Different theorists present powerful arguments to guide human beings to solve ethical dilemmas and pursue their goals in life. The application of moral concepts to the challenges of alcoholism and substance overuse remains a common practice today. Aristotle’s teleological virtue ethics supports the notion that is it impossible for addicts to exercise good reason and remain sober. Since substance abuse makes it impossible for individuals to engage in virtuous behaviors, they will be misguided to seek eudaimonia or wellbeing and happiness. This argument focuses on the ramifications of abusing various substances on recovering addicts. It goes further to determine whether sobriety is achievable and maintainable goal or not.
Ethics is a field that guides people to engage in philosophical discussions and present convincing answers to the challenges they have to go through. Such an intellectual strategy can result in evidence-based evaluations of people’s actions, options, choices, and achievements (Aristotle 17). Members of the society will consider some of the primary ethical principles and theories to solve and debate about the issues affecting their lives. Personal convictions, backgrounds, norms, and religious practices will impact the moral decisions different individuals make.
In many communities, substance abuse is viewed differently due to the judgments, beliefs, and norms majority of the members promote. Some biases, misconceptions, and emotions tend to influence the nature and effectiveness of care available to those in need of mental support (Talbot). In the recent past, scholars have been keen to present ethical principles as essential guidelines that can guide human services professionals and behavioral therapists to meet the demands of those suffering from the challenge substance abuse (Proudfoot and Lacey 21). Additionally, they should ensure that the existing public opinions and ideas about addiction do not influence them. This requirement is essential since many addicts are known to lead unethical and questionable lives that undermine the established social norms.
Aristotle is one of the great philosophers whose ideas and teachings remain relevant and applicable in the fields of ethics, philosophy, and morality. He is associated with virtue ethical concepts that encourage individuals to develop the best characters and attitudes. His teleological version promotes the idea of morality whereby individuals are expected to have an intrinsic obligation and duty to do what is desirable and acceptable (Proudfoot and Lacey 22). People need to pursue such an action or way of life as the ultimate end that all individuals need to achieve. The application of this kind of understanding could explain whether it could be possible for addicts to ever achieve sobriety or not.
Sobriety as an Achievable and Maintainable Goal
Ethical principles guide people to promote soberness and apply their moral convictions that will result in an acceptable and meaningful life. Some of the existing philosophical thoughts guide human beings to make decisions that resonate with the established social norms. Within the realm of moral thinking, it is appropriate that people engage in actions that support the welfare of the wider society without focusing on the rewards or problems associated with consequentialism models (Proudfoot and Lacey 28). Aristotelian virtue ethics remains one of the guiding models in the fields of psychology and addiction treatment that can guide professionals to achieve their goals.
Most of the people affected by addiction will spend most of their time engaging in behaviors and decisions that are unethical. They might harm or abuse others without considering the possible ramifications or consequences of their actions. Some will lead dishonest lives, embezzle funds, or steal company’s items. Their crowded minds affect the decisions they make and eventually encourage them to continue leading questionable or immoral lives. These issues explain why professionals in this field need to be involved and provide powerful insights to encourage the beneficiaries to consider a superior or a new approach to life (Khoo 20). The introduction of virtue ethics to such individuals could become the best approach to understand and appreciate the meaning of immoral life and how it could result in additional challenges even before starting the treatment process. When this form of acceptance becomes a reality, the targeted individuals will consider new ways of changing their experiences and considering the available options that can eventually result in healing.
During recovery, all involved stakeholders will need to educate and guide beneficiaries to appreciate the idea that they can become sober again. Although this outcome might be hard to realize, it is appropriate for service providers to remain involved and offer the best support. This practice will ensure that those who want to live ethically during the treatment process will achieve their objectives (Proudfoot and Lacey 31). This kind of knowledge will allow the targeted addicts to consider some of the benefits they stand to gain from the behavioral therapy process. For example, the individuals will develop a new urge that will guide them to do what is right always. They will also become attractive members of the society who can be part of the challenges affecting the wider society. The process and emerging knowledge will convince them that an ethical way of life is the best gateway to better experiences in life.
