Investigating Customer Value, Iterative Development, And Difficulties In Using Agile Project Management In Hardware Design And Development

Indicators, Dynamics, and Examples for Understanding Customer Value

In the world of business and marketing, the idea of customer value is essential. It depicts the value or advantage customers believe they will get from a company’s product, service, or solution (Zadeh et al., 2019). Essentially, it includes the fulfillment and utility a consumer receives in return for their time, money, and effort. Several indications might be taken into consideration when determining customer value.

Quality is one of the most important measures of consumer value. The degree of perfection or superiority a product or service possesses in meeting customers’ demands and expectations is highly valued by consumers (Zadeh et al., 2019). An excellent quality product serves its intended purpose and offers dependability and durability. Price also has a big impact on how valuable a customer is. Customers weigh a product or service’s price against its perceived worth and accessibility (Zadeh et al., 2019). They look for a balance between the costs they bear and the rewards they anticipate.

Another key factor in determining how valuable a customer is convenience. Customers prefer goods and services that are simple to use, accessible, and save time and effort in today’s fast-paced world (Zadeh et al., 2019). A business has a competitive advantage if it can make its offerings simple to use, access, and buy. The importance of reliability to customer value cannot be overstated. Customers anticipate consistent performance that meets their demands without recurrent problems or breakdowns.

The key factor in generating consumer value is innovation. Businesses stand out when they deliver distinctive and original features or solutions (Zadeh et al., 2019). Customers value innovation because it adds value and differentiates them from the competition. Additionally, clients value excellent customer service highly. Customer value is significantly influenced by the level of assistance, support, and responsiveness a business provides throughout customer encounters (Zadeh et al., 2019). Customer value is greatly increased by a business that goes above and beyond to resolve customer issues and deliver a nice experience.

Customization is a sign of consumer value that has been more well-known recently. Customers appreciate being able to customize or customize a good or service to suit their specific needs and preferences (Zadeh et al., 2019). Businesses that provide customized options meet the various needs of their clients, increasing client value. Lastly, the worth of a consumer is greatly influenced by brand reputation (Zadeh et al., 2019). Customer decisions are significantly influenced by how a firm and its offerings are viewed regarding trust, credibility, and customer satisfaction.

We can look at examples from many industries to show how the changing nature of customer value is demonstrated. The importance of customers has changed over time in the technology sector. Customers may have initially given importance to a product’s features and functionality (Zadeh et al., 2019). However, as technology developed, factors like user experience, seamless integration, and ease of use became increasingly significant. A comprehensive ecosystem of products and services, innovative design, and easy interfaces have helped businesses like Apple excel at delivering high customer value.

The value of the client has changed in the automotive sector similarly. Traditional performance measures like horsepower and fuel economy are no longer the only considerations (Zadeh et al., 2019). Nowadays, consumers prioritize things like safety features, connection, sustainability, and autonomous driving capabilities. By providing a distinctive blend of performance, range, and cutting-edge technology, electric car makers like Tesla have upended the market and redefined customer value in the automobile industry (Zadeh et al., 2019).

Investigating Integrative Delivery and Iterative Development

Agile project management is based on two main principles: iterative development and integrated delivery. Reducing a project into smaller, more manageable stages, or iterations, is known as iterative development (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). A portion of the project’s features or functions is built, tested, and delivered as part of each iteration, usually lasting a few weeks (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). This iterative technique enables constant input, adaptation, and development throughout a project.

On the other side, integrative delivery highlights the significance of integrating various project components or modules as they are finished (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). Integrative delivery encourages a more gradual and continuous integration process rather than waiting until the conclusion of the project to integrate all the elements. Teams may promptly detect and handle integration difficulties and dependencies by integrating components early and regularly, resulting in a more efficient overall development process (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). These Agile-related concepts, such as iterative development and integrated delivery, foster flexibility, teamwork, and response to changing requirements and client needs (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). Due to the iterative process’ rapid feedback loops, teams may gather information, make changes, and gradually produce value. Integrative delivery guarantees that integration issues are resolved quickly, lowering the possibility of significant setbacks or delays in the project’s subsequent phases.

