IPv6 – The Future Of The Internet Essay Sample For College

Abstract

The Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth generation of something like the Internet Protocol (IP) in the Information technology arena. It is a standardized network protocol that was the first to be substantially used with the Web. Looking back to at least the 1990s, it was evident that IPv4 would not be a protracted solution to internet services. The essay focuses on the expectation of IPV6 in the future in internet history. It ensures quality services based on internet services. The future is, therefore, luminous and prosperous with IPV6.

Key words: Internet Protocol version 6 (IPV6), Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

Ipv6 – The Future of the Internet

A variety of critical characteristics are not anticipated in the architecture of the IPV6. Such demands include not just the multiplication of gadgets but also all the use for added protection, easier administration, and improved prioritizing of certain services, such as genuine facilities. IPv6’s proposed design seems to be both a requirement and a desire (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). The shift to IPv6 is critical to the industry’s stable form. IPV6 is a powerful method designed to substitute Ipv4 addresses (IPv4). It is the most widely used Network currently. Enhanced hosting technologies, preamble structure simplicity, more significant support for expansions including alternatives, channel tagging functionality, and integrated identification and encryption features are the main differences between IPv4 and IPv6.

As several young equipment avail advantage of Network access, the mode of interaction offered by IPv6 will be pretty valuable in the pervasive computing area (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). Even though IPv6 seems to have been present for many decades, there will still be a controversy concerning its utility. However, IPv4 fails in many formats, although there are numerous reasons why IPv6 relocation is not just desired but also required. Reduced subnet, Web security, Standard of Care, auto-setup, wifi, Wimax, and the list goes on and on (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). One of the most critical elements of using IPv6 was that it would eliminate any concerns surrounding Static IP limitations. IPv6 employs z / os, whereas IPv4 employs 32-bit addresses for its usage. IPv6 gives roughly 600 bazillion domains per geographical inch on Planet, relative to the overall conceivable quantity of Address space of 4.29 billion (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). Per each cubic meter of both the ground atmosphere, there are 61023 designations.

Mentoring communications would become considerably easier once each device gets its international Port number and NAT is no longer possible. So no need to interpret among worldwide and local domains; multiple nodes will indeed be able to communicate directly. Designing multiple apps like IP telephone, teleconferencing, and entertainment becomes more accessible. Network protocols are becoming less sophisticated, allowing improved Internet traffic throughput and increased headroom for further interaction.

Advanced Security Features

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has standardized IPv6, where IPsec is set as optional for Internet Protocol version 4 systems while systems with IPv6-specified is mandatory (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). “The IPsec security plays at the Internet Protocol of the layer TCP or IP. Since the IPsec is used at a “low” level, there is increased protection at higher level protocols such as TCP, HTTP, proprietary application protocol” (Yanase & Suzuki, 2019). Several security services are provided by IPsec, which includes, replay protection, encryption, integrity, and authentication. Furthermore, IPsec also allows only particular encryption of application protocols unlike others that requires authentications. On top of that, it is also be specific that communication toward a certain specific Internet Protocol addresses are protected, communication that is not protected can be used for other destination Internet Protocol addresses.

Because of IP­sec system’s versatility and openness, it’s feasible to customize a secure protocol to meet any demand. However, several parts of IPsec, including the usage of an Identification Certificate and also the “Internet Key Exchange” (IKE), were inconsistent without Network Address Translation, also another some other argument to migrate to IPv6 and limit (or remove) the use of NAT bridges (Wang, & Cui, 2020). Looking at IPsec fixed with SSL, which only functions in front of TCP, IPsec encodes per single session, allowing that to be extended to everyone’s Data packets. The AH verification and ESP extensions are used to perform IPSec in IPv6 (Wang, & Cui, 2020). The tls protocol ensures the commenter’s validity. It also has a feature that protects against unwanted duplicated transmissions. The verification message protects many Ip packet sections, which uses a biometrics technique to validate the sender. The ESP headers prevent unauthorized access, supplier certification, connectionless internal packet stability, antireplay, and restricted car traffic privacy and security.

