percentage. This objective is attainable because Iceland currently holds only 2.1% of the market share, so it won’t be difficult to increase it. However, they need to be more specific about the desired percentage increase in market share each year. Despite this, it makes the objective more achievable and realistic.

This is because even if they only achieve a 0.1% increase each year, they are still reaching their goal and adhering to a realistic target, considering they currently only hold a 2.1% market share. While this objective is time-limited, it aims to achieve an annual increase in market share. Another objective that Iceland currently focuses on is the preparation for a nationwide transition to online shopping.

One of Iceland’s objectives is not as SMART as the others, but it is still reasonable and specific. The objective is to determine how many locations in the United Kingdom Iceland offers online services for. Iceland has already started offering this service and the initial results have been positive.

Therefore, it seems more feasible and attainable for Iceland to have a nationwide roll of this online service. However, the SMART aspect of this objective is lacking as the company has not set a timeline for its achievement. Although Iceland has expressed a desire to expand this online service to select stores in the UK in the near future, they have not specified when they aim to fully implement this service nationwide. Trends that impact businesses.

Social – The increasing life expectancy of people could significantly affect Iceland Food as a business, both positively and negatively. If people live longer, there will be a greater demand for state pensions, while the workforce diminishes and fewer people pay income taxes. Consequently, the government will need to implement higher tax rates to compensate for the decreasing workforce. This situation implies that individuals will have less disposable income in their personal finances due to the increased tax burdens.

The increase in taxation could potentially result in a decline in the economy as it would limit firms like Iceland’s ability to invest. This would make it more challenging for Iceland to meet its goals and objectives. If customers have less disposable income due to higher taxes, their spending power will decrease, leading to a reduction in the company’s sales revenue. However, an extended lifespan for the current population could also bring advantages for Iceland.

With the increasing life expectancy of the population, the death rate is decreasing and the population is growing. As a result, there will be a larger customer base to serve. Moreover, loyal customers will be shopping at Iceland for a longer duration as they live longer. As the number of customers in Iceland stores increases, more stock will need to be obtained to meet consumer demand. This will lead to an increase in the company’s retained income.

Additionally, if individuals possess fewer financial resources to allocate, it could potentially enhance Iceland’s customer productivity as a result of the company’s exceptional cost-effectiveness. In the event that people can no longer afford the prices at their previous supermarket, they will inevitably seek out an alternative option, which is where Iceland comes into play. Given that a majority of their prices fall within the range of El to E, it significantly increases accessibility for all individuals to shop at Iceland due to its commendable value for money. Moreover, the prevalence of more single parents in society significantly affects businesses like Iceland.

In 1971, the percentage of households run by a lone parent was only eight percent. However, by 2012, this figure had increased to 22 percent, indicating a gradual rise in single-parent households. Apart from the challenge of having only one stable income in the household, there are additional issues to anticipate in the near future. Lone parents are projected to experience a decrease of approximately 8.5 percent in their annual salary by 2015, equivalent to losing a month’s worth of income every year due to modifications in the tax system.

The decrease in consumer demand for normal goods can cause problems for most businesses, creating a ripple effect. However, unlike other businesses, a company like Iceland may benefit from an increase in productivity due to an influx of single parents, even if their customers have lower disposable incomes. To elaborate, let’s consider normal and inferior goods using steak as an example. As people have less disposable income, they will purchase less of this desired food item.

Therefore, many people consider boxed ready meals to be inferior goods. Some individuals choose to buy boxed ready meals simply because they prefer the product, while others purchase them as a more affordable alternative to foods they prefer, like steak. When consumers have less disposable income, they tend to increase their expenditure on substitute goods such as ready meals instead of higher quality goods. Hence, this example highlights how Iceland is affected by the growing number of single parents, which may not be as detrimental as initially assumed. The company’s ability to offer good value for money attracts lower income consumers to their stores.

If people can no longer afford to pay for normal goods such as fresh meat, they will have to look for a cheaper alternative. The prices of these alternatives are in the range of El to E, making them affordable for everyone to shop. The higher pass rates of the younger society in social and A-level exams affect the economy and businesses’ hiring practices. In the most recent exams, only 26.3% of entries received A or A* grades, which is a slight decrease from the previous year’s figure of 26.6%.