The concept of progress is essential since it will allow beneficiaries to understand that perfection does not come that easily. They will appreciate the idea that some possible misbehavior might emerge and learn from them. The beneficiaries will consider virtue ethics as a powerful guideline for supporting the recovery process and seeking guidance whenever necessary from their human services professionals (Khoo 21). Those who have access to the right empowerment will achieve sobriety even if they will consider taking alcohol or other addictive substances periodically. These actions and developments will trigger personal growth, reduce negative judgments from other members of the population, and take more addicts closer to lives characterized by increased sobriety and ethical behaviors (Proudfoot and Lacey 22). The best issue to consider is how the identified individual could start to break away from addiction and focus on a new journey to total recovery and clear-headedness.
From this analysis, it is evident that human services professionals and patients receiving treatment for addiction could work together to achieve sobriety. Through the power virtue ethics, individuals could collaborate to ensure that the beneficiaries appreciate the fact that they can take control of their lives even if they are engaging in drinking or using various substances (Khoo 21). While the selected people might find it hard to practice abstinence, they might experience or enjoy specific moments of not being intoxicated and act in a manner that is acceptable. Additionally, they will consider and follow some of the established social norms, values, and expectations.
Throughout the treatment process, the ultimate aim should revolve around the idea of being “sober”. Such a goal could guide the participants and beneficiaries to convey the much needed seriousness that makes the process practical and capable of delivering positive results. The person getting the service or support needs to accept that he or she has a purpose to become sober. Professionals could combine such an objective with the notions of virtue ethics to make sobriety possible (van Hooft 28). Even if abstinence might be hard to achieve within a short period, experiences of soberness could support the entire process and allow the individual to be involved in actions that are acceptable and in accordance with the established norms and societal values.
The identified beneficiary could record positive outcomes if proper therapy is combined with personalized support and treatment. This outcome could overcome the challenges of addiction and substance abuse and allow the identified person to start exercising what is identified as good reason (Aristotle 61). The individual will start appreciating virtuous behavior and make it part of his or her philosophy of life. With the ongoing help and therapy, the identified person will start to focus on the power of happiness and wellbeing. The situation will trigger a positive experience and make it possible for the former addict to become sober and maintain it (van Hooft 53). Such an individual will start to relate positively with others, address emerging challenges, and consider new ways of making his society a better place for all people.
However, the process of overcoming addiction or providing treatment remains critical before the journey of applying teleological virtue ethics begin. When a sense of soberness emerges, the identified person will start to exercise good reason and focus on the best ways to improve his or her overall experience. Despite the fact that substance could be an unethical issue associated with moral questions and misbehavior, recovering individuals have the potential to achieve sobriety and maintain it if they continued to receive the much needed support and empowerment (Talbot). This kind of assertion would explain why behavioral therapists and psychologists remain keen to provide personalized support and guide the beneficiaries to start focusing on the best ways to improve their ethical scores and attributes.
When more people appreciate the idea that individuals fighting addiction or receiving treatment continue achieve significant levels of sobriety despite the challenges of substance abuse, societies would start to treat them positively and encourage them to seek help when necessary. Individuals who are going through such a process of recovery would be willing to pursue an acceptable and moral life that is in accordance with virtue ethics (Aristotle 29). An ethical life, therefore, becomes one of the best strategies for ensuring that more people achieve happiness, solve most of the challenges they experience, and eventually support their colleagues and family members.
Aristotle’s teleological ethics is an effective and practical philosophy that guides people to lead happier and contented lives. Unfortunately, the above discussion has identified substance abuse as key determinant of the moral scores of an individual. Affected persons will lead reckless lives and consider new ways of worsening their situations and experiences. However, the above discussion has outlined some of the key issues and ramifications of substance abuse on individuals who are recovering from addictions. The analysis has concluded that sobriety is possible, achievable, and maintainable when the involved participants make it the overall purpose and seriousness that can deliver personal happiness.
Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics. Oxford University Press, 1925.