The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) method seems to be an access control technology that works in tandem alongside IPSec. Although IPSec can indeed be implemented sans IKE, it is enhanced by IKE, which adds capabilities, adaptability, and convenience of administration to the IPSec specification. IKE is a hybrid method that provides the Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) foundation to execute both Oakley and Skeme types of systems. (IKE implements the established principles ISAKMP, Oakley, and Skeme). That position is crucial to that of an access point with IPv4 IPSec encryption.

IPV6 IPsec Site-To-Site Protection Using the Virtual Tunnel Interface

The IPSec virtual tunnel interface (VTI) protects IPv6 traffic from point to point using cryptography. Most forms of IPv6 routing communication are protected using native IPv6 IPSec encoding (Wang, & Cui, 2020). The IPSec VTI enables IPv6 devices to act as access points, construct connections with other surveillance doorway operators, and provide cryptographic IPSec encryption for communication delivered throughout the external Internet Protocol suite and private systems. This position is crucial to a network device with IPv4 IPSec encryption.

Enhanced Quality of Service

Standard of Care is just another fresh innovation and progress. The future Network will transport online traffic such as remote connections concerning the current usage. IPv6 covers the technological difficulties that must be addressed to provide sufficient throughput for various software and systems, such as remote connections (Wang, & Cui, 2020). Quality of service (quality of service) allows IPv6 routers to distinguish incoming traffic and allocate a particular number of usable capacities. Honest communication will have utmost importance in all transit in this scenario. This resolves the phone or video level of service issue by guaranteeing that even these applications are restricted to the most significant connections in a way that IPv4 does not allow. In contrast to Y2K, IPv6 has not a hard date. Instead, IPv6 was initially incorporated in a progressive, non-disruptive manner.

Stateless Autoconfiguration

This is a fascinating feature of IPv6. Even though IPv6 is also still IP and functions similarly to IPv4, the proposed framework differs from IPv4 in some respects. If you choose not to use modification with IPv4, you’ll need DNS settings to inform you of your address. This functions if there is only one default gateway, but not that well if there are many DHCP servers that provide misinformation. With DHCP, it could also be challenging to keep a program’s domain consistent over relaunches.

Since asynchronous dynamic routing, DHCP is generally obsolete with IPv6. This is a system in which gateways broadcast “router announcements” (RAs) containing the top 64 bits of such an Addressing scheme. Host hosts produce the remaining 64 bits to fulfill the contact information. Those bottom 16 bytes of an Addressing scheme are typically made by inverting a bit and appending additional bits ff:fe inside the midst of a Port number (Wang, & Cui, 2020). As a result, the lowest length field of an Addressing scheme, known as the “network descriptor,” is 20a:95ff:fef5:246e for the Mac Address location 00:0a:95:f5:24:6e.

If all networks transmit out a certain higher 64-bit suffix, the server must always establish the same Forwarding table. Neither the host nor the Server software requires any settings. Conversely, a host can use a different value to construct its Address space, keeping its Hostname secret from the internet. To help with anonymity, Window frames utilize this honorific for outbound transactions. Many computers could also produce short names (one is produced every 24 hours), but they’re not doing so by default. When a node transmits so many addressing prefixed, or multiple networks give out various addressing abbreviations, sites essentially construct identities on each of them. Gateways can force websites linked against them to renumber existing Ip packets by isolating the old prefixed or broadcasting a replacement version. This is entirely flawless whenever performed appropriately.

IPV6 & the future of home networking

Once Internet Protocol Version six (IPV6) catches hold, we are likely see a special generation with residential security solutions which will offer more detailed banning of sensors and applications in a residential Internet protocol than yesterday’s original IPv6 internet connections, which either restrict outgoing connections or allow anything (Wang, & Cui, 2020). The excess namespace also allows for creating various partitions for numerous applications that will be useful when the connection grows in size. And there’s still more to look forward to: the Internet Engineering Task Force is now researching IPv6 movement and multihoming additions. Going from one system to another and maintaining the same Internet address is flexible. As a result, a VoIP connection could begin on his local Network, extend over wifi, and end at the workplace (Wang, & Cui, 2020). Multihoming refers to subscribing to multiple ISPs simultaneously so that social applications can immediately switch to another if one malfunction.