However, the UK pass rate has increased to 98.1076 and has been consistently rising for the past three decades. This rise in pass rates can be attributed to companies raising their expectations in Iceland. With more people attaining the necessary qualifications for a specific job, competition among applicants increases. As a result, Iceland takes advantage of this trend and raises the standards required for that particular job role.

By attracting more job applicants, the increased number of people applying for a job will benefit Iceland by allowing them to select top quality staff. This, in turn, will contribute to the efficient running of the shop and the ability to provide higher quality services for customers. Furthermore, advancements in technology and the internet have brought significant changes over the years. The growing number of internet users has facilitated global communication, making it easier for businesses to promote their goods and services to consumers. As of 2013, 36 million people in Great Britain, which accounts for 73% of the population, use the Internet on a daily basis, representing an increase of 20 million compared to 2006.

With millions of people using social media sites daily, it becomes effortless for stores like Iceland to promote sales and new promotions and reach a vast market. While Iceland Foods has not yet achieved the status of a global corporation, it is possible to customize promotions and sales to specific regions, locations, or countries. Additionally, with social media networks being used by people of different age groups, it is an effective method to attract new customers to the store by advertising the products Iceland offers to a large audience simultaneously.

Online shopping is experiencing significant growth due to advancements in computer technology. The graph on the right illustrates how online shopping has contributed to a substantial increase in overall grocery revenue in the UK from 2012 to 2013. The revenue has experienced an impressive rise of 18.7%, which now accounts for 5.1% of total grocery sales in the UK. This can be attributed to the increasing popularity of internet use for shopping, with 72% of UK adults utilizing the internet for this purpose. Iceland has recognized this trend and has decided to incorporate an online shopping feature on their website to cater to their customers.

Iceland believes that by offering online shopping, they can increase their sales revenue since most consumers now use the internet for shopping. This allows their loyal customers an alternate way to shop apart from in-store, while also attracting new customers who typically shop online. The online shopping roll has been performing exceptionally well and continues to grow, bringing in new customers and boosting sales revenue. With the ongoing success of their online shopping services, Iceland is expanding its reach within the ASK region.

As the number of online shoppers grows, Iceland is well-positioned to take advantage of this trend by advertising a greater variety of products and deals on their website. While their website used to primarily serve as a platform for promoting their physical store, it now offers additional benefits to their customers, such as discounts for online shopping. Inflation, which stands at a high rate of 2.8% in the UK, has serious implications for both consumers and businesses, affecting the economy in various ways.

The inflation rates will impact the behavior of employees, thereby affecting companies like Iceland Foods Ltd. As inflation leads to price hikes, there is a resulting need for higher salaries. This has a ripple effect as employees demand increased pay, causing firms to raise their prices to cover costs. If firms fail to do so, their profit margins will decrease. Consequently, higher prices lead to employees anticipating further inflation and demanding another pay raise in subsequent years, perpetuating the cycle of inflation.

The issue here is that the increase in inflation does not always align with the percentage increase in wages. According to the Office for National Statistics, “total pay experienced a yearly growth of only 0.7% from June to August. Excluding bonuses, pay growth was slightly stronger at 0.8% – the lowest figure since 2001 when comparTABLE records began. In August, inflation stood at 2.7%.” In relation to Iceland, if prices are on the rise and wages are not keeping up with consumers’ salaries, they will have less disposable income. Consequently, this implies that they will have less money to spend in stores.

The reduction in consumer spending leads to decreased sales productivity and lower net profit for the company. This influences the pace of Iceland’s global expansion plans as they will have less funds to invest back into the business. There are various consumer laws, including the Consumer Protection Act and the Trades Description Act, that have an impact on businesses.

