Isaac Newton Scientific Contributions Writing Sample

Isaac Newton is considered a champion of scientific modernity in several aspects. His inventions have not only been historical but have influenced the development in modern life.

The historical introductions of scientific methodologies have been used to transform ancient methodology to a new phase of natural intellectual development.

Scholars attribute the recent intellectual capital trading to the renowned mathematician and physicist in the scientific revolution (Baigrie 14).

The scientist was inspired to introduce his scientific methodology by utilizing previous advances made in other fields by other experts relevant to his scientific study.

The work of Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei influenced Isaac Newton to conceive the idea expressed in the principles of motion.

Galileo’s ambition on the study of projectile motion on how an item when thrown follows a parabolic path established a guide towards the discovery of the force of gravity (Cohen 23).

The reasoning of Italian astronomer of continued acceleration in the motion of projectiles to the point when the projectiles weight is equaled by the air resistance became the foundation of the inertia occurrence.

On the other hand, Kepler’s contribution through his explanation of terrestrial motion inspired the discovery of the reason why planets orbited around the sun. Researchers argue that Kepler’s discoveries were seen to be incomplete without deciphering the orbital motion.

Although he had stated that planets moved in eclipses, with faster speed when nearer to the sun, the attraction to the sun was later discovered by Newton (Gribbin 52).

Newton’s discoveries were further inspired by the conflict of theories made by Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon. Descartes, a French philosopher, hypothesized that movement of matter occurs only when acted upon by an external force.

His philosophical theories suggested that movement around the sun was due to a vertical swirl created by a co-extensive relation between them. His conservative invention that matters move only when acted upon by force contributed to the discovery of inertia.

However, his dismissal of analytical Cartesian geometry was revoked by Newton to formulate calculus (Osler 77).

Bacon’ inductive technique contrasted to Descartes’ inductive methods by the introduction of natural history coupled with the direct investigation, which concluded natural occurrences.

Isaac Newton used the advances made in earlier theories to create an improved scientific system applicable in motion and mechanics.

His first law of motion, referred to as inertia, is grounded on Galileo’s foundation on the tendency of bodies to remain at rest unless a force applied to them compels their movement.

Newton’s second and third laws postulated that when a force is exerted on an object, the object accelerates in the direction of the force acting upon it and that every action has a reaction. He used the three laws to formulate the reason behind planetary orbital movements and behavior.

He indicated that gravity exists between objects, whereby the gravitational pull can be inversely related to the distance between them (Baigrie 52).

Furthermore, this force is dependent on masses of the objects coupled with other force; centripetal and centrifugal. Newton’s laws of motion were applied in the explanation of Kepler’s orbital eclipses of planetary bodies.

Isaac Newton’s utilization of previous advances is considered a revolution since it created a departure from the previous hypotheses and beliefs held by established theorists. The radical change necessitated him to perform different tests to support his departure from normal science.

For gravitational force to be meaningful, he had to prove that the force acting upon the planetary bodies was similar to what made the apple fall.

He theorized the extension of the gravitational force of matter on earth to the distance of the lunar bodies which in turn portrayed similar orbital movement (Christianson 75).

Also, Newton developed calculus through the application of universal gravitational forces to prove that the same gravity established the attraction between planetary bodies.

He used calculus to discover the attraction wielded by spherical bodies on their surfaces through the assumption of mass concentration in the center of the spherical body.

Isaac Newton followed the study of gravitational pull with new development in optics. His theory on light and color conflicted earlier suppositions and concluded that colors resulted from modification of white light, which is naturally a combination of different shades of light.

He used prism experiments to separate colors from white light, and later, recombining the different shades back to white light. His breakthrough in light dispersion resulted in the correction of aberration of light in older telescopes (Osler 88).

A considerable bane of attacks on Newton’s theory on color created a more outlined course in natural thinking. It resulted in the introduction of reservations on natural phenomena such as electricity and magnetism.

Into the bargain, he added the possibility of the existence of a universal fluid within space. His speculative issues questioned on how light comes about; if the light is in the form of particles released by shiny matter and thereby creating new versions of mechanical philosophy (Cohen 59).