The waterfall model is one example of a traditional project management strategy that normally follows a linear and sequential procedure, with each phase being finished before moving on to the next (Pasuksmit et al., 2022). This strategy must fit better with Agile’s iterative and integrative principles (Leach et al., 2022). Traditional approaches frequently have lengthy feedback cycles and a limited ability to adjust to changing requirements, making it challenging to incorporate client feedback quickly.

Even though some facets of iterative development and integrated delivery can be incorporated into conventional project management, fully implementing the Agile mindset may take time (Leach et al., 2022). Traditional approaches can make it more difficult to adapt to changing requirements and provide value progressively since they tend to be more inflexible and upfront planning-heavy.

Application of Agile Project Management to Hardware Design and Development: Challenges and Considerations

In contrast to its roots in the software sector, applying Agile project management techniques to hardware design and development provides a unique set of difficulties (Čelesnik et al., 2018). Hardware’s physical existence brings complications that call for careful thought and adaptation. One significant barrier is the manufacturing and prototype process, which takes longer and is less conducive to quick iterations than software development (Čelesnik et al., 2018). The short feedback loops that Agile relies on can be hampered by the lengthy lead times for testing and component procurement that are sometimes required for hardware projects. In order to achieve seamless integration and prevent conflicts, the numerous relationships between hardware components and subsystems necessitate precise coordination and management (Čelesnik et al., 2018). Another issue with hardware items is regulatory compliance, which necessitates more paperwork and validation procedures because hardware devices must adhere to strict standards and certifications.

Additionally, clear communication and alignment are necessary for the cross-functional collaboration needed in hardware projects involving engineers from various disciplines. It may be essential to use hybrid strategies or modifications that combine Agile concepts with conventional project management techniques to address these issues (Čelesnik et al., 2018). Longer iterations to allow longer lead times, careful modeling of dependencies, and incorporating stages for regulatory compliance and physical prototyping are a few examples of these adjustments (Čelesnik et al., 2018). Despite the success of Agile project management in the software industry, using it in hardware design and development requires careful consideration of the particular challenges given by the physical world.


Using Agile project management in the design and development of hardware presents a unique set of difficulties. Implementing Agile concepts successfully faces specific challenges due to the physical nature of the hardware, lengthier lead times, complex dependencies, regulatory compliance requirements, and cross-functional collaboration. Hardware projects need to adapt Agile approaches to address these issues if they are to be successful. It may call for modified iteration length, coordination tactics, and the inclusion of particular stages, as well as hybrid systems that blend Agile with conventional project management techniques. Organizations can use Agile project management’s advantages in the hardware industry while producing cutting-edge, high-quality hardware goods by carefully navigating these difficulties and developing specialized solutions.


Čelesnik, G., Radujković, M., & Vrečko, I. (2018). Resolving Companies in Crisis: Agile Crisis Project Management. Organizacija51(4), 223-237.

Leach, M. J., Climstein, M., Fryer, G., Ziaian, T., Lauche, R., Kumar, S., & Agnew, T. (2022). Developing a needs-based integrative service delivery model to deliver best practice care for chronic nonspecific low back pain. European Journal of Integrative Medicine53, 102153.

Pasuksmit, J., Thongtanunam, P., & Karunasekera, S. (2022). Story points changes in agile, iterative development: An empirical study and a prediction approach. Empirical Software Engineering27(6), 156.

Zadeh, A. H., Zolfagharian, M., & Hofacker, C. F. (2019). Customer–customer value co-creation in social media: conceptualization and antecedents. Journal of Strategic Marketing27(4), 283-302.

Latin American Legacy


The rich historical legacy of Latin America has left a profound impact on the region and its relationship with the United States. This paper endeavours to examine and analyze how this concept is relevant in modern times by referencing Michael Whalen’s “Gringos at the Gate” and a related documentary provided for context. By delving into crucial aspects of Latin American history, we can uncover valuable lessons that have had far-reaching effects – impacting domains such as politics, culture, and economics- all over our world today. The lasting influence wielded by Latin America still holds relevance; hence it becomes imperative to investigate these events critically using nuances learned from them so society may better understand their continued significance in current socio-economic dynamics.