“In line with the patriotic policy of safeguarding consumers from deceptive sales and advertising practices, a product or advertisement is considered misleading if it does not meet the required level of professional diligence. Essentially, this refers to instances where it hampers the consumer’s ability to make an informed decision, leading them to make choices they would not have otherwise made. In the case of Iceland, the implementation of consumer laws like The Consumer Protection Act and the Trades Description Act could impact the way they promote their new bonus card scheme. The concept behind Iceland’s approach is to personalize bonus card rewards based on individual preferences.”

Lord Of The Flies Chapter 5 Summary

Similarly, in “Lord of the Flies”, the boys start out with an orderly violation but soon descend into chaos and violence resulting in the death of two boys, one on accident and one on purpose. “Lord of the Flies” demonstrates how once the boundaries and restrictions of civilization are ignored or shunned, humans will use their savage instincts and chaos will reign over.

Having witnessed all this with his own eyes as a naval commander, Gilding wrote the novel to stop any more outbreak of war and to encourage peace but he also wrote it to show the world how all humans had an inner evil and a savage instinct that would take over once their rational side was gone. The novel is a microcosm of the real world, with each character or object representing an aspect of human nature, but at the same time a macrocosm of the human brain. The conch represents order and authority, Piggy’s glasses representing knowledge, insight and wisdom.

Piggy himself is the scientific analytical part of society; Ralph represents the democratic orderly aspect of society; Jack the tyrannical ignorant society and Simon the innocent aspect. In a way, these children symbolize real life characters of World War II, Piggy Albert Einstein, as he knew the atomic bomb was a mistake, Ralph Franklin Roosevelt as he failed to prevent World War II, Jack Doll Hitler a crazy dictator. In the earlier stages of the novel, Gilding shows that when humans are in civilization and kept within rules they will follow them and be orderly.

Ralph, then leader of the tribe, says, “We can’t have everybody talking at once. We’ll have to have ‘Hands-up’ like at school. ” In this, he says that they will make rules and follow them in order to stay orderly for a better chance of rescue and staying alive. He is trying to stay rational: keeping the rules of his old life and ensuring that they don’t descend into savagery and become atavistic. This shows that humans do have the capacity to be civilized, peaceful and orderly if they are nurtured well enough and they are taught what is right and wrong.

Secondly, Gilding demonstrates how humans have an inner urge to hurt others and will only hold back due to past punishments and teachings. This is shown in, “Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them – threw to miss here, invisible yet strong was the taboo of old life”. In this quote, Roger is throwing rocks at Percival Weensy Madison who is playing by the beach. It shows how society is starting to fall apart as the begins are using heir strength and power to bully the littlest.

However, Roger can’t bring himself to hit Percival with the rocks, as there was still the “protection of parents and school and policemen and the law’, since the vestiges of his old life still held strong. In this Chapter, the tribe has just built their civilization and the civilized, rational side is stronger than their savage, instinctive side. However, it is obvious that the tribe’s sensible side will break down soon; the begins will lose any respect or bindings they felt to these rules; and murder, violence and torture will rage through the tribe.

This is conclusively shown when Roger rolls a massive boulder down at Piggy at Castle Rock when he is so savage he is no longer “throwing to miss”. This shows how humans have a inner urge to hurt and torment others as Roger throws stones holding back only due to his past life, but doing it freely the second civilization is gone. Next, Gilding shows the continuing descent Into savagery when Jack puts on a mask to hide himself from shame and self-consciousness. “Became a bloodthirsty snarling… The mask was a thing on its own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and self-consciousness.

In this quote, Jack Murdered has put on a mask to hide himself from others, so that he can act however he wishes to, without his movements and actions being judged by others. Because of this, he acts savagely and primitively, snarling bloodthirstily. The verb “Snarl” is generally used on savage animals like lions and wolves; to use it on a human shows that they are being atavistic and becoming a primal being. While this is definitely savage behavior, as Jack puts on a mask, snarls at others and also goes hunting, it is not so bad as the mask is in a way a good thing.

While the boys are increasingly savage, but they still refuse to succumb to the primal instincts in the open where everyone knows it’s them; of course a mask does not make much of a difference but it shows that they still prefer to have something to hide behind. Ultimately, the boys are still descending into savagery and civilization is breaking down, though not too badly. Moreover, Gilding in the novel also suggests that also humans have an inner evil, a “beast’ within them. We can see this from the quote found in Chapter 5 “Maybe there’s a beast… Maybe it’s only us.