In his theory of fluids, Newton explains motion through fluids where he postulated the law of viscosity.

His inquiry in primordial scriptural manuscripts was seen as an effort to decipher the religious story of creation. His denial of the soundness of the Trinity led him to deliberate on what he thought the early Christian churches had created fallacies.

He placed the rationale of the falsification of the original truth by Christian forefathers to the creation of a hysterical confusion among church followers. His rediscovery process tried to unravel whether biblical characters knew the existence of gravitational forces (Bechler 57).

His venture into alchemy resulted in the recovery of manuscripts that presented what knowledge held by ancient philosophers. His incomplete theory on chemical force examined on alchemists understanding of matter structure which God had created.

Such knowledge would help understand the nature and structure of the world, which he invoked when establishing the Principia (Spangenberg & Diane 125).

Scientific revolution by Isaac Newton became evident after his exhibitions were seen as feasible models of the working universe. His reliance on mechanics instead of spiritual influence portrayed in scriptural texts made his work a remarkable break from the tradition held in the Middle Ages.

The access to his mathematical discoveries was limited to renowned mathematicians. However, interpreters made knowledge of his significant work gradually accessible, which later gained wide acceptance (Gribbin 85).

Newton’s discoveries have had several effects on present-day events.

His mathematical advancement has been useful in navigation because mapmakers and navigators have been able to draw accurate maps and charts, which are used in navigation especially in aviation and other transport means.

Calculus has been useful in the improvement of machinery and weapons (Christianson 95). This has resulted in the shaping of world superpowers and economies owing to the technological endowment and advancement of military artillery.

His inventions have further been improved further to provide more feasible ideas and devices that ease work performance such as engines.

His invention of reflective telescopes has led to technological advancement in the exploration of space with the recent discoveries of other planets within new galaxies.

Newton’s classical mechanics have been useful in predicting the motion of objects and projectiles such as spacecraft, which is essential in the production of accurate predictions within domains of study.

Also, predictions of tidal waves and tsunamis have been made efficient and accurate to prevent disasters and natural hazards. His mathematical and philosophical principles are regarded as revolutionist scientific work whose logic is almost unquestionable by rational means (Westfall 156).

His analyses are widely known and accepted while his models and structures are used in the present day. His utilization of advances by predecessors culminated to the departure from traditional science to a revolution known as modern science.

Admires of his work revere his ability to collate incongruent elements of new science into an articulate whole. His vast knowledge of mathematics heralded the discovery of laws that govern physical and universal operations.

Newton’s inquiry into scriptural relation to scientific physical occurrence has shaped the present day thinking. Previously, human beings would think that movement within the earth and space based on the invariable attention of the creator.

Although divine power is still revered, natural and universal laws of motion have been accepted to the general way of living (Bechler 101).

Newton’s contributions to universal laws have acted as a guide for the formulation of virtual and currently unsolved problems of nature. His outlined reasoning describes how science can be applied as a solution to these problems.

His refinery of Galileo’s experimental composition method is valuable in current practices. The absence of technology did not deter him from encouraging the development of his technology by the invention of revolutionist laws in modern science.

Works Cited

Baigrie, Brian S.. The Renaissance and the scientific revolution: biographical portraits. New York: Charles Scribner, 2006. Print.

Bechler, Z.. Newton’s physics and the conceptual structure of the scientific revolution. New York: Sage Publications, 1991. Print.

Christianson, Gale E.. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Newtonian revolution: with illustrations of the transformation of scientific ideas. New York: Sage, 2004. Print.

Gribbin, John R.. The fellowship: Gilbert, Bacon, Harvey, Wren, Newton, and the story of a scientific revolution. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2007. Print.

Osler, Margaret J.. Rethinking the scientific revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Print.

Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. The history of science from the ancient Greeks to the scientific revolution. New York: Facts on File, 2008. Print.

Westfall, Richard S.. The life of Isaac Newton. New York: State University of New York Press, 2004. Print.

Nutrition: Foods Containing Calories

Introduction

Obesity is a major health issue today. Obesity is a condition characterized by excess fats in the body. The accumulation of excess fats will have negative implications on a person’s health. Obesity and overweight can cause severe health complications. The situation has become complicated because obesity is causing deaths in both children and adults.