The Conquest and Colonial Legacy:

Latin America’s indigenous populations were profoundly impacted by the Spanish conquest, which had devastating consequences. The arrival of conquistadors caused a decimation of native communities through warfare, forced labour, diseases and disruption to their traditional ways of life (Silverstein et al., pp. 67-74). These factors resulted in millions dying and significant changes to society, forever altering cultural practices. The lasting effects can be seen today regarding social structure hierarchies as well as cultural syncretism brought upon by colonial rule that gave preference towards individuals of European descent while marginalizing Indigenous peoples leading to exploitation for centuries later. This created an unequal racial and class-based system resulting in Europeans enjoying privileges not extended to other groups shaping Latin American societies throughout history.

The encounter between Spanish colonizers and indigenous peoples brought about the emergence of cultural syncretism. The blending of European and indigenous cultures led to a distinct Latin American identity that is diverse and unique. This involved incorporating elements from native traditions, languages, and beliefs into the dominant Spanish culture, which gave way to a rich mestizo heritage characteristic in this region. Consoli et al. (pp. 1) argued that under colonial rule, there was an impact on the economic landscape as wealthy resources such as gold & silver were pursued by Spaniards for exploitation across Latin America, leading to up establishment of extractive economies with natives subjected to the harsh conditions including working mines or plantations at low wages. The colonization thus enriched Spain’s monarchy and other European elites widening existing economic inequalities even today.

Independence and Nation-Building:

The quest for independence and the subsequent formation of new nation-states have significantly shaped the contemporary world. Numerous countries throughout history have waged battles against colonizers leading to their establishment as autonomous nations. These struggles were often characterized by wars, uprisings, and charismatic leaders who spearheaded freedom movements (Franceschet et al., pp. 1-32). The post-independence stage is replete with complex challenges, such as political instabilities that newly formed states grapple with while transitioning from colonialism to self-rule, which involves setting up stable governmental institutions, formulating constitutions and ensuring adherence to legal frameworks. Moreover, divisions based on ethnicity, religion or ideology within a population can further create political unrest, undermining efforts geared towards forging one cohesive national identity.

Newly independent nations face a significant challenge in economic dependence. They often inherit economic structures to benefit the colonial powers, leading to imbalances and reliance on external actors. Building a self-sustaining economy requires diversification, investment in infrastructure and education, and the creation of viable industries ((Silverstein et al., pp. 67-74). The profound impact of imperialism and neocolonialism runs deep within Latin America’s legacy – shaped by centuries of European colonization where natural resources were exploited, forced labour was prevalent, cultural diversity diminished along with social systems imposed upon them resulting even after independence being followed by continued dependency on foreign powers & multinational corporations perpetuating inequality which has limited development while hindering their ability for shaping an autonomous foreign policy agenda.

 United States’ Intervention and Influence:

Over time, Latin America has experienced a strong presence from the United States. U.S. involvement in this region is rooted in a complex history that demonstrates both intervention and influence. The Monroe Doctrine first emerged back in 1823 as a means to assert control over the Western Hemisphere while also seeking to block any European colonization or disruption of Latin American affairs – even though it started defensively, it eventually turned into justification for intervening by U.S. forces in many events across South America throughout modern times (Schoultz et al., pp. 1). The doctrine established grounds where future U.S. involvement could take place, which assisted with shaping how prevalent their role would become viewed as dominant entities present there.

The period of the Banana Wars is worth noting, as it spanned from the late 1800s to the early 1900s and involved military interventions. These actions were motivated by economic interests, specifically those related to the fruit industry. Corporations such as the United Fruit Company wielded considerable influence in shaping American foreign policy during this time, leading to toppled governments, backing for authoritarian regimes and natural resource exploitation (Hazelwood et al., pp. 1). The outcomes of these endeavours frequently resulted in enduring effects like political turbulence, financial inequity and anti-American sentiments. The influence of economic imperialism and foreign policies has greatly affected Latin American nations, notably the prioritization of the United States’ economic interests over that of these countries.

Social Movements and Resistance:

Social movements have had a crucial impact on the development and advancement of Latin America. Consoli et al. (pp. 1) argued that, in particular, labour movements have been essential in promoting fair wages and better working conditions and advocating for workers’ rights, addressing exploitation and inequality. As such, these campaigns helped to facilitate market reforms as well as the enforcement of labour regulations throughout the region. In addition to this contribution from various platforms came indigenous rights organizations, which became increasingly powerful – challenging long-standing marginalization while pressing for recognition and respect concerning their culture and territorial issues. Combating despoliation via land claims struggles or preserving cultural traditions/upholding political representation factors among other litigations aimed at developing an inclusive, diverse society within Latina America.