Simon says this in the assembly the boys called to discuss the beast. While most of the boys laugh off this “preposterous” suggestion, Simon is the first to realize that the beast is not an external being, but a part of the boys themselves, a component Of the human mind. These words are a vital part of Gilding’s proposition that humankind has an inner evil within them, a “beast” that can be unleashed, a capacity to be evil. This is shown when the boys savagely kill Simon mistaking him for the beast and also when they stick a Pigs head on a stick, planning on doing the same with Ralph.

These actions are considered savage and impossible for every human on earth, let alone a group of 8-year-old British children. Therefore, Gilding demonstrates that all humans have an inner capacity to be evil, a “beast” within. Gilding also proved that humans would lose control of themselves once the boundaries of civilization are gone and they will succumb to their savage instincts. ‘”If only they could get a message to us,” cried Ralph desperately, ‘If only they could us something grown-up… “. This quote shows that the tribe’s laws are starting to disappear and slip away.

They are losing control of themselves and letting go of their civilized instincts. Ralph thinks this when the boys start to behave savagely and go hunting half-naked with masks on etc. They are completely losing control of themselves and letting their savage instincts overpower their civilized instincts. This shows Gildings point that humans will lose control Of civilization and their rational side of their mind when they are left alone for too long without a civilization to stick to. Also, Gilding presents how humans all have an inner urge to hurt others and a desire to inflict pain upon others.

This can be best seen in the quote: “Roger ran around the heap, prodding with his spear, whenever pig flesh appeared. Jack was on top of the sow, stabbing downward with his knife. ” During this quote, the boys are on a hunt for the beast, after hearing about its existence on top of the mountain from Sam and Eric. However, they see a pig and they decide to stop for a pig hunt. After they successfully slow down the pig with a thrown spear and they catch it, the boys start savagely piling on to the pig and stabbing it to kill it.

With Jack and Roger stabbing down whenever they see Pig less, this scene can seem very savage and uncanny for boys their age to act like this. This scene can not only be associated with murder which is already a extremely savage crime reserved only for perhaps the perhaps the worst of human kind but can also be associated with rape which is one of the most savage crimes mankind can commit if not the most savage, primal and barbaric act that exists. Also, the boys were not only killing the pig savagely, but they were also hard-driven by themselves to kill this pig which can be seen from this quote. The desire to squeeze and hurt was over-mastering”, his quote also shows that the boys acted out of instinct and desire, showing that their gradual descent into savagery is speeding up and this sudden moment is a very steep decline, which pushes the boys from civilized British boys, to tribal savages. Also, in this quote, the boys are not even hunting a pig, but playing a mock-hunt with a human! This fully proves that humans have a natural instinct to hurt others and inflict pain as they savagely killed the pig because they had the desire to squeeze and hurt.

Within the novel, Gilding shows that humankind will completely stray away room civilization when given chance to not be restricted. “The rock struck Piggy a glancing blow from chin to knee; the conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased to exist. ” In this quote, Roger – upon deciding that he was feeling left out of the confrontation down below between Ralph and Jack – leans his weight against a boulder which tumbles down the cliff and strikes Piggy, who is killed by the boulder, and the conch is destroyed too.

As mentioned earlier, the conch is a symbol of civilization the boys used to keep themselves orderly. However it is destroyed when the boulder rolls down youngling the loss of order and rationale to the boulder, likely symbolizing savagery and bloodless. Also Piggy who represents the scientific, analyzing, smart side of the human mind is killed, showing that all that is left in the tribe is the savage and evil of Jack and Roger as Ralph is completely disregarded by the tribe.