Many people argue that the consumption of excess calories is the only cause of obesity. However, different factors or conditions can cause obesity, such as lack of exercises, genetic makeup, gender, some illnesses, environmental factors, and age. This argumentative paper examines some of the other possible causes of obesity. This is the best approach to dealing with obesity.

Reasons why Foods Containing Calories are Not the Only Cause of Obesity

According to Murphy (12), “many people believe that obesity is only caused by increased intake of foods containing more calories.” To begin with, it is agreeable that excess calories in the body can make a person obese. It is impossible for the human body to burn most of these excess calories. This scenario occurs when a person eats too much food without taking enough exercises.

Most of the obese or overweight individuals consume foods rich in energy such as starch, fats, and sugar. According to Murphy (18), “most of the available foods contain excess calories and fats.” This situation explains why every person should be careful about his or her diet. However, it is important to understand that “dietary intakes” cannot be the only cause of obesity.

As described earlier, various factors are capable of making a person obese. Lack of adequate physical exercises is a good example. Physical exercises are necessary because they help the body to burn calories in the body.

A healthy person maintains his or her weight by striking a “proper” balance between consumed and “burned” calories. Physical exercises also help the body to burn most of these excess calories. This makes an individual healthy and physically fit. An active person requires an increased number of calories in the body.

On the other hand, a dormant person will require lesser calories to maintain his or her weight. Exercises will decrease a person’s appetite, thus reducing the level of calories in the body. Physical exercises will also increase the body’s ability to digest food. It also improves the metabolism of fat deposits. According to Blass (27), “most of the reported cases of obesity can be attributed to the decreasing level of human exercise and physical activity.”

Many people have presented different arguments to establish whether the surrounding environment can “actually” cause obesity. The word “environment” refers to anything that surrounds human beings. Various environmental aspects determine what a person eats. People will always embrace certain lifestyle behaviors. As Blass (49) observes, “many people in the United States consume plenty of fatty foods and beverages.”

This has become a unique behavior in the country, thus contributing a lot to the increasing cases of obesity. However, some people have argued that the environment cannot make a person obese. The important thing is to acknowledge that some societies encourage people to take exercises and consume balanced diets. Such behaviors are essential to a healthy lifestyle.

The environment will determine what a certain group eats. Environmental factors will also dictate how a person engages in various activities and exercises. A less active individual has a higher chance of becoming obese.

A person’s age is also another possible cause of obesity. As Murphy (93) argues, “age tends to decrease the body’s ability to digest and metabolize food.” The elderly require little calories to maintain their body weight. An older person will continue to consume the same foods.

The individual will also become less active “People tend to become obese after accumulating more calories in their bodies (Murphy 95)”. This situation explains why many people become obese after celebrating their 40th birthday. The elderly should take the best measures to reduce the chances of becoming obese.

Gender is also another possible cause of obesity. According to Blass (41), “women have a higher chance of becoming overweight.” Studies have also indicated that men will burn more calories compared to women, even at rest (Murphy 74). The metabolic rate of men is stable compared to that of women.

Additionally, a woman’s metabolic ability decreases after menopause. This is a clear indication that women will gain much weight than their male counterparts. Chances are also higher for women to become obese after menopause.

Recent studies have also examined how some illnesses and conditions can increase a person’s chances of becoming overweight or obese. There are some illnesses that affect the body’s metabolic system. This reduces the number of calories “burned” by the body.

“The level of calories increases, thus making the individual obese (Blass 84)”. Some of these illnesses include depression and hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disease characterized by slowed metabolic rate. There are certain brain diseases that increase a person’s appetite. Increased appetite will automatically result in overeating.

Researchers have also identified a connection between a person’s genetic makeup and proneness to obesity. “A person’s genetic makeup can influence his or her metabolic patterns (Murphy 92)”. A reduced metabolic rate will eventually result in obesity. A person’s genetic makeup can determine if he or she becomes obese. For example, if a person’s biological mother is overweight, chances are high that her children will become overweight.