Conclusively, IPV6 means prosperity for the future of the internet. However, the most challenging part is implementing IPv6 because the existing internet backbone is primarily based on IPv4. To introduce the changing architecture, the IETF developed various changeover strategies. But dual-layer and digging are assumed to be the most critical aspect of consideration. Because IPv6 is an extension of IPv4, it is straightforward to design a virtualization layer that handles either IPv4 or IPv6 while retaining the majority of the functionality. Such a notion is referred to as the Double Layer. Whenever IPv6 payloads must transit a system that only enables IPv4, the IPv6 sessions are encased inside the Ip packet and transferred throughout the IPv4-only connection. The IPv4 component is peeled, and also the frames proceed on their path through IPv6.

References

Yanase, T., & Suzuki, H. (2019, October). Evaluation of flexible name autoconfiguration for IoT devices in ipv6 Network. In 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE) (pp. 901-905). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9015240/

Wang, Z., & Cui, B. (2020, July). An Enhanced System for Smart Home in IPv6-Based Wireless Home Network. In 2020 IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC) (pp. 119-122). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9152362/

Book Review: The Beast Essay Sample For College

Summary of the book

The Beast is a collection, in pictures and a few writings, of the devastating impacts of oil. The book reflects how humans’ focus on mining crude oil has caused many problems for animals, plants, and humans. The book begins by using the phrase “get your head out of the star sand” to indicate how people have lived in denial of the harmful consequences that continued extraction and use of oil causes to the environment and climate system. The statement reminds everybody, particularly policymakers and leaders, to stop avoiding the continued existence of oil as a climate change cause. People have been hiding their heads in the sand for a long time by refusing to acknowledge that climate change is a real problem.

The books also note Canada’s significant oil reserves, both unexploited and already mined crude oil. There are about 2.8 million barrels per day of oil produced from the sand. There are also about 162.5 billion barrels of oil that remain unestablished in the oil reserves. Canadian Oil Sands are close to reaching a record extraction of about 315 billion barrels even as the nation’s largest oil producers get more volume of oil from the existing reserves.

The 2016 Fort McMurray fire is clear evidence that a significant amount of the earth’s forest cover was reduced due to the fire, whose primary cause was believed to be human. The fire, during its onset, caused a lot of heat in the surrounding North Alberta, resulting in the record temperature ever received in the region. Currently, nearly 80% of the devastating forest has been recovered, but the impact of the fire is still felt over the surrounding areas and another continent. Suppressed rainfalls and increased soil erosion are evidence of the detrimental effects of forest fires as far as climate change is concerned.

The controversial “Hot Lesbian” ad, which went viral on Facebook, got Canadian Oil Sands gain more public attention than it merited. This was one of the biggest millennium blunders as the group isolated other groups from every sector. The book propelled people to opt for Canadian oil over Saudi Arabian oil since, as the ad notes, “In Canada, lesbians are considered hot! In Saudi Arabia, if you are a lesbian, you die!” The ad was viewed as a strategy to radicalize Canadians from importing oil from Saudi. Through the ad, Canadian oil reserves reserved a lot of pressure from miners who strived to meet the overwhelming oil demand from their country.

The book also talks about the 2008’s controversial incident in which about 1600 ducks flying to nesting grounds fell and died in Syncrude’s oil mining sites. The United States birds’ watchers protested the incident and called for tar sand oil mining to halt. They said no to tar sand mining when they heard that the federal state was close to allowing the expansion of the mines. The death of the birds led to an uproar among several civil societies and environmental activists as they questioned the destructiveness of the oil company. The short, medium, and long-term consequences of the excessive pollution of the environment would probably lead to significant changes in the climate of not only the United States but the whole world.

Key issues presented

The most important aspects of the book are the issues revolving around the perpetrators of climate change. The talks of fossil fuel industry as the biggest challenge of climate change, both at the extraction, or drilling point, to use in vehicles and factories. In line with this, the book tries to equate the number of oil reserves that Canada, for example, has to the environmental impact it will have on climate. The book’s early sections are quite the opposite of issues raised in the later chapters of the topic as the book notes attempts to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide from fossil fuel extraction and use. This is seen as James Cameron slams tar sand and terms it a “black eye.”