This is showing that without civilization, humans (Jack and the tribe) will rid themselves of rational and order (Piggy and the conch) and act as they will instead Of being civilized and orderly. Finally, Gilding shows humans still have some good in them, as they will pep and regret their wrongs and act civilized when given the chance to be in a civilized orderly world, but also explicitly states that there is evil in all human hearts. This can be seen in the quote from Page 225 in Chapter 12: “Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Piggy. This quote is the second last paragraph of the novel and occurs just after the naval officer has come on to the island due to being drawn by the fire caused by Jack’s tribe and his manhunt for Ralph. When Ralph sees the officer in his escape for life, he denuded realizes that he will reach home safe and sound, away from his death on the island. However, for Ralph the prospect of rescue and home is not of joy beyond compare, as he has lost his innocence through their savage adventures upon this doomed island and he has also learnt and understood that evil lurks in all human beings.

Through this quote, Gilding connects clearly Ralph sense of despair and self-reflection to two vital themes within the novel: the boys loss of innocence and their rapid descent into savagery and the darkness in man’s heart that caused the trauma on the island and also World War II. Also, the noun “darkness” can be connoted with evil and savagery. However, Gilding not only shows that evil lurks in man’s heart, but in this quote alone, I think Gilding also wants to show that humans are capable of goodness and the ability to self-reflect and improve.

This can be seen as Ralph “weeps for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart”. He feels regretful Of what has happened on the island even though he himself had little or no part in the fall into savagery and process of becoming atavistic. The fall through the air of a true, wise friend Piggy” shows that Ralph is reflecting what happened on the island and he finally comes to realize how important Piggy was to him and society, he was smart, intelligent and civilized, had they listened to him, all this would likely have never happened.

This weeping and self-reflecting from Ralph shows that Gilding still believes that there is some good within mankind and that they are not completely evil. In conclusion, Gilding presents humanity as evil and shows humans have to be nurtured to be good. He is saying that in the battle of Nature vs.. Nurture humans will usually succumb to Nature and Instinct and be Evil and Barbaric, f they are not nurtured by something or someone else to be good. To do this effectively, He has used young, innocent boys to show that even the ideal image of innocence (children) will be evil if they are not nurtured.

Also, the fact that they are British shows that even with the best nurturing in the world: Britain, at least in perception has very good manners and being one of the most civilized countries in the world. If they are left not nurtured, they will be evil and follow natural human evil instinct. This connects to the overall message of the novel, which is saying that all humans will become evil if left outside of civilization, and the hidden overall message being that if the Second World War were continuously fought down the road, human civilization would be destroyed just like the boys civilization.

Public Relations: What Is Environmental Scanning?

What techniques can as public relations practitioner use to prepare my company for future scenarios? Crisis management is part of a public relations officer job. An organization won’t make it through a crisis without proper guidance and an action plan. What elements go into a crisis management plan? How can I as public relations practitioner steer an organization through a crisis. How can prepare my organization for any possible scenario? 2. 1 Defining ‘environmental scanning’ Environmental scanning is the careful monitoring of an organization’s internal and external environments.

This will allow the organization to evaluate and detect early signs of opportunities and threats that may influence its current and future plans. 2. 2 Environmental techniques and types My organization of choice is First National Bank (FAN), one of the main banks in South Africa . My following answers is based on this organization: 2. 2. 1 Environmental scanning techniques We can identify two key techniques to perform environmental scanning, namely competitor intelligence and scenarios. Competitor intelligence: It is becoming increasingly more important for organizations to know what our competitors are up to in today’s competitive climate.

The more a company can find out as to the actions of its competitor, the better their own chances are to prepare and adjust accordingly. With information at our disposal you can easily do research into what another organization is working towards. We see advertisements around us, year-end financial are readily published on organizations websites and newspaper reports are some of the few ways to gain competitor information. FAN reinvented themselves in a way their competitors couldn’t. They scanned the environment of their competitors and came p with such unique product Offerings.

This set them apart from the rest Of the banking industry. FAN created an easy way of banking for clients. Scenarios: A scenario is not a specific forecast of the future, but a plausible description of what might happen. Scenarios are like stories built around carefully constructed plots based on trends and events. They assist in the selection of strategies, identification of possible futures, making people aware of uncertainties and opening up the imagination and initiating learning processes. One of the key strengths of the scenario process is its influence on the way of thinking of its participants.