The growing force of feminism is confronting gender inequality and discrimination. Women’s movements have advocated for reproductive rights, gender-based violence prevention, and equal opportunities. Through activism, they have instigated crucial conversations leading to policy changes promoting female empowerment throughout Latin America. The influence of revolutionary campaigns and guerrilla warfare in Latin America has profoundly affected its history – an example is the Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro (Schoultz et al., pp. 1). This spearheaded challenges against U.S. dominance alongside socialist implementations, which sparked similar anti-imperialist passion across regions, with emotional calls for justice made louder through this movement’s impact.

Franceschet et al. (pp. 1-32) posited that although there has been advancement, Latin America still confronts ongoing social equity and human rights challenges. Matters like impoverishment, disparity, bribery and brutality persistently stir grassroots movements and protests. Such movements crusade for comprehensive economic progressiveness to guarantee accessibility towards education and healthcare facilities while safeguarding the ecology whilst ending systemic unfairness. Their fundamental objective is holding governments accountable while ensuring equal protection of human rights for all individuals without any discrimination whatsoever.


The historical inheritance of Latin America is a rich blend of successes, challenges, and persistence. Examining the occurrences and interactions that have crafted this area can provide us with priceless comprehension of current dilemmas and enable us to value its significant contributions more profoundly. The teachings harvested from Latin America’s history indicate power intricacies, identity complexities, and endeavours for justice continuance. In dealing with present-day difficulties, comprehending the legacy Of Latin America can instil empathy among societies, thus encouraging collaboration while delivering pragmatic approaches concerning interacting with these vibrant communities united in diversity.

Work Cited

Silverstein, Jake. “Grand opening: Ronald McDonald conquers New Spain (Letter from Zacatecas).” Harper’s Magazine (2005): 67-74.

Consoli, Andres J., et al. “Psychology in Latin America: Legacies and Contributions. Part 3.” (2015).

Hazelwood, Bruce Lee. ” Get that son of a bitch off the field!”: Sport in university classrooms. Washington State University, 2019.

Franceschet, Susan, Jennifer M. Piscopo, and Gwynn Thomas. “Supermadres, maternal legacies and women’s political participation in contemporary Latin America.” Journal of Latin American Studies 48.1 (2016): 1-32. DOI:

Schoultz, Lars. Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America. Vol. 81. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Lee Donuts: Understanding Diverse Customer Base In Vancouver

Marketing research

Customer analysis


To gain insight into Lee Donut’s customers, it is important to consider their demographics; the diverse clientele is guaranteed by attracting people from various age groups. Young adults and professionals represent a considerable proportion of those using their services, while many people seek fast and delicious snacks to treat themselves during their busy days. Freshly made donuts strike a chord with this demographic due to their exciting blend of flavors and visually pleasing aspect.

Apart from young people, families accompanied by children also visit Lee Donuts, and the thrill surrounding donuts makes it an excellent option for families looking to enjoy something new (Abu-Laban, 2020). Lee Donuts’ offerings provide the perfect balance of joy and indulgence for families during any weekend outing or celebration

Gender-wise distribution at Lee Donuts is even, with men and women making up half of the customer base, and all genders can agree on their love for the tasty donuts. Successfully catering to the wide range of taste buds requires businesses like Lee Donuts to maintain a balanced approach.

Most of Lee Donut’s patrons come from within and around Vancouver, where it operates as a local business. The store’s location facilitates its ability to appeal to a wide clientele, including tourists and locals. Vancouver’s diversity and vitality make it a major attraction for tourists throughout the year, and the best way for Lee Donuts to take advantage of this is by providing unique flavor options and memorable dining experiences that match up well with what is already popular in town (Penfold, 2008). Lee Donuts can gain recognition as a coveted destination for pastry enthusiasts in Vancouver by catering to the preferences of locals and tourists

Understanding client demographics helps Lee Donuts customize its offerings and marketing campaigns accordingly, leading to an overall enhanced customer experience (Francis, 2020). Attracting patrons from all walks of life – including various ages and gender identities, as well as residents and those visiting town – will help Lee Donuts fortify its foothold amidst stiff competition within Vancouver’s bustling donut scene.