In conclusion, the book, The Beast, presents typical examples of what is happening in the contemporary world as far as causes of climate change are concerned. The book summarizes, in picture form, some of the practices that pollute the environment. The book is a vital instrument that can be used to teach or learn about climate change, particularly considering that the world is currently dealing with climate change issues. One of comic book’s most significant and common importance is that they are more accessible and more fun to read than regular books. Therefore, people can relate to and read books with much fun. Moreover, the books provide their readers with a picture interpretation of the content, making them remember the content. Some books similar to this are The (Burning) case for a Green New Deal by Naomi Klein.

Naomi Klein’s “Right to Regenerate”

All human beings’ tussles require a reflection of a promising future for those who support gathering around. However, knowing and understanding their fate or destiny is only sometimes fulfilling. The achievement of insightful societal changes also requires an array of psychological and linguistic frames the insurgents can utilize to notify, impassion, and consequently persuade many people to join the move towards changing aspirations into political and economic realities. Moreover, effective movements demand concrete policy commands and complex data to authenticate their claims. Naomi Klein’s This Changes Everything: Capitalism versus The Climate gives all these necessities for the climate movement.

In Naomi Klein’s article, she presents the multifaceted argument of the dilemma between taking care of the environment and having an economic gain. Klein’s fervent manifesto reaches its climax when she champions the biosphere’s fundamental “right to regenerate.” In this heartfelt and poignant chapter, Klein describes her fight with her sexual reproductive system. Klein draws a comparison between the struggle she went through to be pregnant and a myriad of hurdles that are moving up contrary to reproductive letdown due to a compromised environment.

Klein writes that “…as our boat rocked in the terrible place…” to mean the experience that she went through when she witnessed the aftermath of the event in which BP Deepwater Horizon spill. She felt the boat was suspended, not on the water’s surface, but on the amniotic fluid. Klein further notes that their boat was immersed in a large pool of multi-species debacle or miscarriage. On realization that she was in the early stages of developing an unfortunate embryo, Klein began to think about the time she had the swampland.

In scarce circumstances, do you find journalists appeal such influential association between representations of disasters and appropriate persona problems or hardships? Klein’s metaphorical character and proficient fearlessness are exemplary. Klein further maintains that saving our world and ourselves from devastations or catastrophes demands a far-reaching new perception. In her statement, Klein talks of a new type of right to reproduction, in which one is fighting for women’s reproductive rights and the rights of the whole planet. Klein notes that every life on the earth’s surface has the right to regenerate, renew, and health itself. The regenerative viewpoint excoriates the concept of cloudy anthropocentrism that is still based on the concept of passing for good reason in halls of power.

The right to regenerate can be viewed as a new type of atmospheric or environmental biopolitics that explains life rights in terms of the right to right to regenerate. For a long time, there have been many biopolitical issues concerning the environment, such as environmental management. Biopolitics relates to decisions about the people suffer even though Klein hopes that people can overcome the neoliberal approach of biopolitics. In her book, Klein indicates that people are in a better position to administer our slow death as species, where the ability to enhance survival and life has hit a paradoxical point. By reflecting upon indigenous rights, Klein gives insight into how the right to regenerate could work.

Leanne Simpson’s Idea of Land as Pedagogy

In sustaining and resurging Indigenous knowledge and life, land education works as a one-on-one contestation to immigrant colonialism; it also eliminates or eradicates Indigenous claims and life to the land. Simpson’s idea of land pedagogy highlights the variations of land-based education. It also addresses the significant contribution of land-based education on the indigenous renaissances model of intellectual judgments. For most scholars, working on native political concerns within universities in Canada and other places has proven to be one of the most vigorous scholarly prototypes for studying indigenous politics.

Simpson’s ideas commence with a feature article and then moves to two creative writings, ten articles, a poem, and a video. In the article, we come across how the Mohawks’ lives are disrupted by a lot of industrial pollution. There is also evident Metis landscape transformation during the increase in industrial capitalism. There are Mono and Tlingit areas whose stories, ecological realities, and names have been laid down by colonial association.