This is also the same case for “slim” biological mothers. The interesting fact is that a person whose genetic makeup predisposes him or her to overweight might not necessarily become obese. The best thing is for people to embrace the best health practices and take plenty of physical exercises. This is true because all the above factors will determine whether a person becomes obese or not.

Some drugs can also increase the chances of becoming overweight or obese. Some of these drugs might include steroids, painkillers, and antidepressants. “Most of these drugs increase a person’s appetite, thus resulting in weight gain (Murphy 102)”. This situation explains why doctors and caregivers should reexamine those individuals under medication. The approach will reduce their chances of becoming obese or overweight.

Conclusion

The above argument explains why obesity does not result from an increased intake of calories alone. Although an obese person tends to have more calories in his or her body, chances are very high that any of the above factors can result in the condition.

This discussion explains why researchers should continue with their studies to come up with new evidence to support these claims. An informed society will know how to address each of the possible causes to stay away from obesity.

Works Cited

Blass, Elliott. Obesity: Causes, Mechanisms, Prevention, and Treatment. New York: Sinauer Associates, 2008. Print.

Murphy, Wendy. Obesity: USA Today Health Reports: Diseases & Disorder. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 2011. Print.

Child Abuse, Sexual Assault And Domestic Violence

Child abuse can be identified as conduct or act impairing or endangering emotional or physical development of the child; this category of victimization covers any damage suffered by a child, which cannot be clarified or reasonably explained and providing a series of intentional or deliberate injuries.

It is necessary to underline the fact that child abuse covers such crimes as an emotional, sexual, and physical offense, affecting further development of the child as a personality. This category of victimization is not observed as a single event; its violence is increasing nature has a direct connection to the person related to an abused child; for example, parents, or caregivers.

There are some characteristics identifying the harm degree received by the abused child; they are connected with the age and environment in which the child is brought up. According to the statistics, about 50 per 1000 children are reported to be abused.

It is necessary to underline the fact that 70% are sex offenses containing juvenile victims. The example of the problem of child abuse is often faced in ‘difficult’ families, where the parents are not biological and suffer alcohol or drug abuse. Despite the obligations of the parents to keep their children in safety, they are the most frequent abusers in accordance with the statistics. (Child Abuse Victimization. 2000).

The term ‘sexual assault’ is characterized through illegal, unwanted sexual acts; in most cases, this victimization category is called as raping and determined as ‘the threat of force penetrating victim’s anus, mouth or vagina.’

Some people consider that forcing to unwilling sex is impossible, though the threat of death or injury can become the key forcing tool. The victims of sexual assault are usually feared, and as a result, they cannot resist the attack of the offender. According to recent statistical data, every hour, about 80 women are raped; it makes about 1871 women daily.

The rate of sexual assault among males is not so frequent; nevertheless, the research center investigated that one in every six men suffer sexual assault during his life. The harm of sexual assault victimization usually leads to psychological trauma suffered by the victim over the whole life period.

This type of victimization is one of the most frequent in modern society; the problem is that victims are usually scared and refuse to report to the police, stimulating further crimes. (Sexual Assault Victimization. 2000).

The third type of victimization to be analyzed is considered to be domestic violence; this category covers public health concern, including emotional, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse committed by one intimate partner to the other. The age, race, or educational background of domestic violence victims can be different; besides, this crime is never influenced by religious concepts or interests of the person.

It is necessary to underline the fact that this type of crime is not preserved in a single form; it is a series of abuse aimed at the partner, which is caused by unreasonable motivations of the abuser. There are some factors that can impact or stimulate the abuse; for example, the psychological state of the abuser or his disability to control personal behavior or emotions; sometimes, it is a desire for power connected with personal family background.

Besides, such factors as drug and alcohol abuse can lead to violent behavior and result in domestic violence. It is necessary to underline the fact that the effects of domestic violence are really shocking for the victims; they can lose their links with close people and isolate themselves in their personal world. (Domestic Violence Victimization. 2000).

References

Child Abuse Victimization. (2000). The National Center for Victims of Crime.

Domestic Violence Victimization. (2000). The National Center for Victims of Crime.

Sexual Assault Victimization. (2000). The National Center for Victims of Crime.

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