IT Governance- Problems And Advantages Free Essay

Abstract

Information technology popularly abbreviated as IT plays an integral role in the day to day running of business and organizations operations. IT is known to improve the performance of businesses at firm level. Studies show that governance is applied to IT investments, changing projects and ensuring effective service delivery (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004). Governance is meant to compliment the systems of IT so that they can offer the management tool to overcome the persistent problems of IT. Good IT governance ensures value is added to a company’s products and services and that competency is enhanced, weak governance on the other hand leads to lack of flexibility in a company or business. The role of IT cannot be overlooked in companies and industries which want to be successful especially with the inception of technological advancements.

Introduction

Governance in IT can be used to describe the process for deciding how money is allocated and spend (Weill, & Ross, 2005). Investments need concrete and solid strategies of money spending to avoid misappropriation of business funds. IT governance ensures the proper prioritization and accountability of such monies. Studies show that “90% of money related challenges in most businesses are as a result of poor management and lack of prioritization of funds” (Tallon & Kraemer, p2). Below is a graphical representation of the above statement:

Key

                                                                            1-Problems related to weak IT governance

                                                                            2-Advantages due to weak IT governance

In this light, IT governance goes a step further to ensure that spending of monies is not only justified but it is also spend in regard to authorization levels of the business in question.

According to Tallon & Kraemer, IT has been involved in management of different businesses to ensure that necessary changes are employed in the expenditure of business (2004). IT has been used to describe project management and control of businesses. For example, it is used to guide the management and control of projects so that a significant level of “justified” spending of monies in businesses is encouraged. Hence, it can be argued that IT governance helps align problem solving criteria’s so that they can be aligned to business needs. IT governance

Technology has played an integral role in the development and enhancement of IT governance (Tallon & Kraemer, 2004). For example, technology has allowed it to be easy for mangers to be able to authenticate the returns they get from IT investment. For example, some of the tools of technological advancements used in IT include servers and PCs to mention a few. IT governance ensures that business managers venture into how IT resources in the business enhance competence and capabilities in a business.

“There are various capabilities which come with IT governance. One such capability if flexibility capability which is based on connectivity, modular design and compatibility. Flexibility in IT governance is also responsible for the ability of supporting business strategy during periods of intense change.”

                     (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004).

This study also found out that there are various challenges which come with the application of IT governance.  There are businesses which are able to apply governance flexibility easily while others are not able to apply it. Studies show that businesses with weak IT governance structures are about pleasing business manager and also have higher levels of inflexibility (Weill et. al, 2004). The businesses which had strong IT governance on the other hand, have policies and procedures geared towards finding a balance between local autonomy and global flexibility (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004). All in all problems of flexibility and inflexibility show the problems and challenges which may be stemming from the IT governance. IT governance IT governance application is not an easy concept to apply and may sometimes require manager to apply tough decisions which may cause friction within business managers but at the end of it expose major competencies with the business. Heads of businesses and other corporate bodies should communicate needs of their businesses to their business managers and other juniors so that the goals of businesses are achieved.

With the various technological advancements, it is important that businesses and companies are able to employ technology for their success which is also a core ingredient in IT governance (Weill et. al, 2004). Good IT governance should not just be applicable to corporate leadership but all the stakeholders of a business or company in ensuring that the IT structure meets the obligations of the business. This study also asserts that the application of IT governance is not an easy concept. In this light there is need for business managers and their CEOs to adapt IT structures which help to build more adaptive organization. For example, management’s of businesses should be able to understand the mission and vision of the business or organization they are heading. By business managements understanding where they are going it will be easier for the businesses to be able to understand how IT can help the business to achieve its goals and objectives. Studies show that, successful implementation of IT governance goes hand in hand in comprehending and finding out about various business challenges (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004). Most of the challenges that organizations and businesses face during IT governance are solely responsible for causing inflexibility which stands in the way of businesses achieving its set goals and objectives. On the other hand, when coming up with a viable IT strategy it is imperative that business managers are able to understand their managers and how the business works so that IT governance measures can be put in place.

Studies show that an effective IT governance structure is the most important strategy towards reaping significant returns of IT (Tallon & Kraemer, 2004). Managers should be willing to make better decisions in regard to IT so that they can be able to effect effective governance. Other studies show that good IT governance facilitates creation of aligned goals and objectives for the business (Tallon & Kraemer, 2004). In the light of the above it is imperative that managers encourage IT governance which supports all the principles, prioritization, infrastructure, application and accountability (Weill, & Ross, 2005). IT governance should be able to create and add value to products and services of a business so that levels of competency can be increased.

This study found out that companies and businesses depend on the IT departments and resources to gain a competitive advantage and thus the major reason to treat IT with seriousness (Tallon & Kraemer, 2004). IT offers companies and businesses with many opportunities and advantages and value based results. However, It is also prone to facing various challenges which must be addressed if a company or business is to be successful. For example, a company may face challenges affiliated to the corporate governance. Currently, most corporate governances have been involved in various scandals which have played a key role in depleting the trust of viable investors. Good corporate leadership is not very important in ensuring that organizations and companies gain the confidence and trust of their target investors and stakeholders. Many companies and industries prefer the use of accounting boards and managers who are supposed to follow the laid strategies to ensure that the funds of the public are not misappropriated. [1]

With the above in mind, IT governance role comes by ensuring that the responsibility of the activities of the company or business are fully adhered to by the executive managements of the business. IT technology is supposed to supplement the strategies and objectives of the organization and company (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004). IT governance should provide direction pertaining the supervision, control and monitoring of the company’s undertakings. IT governance application works differently in companies and businesses. A major rift in the results of IT management in companies and businesses is responsible in determining if the business will attain its vision, mission and strategic goals.