The story also contains the contributions made by Anishnaabe writers in discussing issues of land, both based on cultural perspective and contest. Simpson also talks of the land stories from Swampy Cree, a writer or author. The issues that Simpson discusses offer a diverse and nuanced appreciation of the importance of land-based practices and pedagogy as an accelerator for redeveloping indigenous spiritual, physical, and social connections.

Simpson’s article prompts in-depth thinking concerning ways mainstream pedagogical education aligns with the bourgeoning life behaviors. Simpson gives a convincing argument for the need to raise indigenous young people who are well connected to their native land and their indigenous languages and cultures that the land can accommodate (Simpson, 2022). While including Kwezens’ story, Simpson based her reasoning on the Nishnaabeg framework. Utilizing learning from the view of land V perspectives gives a critical intercession into contemporary thinking about indigenous learning or education. This is because indigenous education does not necessarily mean indigenous. Simpson’s article presents an essential ultimate statement regarding the value of land-based education, mainly focusing on indigenous cultures and their resurgence.

As Simpson describes in her opening remarks, her paper was developed “inside a community of intellectuals, artists, Elders and cultural producers to whom I am both influenced by and accountable to.” Although Simpson’s article never went through the required academic peer review steps, it presents vital information that demands an understanding that four Nishnaabeg thinkers had previously peer-reviewed her draft work. Simpson’s article is a fundamental piece of information for the individuals’ Indigenous education since it gives people the responsibility to increase the amount of energy they dedicate to encouraging land-based education sites. To create education sites, people should also consider how we can compel institutional capability. Despite Indigenous people remaining in poor conditions, advancing land-based education is fundamental.

Simpson’s approach poses a solid challenge to how people conduct peer reviews in Indigenous resurgence and land-based education. For example, people should refrain from preempting or assuming that the talked about ‘peers’ in this case are primarily intellectuals such as professors. People should also refrain from assuming that the process of reviewing demands giving papers for anonymous feedback. It is pretty challenging to imagine how people develop a review process that incorporates everybody, including community members that foster and support land-based actions and initiatives.

References

Simpson, L. B. (2022). We as resurgent method. Feminist Asylum: A Journal of Critical Interventions1(1).

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgzGrbHpqxVDrmpkvsWkNtBrQbVrL?projector=1&messagePartId=0.2

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgzGrbHpqxVDrmpkvsWkNtBrQbVrL?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgzGrbHpqxVDrmpkvsWkNtBrQbVrL?projector=1

Strategic Management – Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) Essay Sample For College

Introduction

The HKSAR Government is the sole owner of the Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK), a statutory corporation that operates following the law governing airport authorities. Hong Kong International Airport is provided, operated, developed, and maintained by AAHK, which is also permitted to engage in airport-related activities in trade, commerce, or industry (HKIA). These activities must be guided by the Ordinance and the intention to keep Hong Kong competitive as a significant hub for regional and international aviation (Cheung, 2006). AAHK must conduct its business in a way that is both prudent from a business standpoint and mindful of the efficient and secure movement of people and goods by air to function in compliance with the law.

Aviation Security Company Limited and Sky Link Passenger Services are both partially owned by AAHK Company Ltd, providing passenger services at several ports in the Pearl River Delta. In addition, AAHK maintains and runs the mainland and three airports through conjoint ventures: Zhuhai Airport, Hangzhou Xiaoshan Airport, and Shanghai International Hongqiao Airport (Cheung, 2006). In order to carry out a range of commercial operations, AAHK collaborates with airport business partners such as franchisees, licensees, and governmental bodies. Passenger, freight, airfield operations, aviation services, apron management, airport property and infrastructure management, airport safety and security, retail, and other terminal commercial activities are just a few of the activities that take place at HKIA (Loo, 2008). Therefore, the mission, vision, and strategy of AAHK are as follows; The sustainability vision of AAHK is to increase HKIA’s capacity to function and develop gains in a dynamic and challenging ecological, technological, social, and economic environment while fostering a strong sustainability culture throughout the company.