Khoo, Shaun. “Why Haven’t we Cured Addiction Yet?” Australasian Science, vol. 38, no. 5, 2017, pp. 20-22.
Proudfoot, Michael, and A. R. Lacey. The Routledge Dictionary of Philosophy. Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Talbot, Marianne. “A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners (3/7).” YouTube, uploaded by University of Oxford, 2012, Web.
van Hooft, Stan. Understanding Virtue Ethics. Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.
Women’s Liberation Theory Critique
The theory of women’s liberations based on the paradigm of gender inequality was first developed in 1970 in the United States due to changes in gender difference in crime in the social set up. Freda Adler came up with the theory in 1975 explaining the increase in crime rate of female to men. Alder revealed that as women are fighting for equal opportunities between them and men they tend to indulge in crimes such as robbery, murder and white collar crimes resulting into them venturing into a mans’ world. Adler‘s concentrated his theory on real problems within the criminal justice system and this was seen as the women’s movement. Giordano and Cerkovich conducted a study in 1979 to try and answer the pending questions in Adler’s theory; they took a sample of women between the ages of 17-29 and the result was that women should enter into the work force as there role was not just that of a house wife as the tradition stated. James and Thornton did a study using women in prison as the sample group and the findings were that those involved in crime are women who are impoverished and who did not go to school.
- Paradigm: Changes in gender differences have been seen as the major cause of crime amongst women. In this theory females are less prone to commit criminal offences due to them having different goals as compared to their male counterparts since they are fairly easily achievable, for instance in a case where a man aims for material wealth and a woman for a domestic requirement, the latter achieves it with ease.. In the traditional society domestic culture was observed as a definitive goal instead of material wealth. The subjective-deconstructive perception lengthened feminist epistemologies and methodologies by analyzing the function of women in both historical and social processes. According to this research, women have been viewed to play a part in their own repression and oppression as well as in suppression of other females and males. Traditionally, it is believed that men were involved in crimes more than women but the explanations for this sex ratio was debatably obsolete and unsupported prior to feminist contribution beginning. Consequently, a feminist contribution to criminology was undoubtedly going to progress in some way, contributions therefore started a level headed dispute on the role of women in crime. If traditional theories focused on sexual criminal behavior as the cause for women to commit crime, then the feministic view point has surely contributed by desirable quality of its extinction, as it has slowly gnarled this myth. Although traditional theories gives explanations to people ,giving reasons why men indulge in criminal issues, there could not be a convincing explanation of women and why they commit crimes because the theories were based on males and cannot be used on women as it would not give a fair representation at the end. It is indispensable to continue to scrutinize the causes of crime and the patterns produced by gender in crime, and it is important to have a feminist perception on this in order to address questions relating to gender and crime. A lot of the research and analysis on the subject have focused on males in crime while leaving out the females, therefore in order to have a well balanced, realistic and accurate data; researchers should ensure that they take into account the whole population while analyzing criminology. Although some conventional hypothesis can give explanations why females engage in fewer crimes, a feminist input cannot be overlooked since it is very essential for the additional growth of criminology.
- Concept: It is believed that the male gender engages in more criminal activity than the female gender and the reasons why males commit crimes cannot be related to why females commit crimes because they are totally different. Therefore, the idea of leaving the women to entirely take the role of men like taking care of the family and gender inequality are the main reasons why women have opted to involve in crime. However minority of them are exposed to crime as a result of gender ratio of fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for both inducing and protection of violence. This theory therefore explains the paradox brought about by women indulging in crime.
- Logical consistency: The theory’s logical steadiness is clearly defined in accordance to crimes that are committed constantly by women which are caused by impoverishment and oppressed conditions. The theory has survived so many tests especially those dealing with issues related to cause of crime in women; however women criticize the theory on the ground that it does not help women fight for gender equality.
- Scope: The theory of women liberation from inequality can be applied extensively on a broad area covering the community/society as a whole even outside the world of criminology. What’s more is its ability to define crime by basing its causes on bad structures; it is able to be applied at a macro level and can be applied to various crimes committed
- Parsimony: Due to constant increase in crime amongst women this theory insists that we first try to understand the philosophical and the changes that took place since 1970.