An analysis of psychographics provides a clear understanding of the thinking patterns & choices made by Lee Donut’s clientele, and frequent visitors to the shop who are taste enthusiasts constitute a major psychographic segment. Those people have a refined sense of taste and understand the intricate details necessary for creating every single donut. Their ultimate goal is to find the perfect mix of flavors in a visually captivating and creatively topped doughnut (Abu-Laban, 2020). They see enjoying a donut as an opportunity to appreciate the skill and creativity involved in making each one.Being active on social media describes the behavior of Lee Donuts’ customers. These customers enjoy capturing memories and online networking by sharing images of the donuts they have enjoyed. Contributing positively to an online presence and generating organic word-of-mouth marketing is something they achieve by actively tagging Lee Donuts. When people share their pleasurable experiences with a brand, they demonstrate a fondness for it while enticing potential new clients who might be charmed by appealing visuals and favorable descriptions presented through fellow consumer posts.

Visitors to Lee Donuts can indulge in the latest food trends while enjoying their unique flavor combinations that appeal to foodies and trend followers. Moreover, these customers are willing to try new flavors of donuts, and they enjoy exploring the different types. They acknowledge the store’s commitment to innovation and look forward to trying out its diverse flavors and offerings. Customers in this category are inclined to actively seek new and thrilling donut adventures while potentially being influenced by food bloggers and advice from area culinary professionals (Francis, 2020). Personalizing offerings becomes easier when Lee Donuts deeply understands its customers’ psychographics, and taste enthusiasts can always be pleased if they experiment with different flavor combinations and presentation methods.


For Lee Donuts to properly serve its client’s needs and preferences, it must understand their purchasing behavior. A key determinant of purchase behavior is how often someone visits. Both regulars and occasional visitors from the customer base of Lee Donuts indulge in their favorite treats regularly due to their love for donuts is why regular customers may visit the shop multiple times a week. The consistent, high-quality products coupled with a wide range of varieties have earned Lee Donuts the loyalty of many customers. Unlike loyal clients who patronize the shop frequently for everyday needs, …Infrequent clients drop in occasionally, specifically for occasions or when they desire something extra indulgent (Penfold, 2008). Some customers might consider donuts an occasional indulgence or prize, causing them to visit less often but with greater recollection.

The satisfaction level of the in-store shopping experience plays a significant role in Lee Donuts’ customers’ purchasing behavior, and a considerable amount of patrons select a personal visit to the store as it allows them a complete immersion in its ambiance and atmosphere. The friendly atmosphere and the array of freshly-baked doughnuts enhance one’s enjoyment, and friendly and knowledgeable employees facilitate a great shopping experience. Prioritizing a homely ambiance at Lee Donuts, which encourages customers to linger around in-store enjoying their delicious donuts while having meaningful interactions with our brand, can strengthen our customer engagement. Donut shops frequently elicit impulsive buying behavior because most people perceive donuts as decadent and savory delicacies that could be consumed spontaneously. Lee Donuts could place attractive displays close to the entrance or cash register to capitalize on this behavior and boost sales. Visuals that catch the eye and promotional offers that are difficult to resist might increase customer purchases. (Penfold,  2008) Additionally, when you offer seasonal flavors and limited-time deals, it creates excitement that leads to people making spontaneous purchases. Leveraging these possibilities strategically will enable Lee Donuts to increase patronage and ensure customer satisfaction.

Geographical consideration

For Lee Donuts, which operates locally in Vancouver, Canada, geography plays an indispensable role in effectively targeting and catering to local customers and visitors coming into town, which is essential for this shop’s success.

Most of Lee Donuts’ clientele consists of locals, and the location of this shop in Vancouver makes it convenient for serving nearby neighborhoods. These neighborhood customers admire the convenience of a local donut store that offers delicious delicacies. Lee Donuts being viewed as a trustworthy and familiar establishment in their community often leads to developing brand loyalty. Local customers’ preferences and tastes are taken into account by Lee Donuts to personalize their offerings, and the relationship between our customers and us can be further strengthened by engaging in activities like collaborations and promotions that bring us closer to the community.