Environmental Analysis of Airport City

Since the airline industry has developed over the past few decades, almost everyone from all socioeconomic levels can travel by air for reasonably low prices. Previously, it was believed that flying was only for the wealthy (Santa, 2020). Despite the economic crises that have constrained the Asian region, including the 2008 economic crash, the Hong Kong airport city has the fastest-growing airline industry. It is the region’s top international hub for air cargo and passengers. Nearly all Asian cities and other parts of the world are connected to Hong Kong Airport City, Asia’s primary airline hub. The following is a thorough analysis of the airline market in Hong Kong using Porter’s Five Forces to provide crucial information to airlines thinking about joining the industry (Santa, 2012). Porter’s Five Forces analysis examines probable industry rivalry that a company might encounter. The competition from existing firms, the threat of new entrants, the threat of substitutes, and the negotiating power of both customers and suppliers are a few.

Competition from existing firms

Degree of differentiation; In a market where services have been reduced to commodities, competitors will mainly compete on price. As a result, any price cuts made by one player would be rapidly matched by rivals, resulting in fierce competition. The cost of a service depends on its features, benefits, and brand awareness. However, when industry participants can differentiate their goods, they know that consumers sometimes associate their products with a single cost (Goyal, 2020). The competition in the AAHK sector is less intense because firms compete based on strengths, advantages, and features. A rival might enhance features or perks instead of cutting prices in reaction to a competitor lowering prices or hiring a famous person to participate in advertising.

Threats of new entrants

A company’s competitive position will be threatened when new competitors enter an industry and start providing the same products or services. Therefore, the danger of new entrants is used to describe the prospective entrance of new companies into a market. Industries with a great danger of new competitors are less appealing because there are few entry barriers (Goyal, 2020). New competitors can quickly enter the market, outbid incumbent businesses, and take market share. Profitability decreases as more enterprises enter the market. New entrants into the airline industry pose virtually little threat to the surrounding Hong Kong airport city.

The bargaining power of suppliers

The strength of suppliers in the airline business significantly impacts Porter’s five factors in the airport city industry. Labor, aircraft, and fuel are the three leading providers in the airline industry. External variables impact these because the oil price is determined based on global changes. The second factor is airplane manufacturers, of which Boeing and Airbus are two necessary providers (Rizzetto, 2018). These suppliers, therefore, have a lot of negotiation leverage. The third component is labor, which consistently causes problems for firms owing to union politics and demands.

The bargaining power of customers

There has never been less industry competitiveness in the airport city. Customers can choose the most economical options because they can easily access schedules and prices via the online ticketing and distribution system (Rizzetto, 2018). With the entry of low-cost carriers, customers’ negotiating leverage within Porter’s five forces of the airline business has also strengthened.

The threat of substitute products or services

Passengers have the option of not flying. For transportation, they have access to automobiles, trains, and boats. However, flying is still your best bet if you have little time. We can therefore classify this force as low to medium (Rizzetto,2018). This problem has significantly impacted because taking the bus and rail for shorter distances is more economical. This aspect barely matters when traveling abroad.

PESTEL ANALYSIS IN AIRPORT CITY IN HONG KONG

Political factors

Political initiatives that may hinder or enhance the operation of the aviation sector are referred to as “political challenges affecting airport cities in Hong Kong.” Given the large geographies in which many airlines operate, the commercial environment in each market typically depends on the political climate there (Rizzetto, 2018). These factors could be crucial for defending passenger rights and guaranteeing the security of airline operations. For an airline firm to thrive, the political environment must support its business activities.

Economic factors

By acting as a hub for non-aviation enterprises that produce revenue and jobs, HKIA significantly boosts Hong Kong’s economy. The four businesses that makeup Hong Kong’s core Economy financial services, tourism, trading and logistics, and professional services heavily rely on the smooth movement of people and goods made possible by the airport’s local and global networks. Airport City in Hong Kong also has a broader catalytic impact on these industries.

Social factors

The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is not only a central transportation hub for the city’s citizens but also contributes to the advancement of the community through deliberate investments in the education of aviation industry professionals and the development of a platform to support the development of local technology.

Technological factors

HKIA aims to deliver a unique passenger experience and significantly boost operational efficiency by employing technology effectively and creatively. Our commitment to setting the standard for technological advancement and airport innovation is reinforced by our vision for the “Smart Airport.” The HKIA Tech novation Board was established in 2015 to foster innovation and technological advancement within HKIA (Jarach, 2017). The five critical enabling technologies that would help us fulfill our vision of a smart airport city were outlined in the HKIA Technology Roadmap, released two years later.