- Testability: The starkness of criminal penalties is calculated by use of information collected from legal dealings and perceptions of individuals’ on the subjections of penalties. A person’s perception of punishment determines if they commit the crime in spite of what the objective information says. In conclusion it is not easy to weigh a person’s level of perception of a crime, and there are many crimes that go unreported and in which people are not trapped
- Usefulness: The theory would have demonstrated its usefulness if it aims at reducing crimes committed by women and also try’s to draw a balance or a line between gender equality hence assigning each his/her responsibility.
- Empirical validity: Outcome from the research done on women states that women do not act or think the way criminologists have always implied. Economic hardship has been blamed to be the cause of increase in crime by women agitated by labor force participation. Gender difference has also increased the crime rate in women and as women fight to reduce the gap of inequality whereby the results have left women in economic marginalized position where they have to work and deal with poverty as they relieved men from their cultural duty to support and take care of the women
- Personal recommendation: This theory should be widely developed because it is applied to a range of criminal acts among women and to advance and understand the causes of violent criminal behavior and how to control it.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
This study discusses Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, which are also called PAHs, as specific chemicals materials that present huge risk for the environment, animals, and human beings. These materials are formed as a result of process of combustion of different materials. The project also mentions the process of calibration and present a figure which clearly shows that PAH 2 and PAH 8 show the highest abundance in each calibration. After that, specific evidence is presented on the point that PAHs are extremely harmful for human health. The study discusses both occupational exposure and prolonged exposure for a long period of time and the effects it has on the physical well-being of individuals. Finally, the main sources from which individuals receive the doses of PAHs are presented.
Results & Discussion
It should primarily be discussed that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, also known as PAHs, are a specific group of chemicals that appear naturally in coal, gasoline, and crude oil. They are formed “during incomplete combustion of organic materials like wood and fossil fuels and petroleum products” (Rengarajan 182). By calculating the concentration of PAHs during calibration and understating the calibration curves, it is possible to make conclusions about the ratios, the peak areas of PAH, and determine ich PAHs have the highest abundance in each calibration. For example, after looking at the following figure it becomes clear that PAH 2 and PAH 8 show the highest abundance in each calibration.
These materials are suggested to be highly toxic to various life forms, such as humans, animals, and the environment. For instance, exposure to high levels of PAHs over a specific period of time can lead to different negative symptoms as eye irritation, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and confusion (Abdel-Shafy and Mona 114). Talking about a prolonged exposure to lower levels of pollutants that contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, it is largely associated with cancer. As suggested by Moorthy et al., “excessive exposure to PAHs often results in lung cancer, a disease with the highest cancer mortality in the United States” (5). Based on this fact it can be claimed that the biggest number of PAHs received by human beings comes from air population that enters the organism through inhaling. Masiol proved that even through individuals receive harmful amounts of PAHs through domestic heating, which is considered to be the main source of these material in winter, outside pollution, such as traffic, is responsible for great amounts of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs during the whole year (375).
To summarize, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are specific material that are formed from wood, gasoline, fuel, and petroleum. Through the process of calibration, it is possible to determine which PAHs are predominant and achieve the highest abundance in each calibration. Additionally, an essential finding is that PAHs are extremely harmful materials which are associated with severe symptoms when being exposed to in large amounts right away and cancer diseases when being exposed to for a long time in small amounts. Since the most popular type of cancer associated with PAHs is lung cancer, it can be claimed that people are generally exposed to these harmful materials through air pollution.
Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I., and Mona SM Mansour. “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation.” Egyptian journal of petroleum, vol. 25, no. 1, 2016, pp. 107-123.
Masiol, Mauro, et al. “Carcinogenic and mutagenic risk associated to airborne particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a source apportionment.” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 60, 2012, pp. 375-382.
Moorthy, Bhagavatula, Chun Chu, and Danielle J. Carlin. “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: from metabolism to lung cancer.” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 145, no. 1, 2015, pp. 5-15.
Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan, et al. “Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 5, no. 3, 2015, pp. 182-189.