F-NO is the most innovative bank at the moment. They used various scenarios to illustrate and adapt to their clientele and staff needs. 22. 2 Environmental scanning types An effective environmental scanning program should enTABLE decision makers to understand current and potential changes taking place in the institutions’ external environments. Scanning provides strategic intelligence useful in determining organizational strategies. There are three different types of environmental scanning namely: Scanning for forecasting

Environmental scanning creates the basis upon which forecasts can be done. Scanning brings about information to the foreground from where future scenarios can be created. There are some specific outcomes for which management is likely to see forecasts. This will include future revenues, new technological breakthroughs and issues. Revenue forecasting indicates future revenues. The way in which revenue forecasting is conducted is by looking at past revenue figures. This information will be accompanied by various other questions like: A) What revenue patterns has FAN experienced in the past?

B) What changes in the economic, social and other factors might affect the pattern in the future? C) What will other banks do? Technological forecasting aims to identify changes in technology and the time in which new technologies are likely to be economically feasible. The world of technology is changing rapidly on a daily basis. This in turn will have an effect of an organizations demand for current products and services. R-N.B. is a clear leader when it comes to keeping banking up to date with the latest technology. They incorporate social media, TABLEt computers and innovative Nanking to their forecasting.

FAN will use issue forecasting to collect information to determine how its public and the organization will react to future events, trends and crisis’s. There are various forecasting techniques namely: A) Trend extrapolation B) Trend impact analysis C) Scanning D) Monitoring E) Delphi technique F) Cross-impact analysis G) Scenario writing H) Computer simulations Technology assessment Scanning for bench marking This type of scan inning searches for the best practices among competitors or non-competitors that lead to their superior performance.

The core idea is to learn from other organizations and even implementing methods from other leaders. FAN might be a leader but they are constantly updating their business strategies Scanning for analysis There are a few researchers went above just scanning and created models which included analyzing: Bates found a gap in existing models.

The plan must also ensure all stakeholders are provided accurate information in a timely manner. Policy and philosophy Building upon the South African Post Offices core principles, mission and vision. The philosophy is: To continue providing world-class postal services to the nation during times of crises, leveraging our broad reach technological capabilities. The SAPP will remain transparent at all times, communicating with honesty and integrity. Definition of the potential crisis This serves as a crisis communication plan for when the South African post Office could experience a crisis relating to operational disruptions from its workforce. The predominant effect on the operations of the Post

Office will be that it will not be in a position to fulfill its postal delivery obligations. Extended disruption could result In a significant backlog at all collection points across the country. Disruptions would have the most detrimental effect during peak periods of the year, such as Easter and Christmas. There is also a possibility of violence and sabotage by disgruntled workers. 6 A crisis management team First and foremost, it is important to identify the key individuals within the organization who will be part of this core team. Depending on the degree of a crisis, the team will consist Of senior employees that are in a session to take important decisions.

The team will comprise of the following people: Crisis manager: The Post Office COO holds the function of crisis manager. Their key responsibilities are communication with senior management, and coordination during the crisis. Emergency services co-ordinate: This functional, fulfilled by the company’s head of Facilities, will be the primary contact point and co-ordinate of all emergency personnel and law enforcement. A labor relations official: The head of HER will fulfill this function, acting as the liaison between the company and all labor unions. Information officer: The head of Company Secretariat will be the information officer, responsible for documenting the events and to keep the crisis management team up to date.

Public Relations officer: This role, fulfilled by the head of Public Relations, will compile and coordinate all communication with the internal and external publics. They advise the crisis manager on the crisis management strategy. Official spokesperson: The head of Investor Relations is the official spokesperson during a crisis, responsible for directly handling all media. A legal advisor: The head of Group Legal will roved counsel to the crisis management team to ensure the crises in managed within legal bounds. 7 c A staff schedule When crises arise it is standard procedure for the entire workforce to report for duty. It is the role of the plan editor and co-ordinate to supply a staff schedule as to make sure who will working at certain times so that there is continuity.