Environmental factors

Improvements in energy efficiency and environment conservation, fleet conversions, the installation of local low-pollution power generation facilities, or the application of renewable energy sources are essential steps airports take to remove their carbon, manage emissions and carbon footprints that are directly under their direct control (Mohammed, 2014). In some incidents, hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, or wind energy can provide a significant portion of the energy needed.

Resource and capability analysis

For instance, the sources and capabilities of airport city in Hong Kong can be analyzed using the SWOT analysis and VRIO analysis as follows;

Valuable

First, things need to be valued. A company’s resources are helpful when they enable it to gain a sustained competitive edge. Resources must be utilized to achieve goals, take advantage of opportunities, or reduce risks. They should also increase effectiveness. Even if none of an organization’s resources are thought to be helpful, it is at a disadvantage in comparison. The VRIO analysis example may be used to help the quantitative value of the product (McKenna, 2018). For instance, airport city in Hong Kong is valued since it has kept its position in the industry due to the value of and quality of services provided by it.

Rare

Resources have to be limited. A source of information is deemed unusual if it is only available to a select group of businesses. A valuable commodity can be used in the same way by all market participants if it is available to everyone. As a result, none of the players can take advantage of that resource (Mohammed, 2014). The rarity in the VRIO framework example is referred to be competitiveness or competitive fairness. Airport City might have a short-term competitive advantage if it has access to a lot of expensive and rare products.

Imitate

The Airport City Company has enough resources, which gives it a price advantage in the airline industry. Other airline businesses can imitate what Airlines is doing because they have access to enough resources. Due to their availability of the necessary tools and resources, competing airlines can easily imitate the company’s resources (Yudhistira, 2016). This implies that the company’s resources are straightforward to copy, which can reduce its level of environmental competitiveness.

Organization

The planning of the airport city ensures that its rare and valuable resources, which are difficult to duplicate, are used to their fullest extent. Its procedures and policies guarantee that the organization’s management activities are conducted in confidence. According to organizational policies, sharing of resources and information is not permitted. Consequently, it is assumed that the firm is managed effectively.

Swot analysis

A SWOT analysis is designed to make it possible to examine the benefits and drawbacks of an organization, the market and tactics it operates in in a realistic, fact-based, data-driven manner. The organization is required to maintain the analysis accuracy by gray areas or removing preconceived conceptions and focusing on real-life scenarios (Ahmed, 2006). Businesses should apply it as an option rather than a prescription. Swot analysis in airport city is applied as follows;

Strengths

The tourism industry has expanded during the last 15 years. Television, media, and movies have made people more adventurous, and they now want to travel and discover new places all over the world. The only sensible and viable mode of transportation for cross-continental travel is an airplane. According to an estimate, domestic and local tourism increased by 50%, while international tourism increased by 25%. For instance, airport city provides a special package in their sector that aids in drawing lots of customers as a result of their first-rate lodging and superior offerings.

We can all agree that the fastest form of transportation is air travel. However, in order to make aviation the safest form of transportation, engineers are focusing on research and development. Even yet, in comparison to other modalities, it is a secure alternative. The airline’s staff, including the security team, is well-versed in problem-solving techniques and has the necessary tools and equipment. The airport city industry has so maintained its availability and quickness, greatly enabling them to keep their position.

Weaknesses

A high spoiling rate causes the travelers to miss their flights. If the customers missed their flight and had to rebook at full price, the business would suffer a loss. When compared to other forms of transportation, the spoiling rates for airlines are relatively high. The airline companies give each of its customers a reminder call or message before every trip. In order to assure that everyone is present and to lower the loss rate, this is done. In addition, the aviation industry is growing more and more competitive. During the off-seasons, small airline companies must reduce the cost of the flight (Ahmed, 2006). Therefore, it becomes necessary for the larger businesses to lower the fare as well in order to continue luring customers. If they didn’t reduce their expenses, customers would choose the less expensive smaller airlines, which would cause the larger airline company to lose market share.