Vancouver, a well-known tourist attraction, could mean ample opportunities for Lee Donuts to entice guests looking forward to discovering native snacks. Tourists and visitors exploring the local cuisine may find donuts an interesting addition to their food journey. One way for Lee Donuts to capture this market is by offering culturally specific donut flavors or adding locally grown products to its list of ingredients. The overall tourist experience at Lee Donuts can be enhanced by providing information about local events and landmarks. The needs and preferences of visitors are well understood by Lee Donuts, which enables them to create a memorable and authentic experience that meets their expectations.

Lee Donuts must consider geographic factors to create a robust presence within the local market by luring visitors and tourists. Successfully catering to both local patrons and visitors enables the shop to cultivate loyalty amongst its customer base while attracting new customers. With its use of local flavors and involvement within the surrounding area’s communities, coupled with memorable personal interactions established for each guest that visits it, Lee Donuts is destined to become one of Vancouver’s most extraordinary locations for food enthusiasts.

Industrial Analysis

Competitor analysis

Established Donut Chains:

In Vancouver, one can find famous donut chains like Tim Hortons or Krispy Kreme, but Lee Donuts may need help to compete with chains with notable brand recognition and a large market share (Bloomfield, 2020). Offering exceptional customer experiences tailor-made for those craving an exclusive independent donut shop adventure, along with distinctive remarkable flavor choices, is what makes Lee Donuts stand out from the competition

Local Donut Shops:

Donut lovers can explore independent shops’ diverse and creative offerings in Vancouver’s thriving local scene, where they can find competing doughnut shops such as Cartems, Lucky’s, or Dufins. Attracting consumers who want an extraordinary donut encounter requires Lee Donuts’ focus on specific strengths such as innovative flavors, fine-quality components, and a serene atmosphere, which are the areas where it could show its distinctive characteristic.

Cafés and Bakeries:

Other eateries featuring donut offerings could pose a competitive challenge to Lee Donuts, but businesses like these can offer numerous options for dining or drink to their well-established customers. A specialized menu featuring innovative options emphasizing quality would allow Lee Donuts to emphasize its donut-making expertise.

Online Delivery Platforms:

As online food ordering gains popularity with consumers, Lee Donuts might compete with digital-only bakeries and donut shops, offering faster shipping and reduced overhead expenses. To stand apart from rivals and grow sales, Lee Donuts should emphasize developing a better in-store environment with great customer service while promoting the immediate delight of fresh-made pastries such as doughnuts.



Targeting specific consumers for Lee Donuts is possible by analyzing geographic location and other factors like demographics or psychographics. Moreover, those looking to taste Vancouver’s local flavors will find what they want at this local donut shop. Lee Donuts can serve several age groups, such as young adults or professionals, along with co-existing family people or senior citizens, by considering the demographics that vary across these age groups (Bloomfield, 2020). Additionally, income level is a key factor that lets the store cater to clients with various budgets. If Lee Donut aims to attract patrons that appreciate tasty, unique flavors paired with an indulgent treat, then Psychographically, their target audience would include taste enthusiasts along with foodies & trend-followers alike, all of whom prioritize supporting the community.

Target market

Local Donut Lovers:

Living in Vancouver means being surrounded by a community that values small businesses and prioritizes supporting independent shops. These customers value a nearby donut shop due to its convenience and association with a sense of familiarity and community.

Tourists and Visitors:

Suppose one plans to tour the city of Vancouver and wants to discover its unique cuisine. In that case, If customers are searching for unique tastes and experiences to reminisce about their stay, they might find Lee Donuts suitable.

Occasional Indulgers:

Some customers consider donuts an occasional splurge or a treat for special moments. However, customers who want to buy visually appealing and high-quality donuts might focus more on events such as birthdays or celebrations. By concentrating on these specific market segments, Lee Donuts can adapt its marketing approaches and products to satisfy the requirements of every group. Creating promotional campaigns to engage with customers through social media or local events while also focusing on developing unique flavors and providing a warm atmosphere is what they are doing.


Abu-Laban, Y. (2020). Donut Nation: Tim Hortons and Canadian Identity. In Nationalism and Popular Culture (pp. 19-35). Routledge.

Bloomfield, A. V. (1994). Tim Hortons: Growth of a Canadian coffee and doughnut chain. Journal of Cultural Geography14(2), 1–16.

Francis, N., & Embassy, U. S. Market Development Reports Canadian Market Profile: Pastry Cake, Cookie, Dessert Products.

Penfold, S. (2008). The Donut: A Canadian history. University of Toronto Press.