Opportunities

Use technology to reduce costs: The aviation industry should make investments in various technical stages. Although the cost may first seem excessive, it would lower ancillary costs in the long run. For instance, by connecting the business with clients via a website and a smartphone, spoilage would be reduced. a centrally located program that unites management, departments, and staff members so that everyone can comprehend their unique activities and how they could influence how well others work. Investment in technology would eliminate delays and spoilage rates.

Threats

Global Economic Crisis: Every nation is experiencing economic decline. Fewer employment is available, and a lot of people are working for the minimum wage. People only use airplanes for business travel, despite the fact that the tourism industry is in decline. People are traveling less and less for fun and adventure due to a lack of money. The aviation sector must keep costs as low as possible in current conditions. This is the only strategy for surviving the current economic crisis.

Strategic Formulation; BCG matrix

Application of BCG matrix to analyze airline industry in airport city of Hong Kong, The Boston Consulting Group BCG Matrix model, which offers data on market share, potential, and product quality, can help airlines think about their goods and make decisions. The investment level for the airlines’ product might also be estimated, for example in the Question Mark stage. BCG also aids airlines in monitoring and controlling their product life cycles because no product has an unlimited shelf life (Guță, 2017). Simply said, airlines may conduct wise business decisions by employing the BCG matrix.

Question Mark

This product has a question mark next to it because its future is still up in the air, yet it is one that is expanding swiftly. During this phase, the airline must make significant investments and practice patience because, despite high demand, the product may initially only provide modest returns due to a small market share. The product, however, has the potential to develop into a Star product if it wins a larger share of the market. Considerable thought must be paid to question marks in order to determine if the investment necessary to grow market share is worthwhile.

Star

The star product is referred to as having the highest market growth and market share. The Star product produces more income and uses more of it to maintain market share in the face of the market’s rapid expansion. There are currently five flights each day; the Hong Kong route to Bangkok is one excellent illustration of the spectacular output from the four daily flights to Bangkok (Fajariansyah, 2021). In order to maintain market share and turn a route like this one into a Cash Cow Product, airlines must continue to make significant advertising investments.

Cash Cow

A “cash cow product” is anything that generates significant revenues for airlines while maintaining a significant market share. As the market reaches a mature level, it is quickly getting saturated. Given that it generates more revenue than it costs to operate, the route is currently a gold mine for airlines. The Cash Cow product, however, could become a Dog product if it is not maintained (Fajariansyah, 2021). Airlines like the airport city in Hong Kong have a small investment to infuse and accelerate market growth in order to maintain their market share and revenues and prevent their route from becoming a dog product.

Dog

Dog products are ones with low market share and extremely slow market expansion. Airline yield is either extremely low or the route at a loss. It is recommended that airlines cease or end service on the route, and that the funds intended to run the Dog route instead be used for the Question Mark or Star routes. When market penetration by Airport City and AAHK causes market share to become saturated, the operation is discontinued because the route no longer generates revenue for the airline.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Airlines can determine whether their product is a Question Mark, Star, Cash Cow, or Dog using the BCG matrix approach. To help airlines make wise decisions, it is a wonderful technique to identify the product based on specific BCG criteria. In fact, BCG helps airlines manage their expenses and income. Airlines may ensure their survival in the current cutthroat sector by using the BCG matrix as a reliable comparison tool. Theoretically, airports will benefit from an accessible and connected network since they will be more competitively beneficial than other nearby airports serving the same region. A competitive position helps an airport grow passenger and freight traffic, which boosts productivity and helps it gain market share. Regional airports are less impacted by the increasing traffic, which has a greater impact on the commercial earnings of larger airports. However, well-connected airports can boost both the effectiveness of the American air network and the development of local businesses. Because of this, increasing air connection through RD projects is often thought of as the standard for modern airports.

Therefore, increasing air connection has been found to have a beneficial and considerable impact on an airport’s competitiveness and appeal, as well as the local economy where the airport is located. The benefits and effectiveness of route development projects, however, aren’t always clear. An empirical study demonstrates the dynamic interaction between airport route development initiatives and performance measurements. strategically, Airport City may update the Town Hall to raise the top limit or demolish a number of existing structures to free some citizens if this parameter reaches its maximum value. Utilizing some of the buildings you get as rewards by completing special deals may increase your maximum population.

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