The risks involved in IT governance are directly held responsible to the board of directors and the management of business and companies (Tallon & Kraemer, 2004). In other words, IT governance is not just about some strategies to be applied for the smooth running of businesses but they are integral for the success of the business. IT governance ensures that there is a balance between the operational costs of protective measures to achieve the objectives of a business (Weill et. al, 2004). In this manner, any risks and objectives can be addressed through the process of monitoring the progress of the business. On the other hand, all investments of IT are not misappropriated with the application of good IT governance.

IT governance involves a number of critical procedures and activities to the managements of businesses and companies (Weill, & Ross, 2005). For example, managements should become conversant with IT and its key roles in helping businesses achieve their goals and objectives. Managements of companies and businesses should be able to delegate tasks, realize the risks of their business and the constrains involved, be able to monitor and evaluate the performance of the company or business and at the same time find lasting solutions to any impending challenges. IT governance as literature shows is about IT increasing value to the business and at the same time dealing with the risks that arise with IT governance (Gonzalez-Meza & Weill, 2004). Hence to have good IT governance it is integral for companies and businesses to understand what decisions must be made to ensure the effective use and management of IT. In that manner, a business can have a more informed insight on the direction of IT to be applied.  On the other hand, it is also imperative to note the chain of command and who should make IT decisions for the company and business (Weill, & Ross, 2005). A chain of command ensures that there is no clash of interests in the running of the business. For example, the corporate management of a company should be able to make IT decisions which will offer direction to the rest of the company or business.

Conclusion

This study found out that, IT is a key representation of a businesses capital and expenditures. IT is meant to fit into the business strategy and structure so that an organization is able to lead to productive communication and decision making strategies regarding the organizations IT governance. With the current advancements leading to the realization of global economics, the field of IT has been employed to compliment the running of businesses and companies. In other words, IT and its governance in the business scenario should be treated with a lot of seriousness since it can determine if a business will achieve its goals and objectives. For example, the corporate governance of companies and businesses should be held accountable for the IT decision making process and governance.

Reference list

(Gonzalez-Meza H., F. & Weill, P., 2004). “Banknorth: Designing IT Governance for a Growth-Oriented Business Environment”, Working Paper, November 2004.)

(Tallon P. & Kraemer K. L, 2004). When the going gets tough. The critical role of IT governance in Turbulent times. Findings from Multi-industry case studies. Retrieved on 22 March, 2009 from http://www.crito.uci.edu/pubs/2004/tallonKraemer.pdf

(Weill, P., et al., 2004). “IT Governance & Strategic Drivers-Agility, Synergy, Autonomy”, CISR Working Paper.

(Weill, P. & Ross, J., 2005) “A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter.

[1] (Tallon P. & Kraemer K. L, 2004). When the going gets tough. The critical role of IT governance in Turbulent times. Findings from Multi-industry case studies.

(Weill, P. & Ross, J., 2005) “A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter

 

Should We Work And Study At The Same Time?

Nowadays is very important and essential for everyone students to have and manage their own money. They have busy lives, especially someone who has to juggle more than one task per day. The people in particular that I am talking about are college students, that is why most them decide to work and study at the same time. But, sometimes to do both things at once can bring some cause that can affect different aspects of their life. There is no single right way to balance their classes with their job responsibilities.

Study and work at the same time could make students unable to focus on their study, stress and restless, less time for their families and friends to do activities and less time for time for themselves. All the things we do in life are to improve the way we live. We study, work, play sports, and make choices just to have a better social life. People who challenge themselves to work and study full-time will end up with a very bad social life especially those who are ESL students because of their English barrier.

Regarding our university duties: we try to do as much as we can to carry out all the homework and assignments we have, but sometimes we do not have enough time to do them. Maybe, we have to stay awake late at night for hours just to finish one work or to study for a huge test and the results are not always good, even though we have put a lot on effort it. We do not have enough time to do their homework correctly; their mind is full of mixed ideas and worries and also they suffer from physical exhaustion.

College students usually go out of their house to attend University early in the morning and come back late after doing their work in the evening or night, depending on your schedule. Our lives will be routine as living in a circle, waking up, going to school, going to work, coming back home, doing homework, sleeping, waking up, going to school, and so on. We do not have much time to share with our family or visit our friends and at some point that we are boring because we do not want to go out or do not visit them, but they do not understand that is not because we do not want to be just because we do not have the time.

We are too tired to do it, but that does not mean that we do not care about them. Lack of sleep is another biggest problem that working college students experience. They work eight or more hours a day, come back home, spend four or more hours doing schoolwork, and then they try to sleep for three or fewer hours a day. Doing this every single day will harm their health and their brain. Lack of sleep is the major cause of heart disease and high blood pressure. It kills the mood too. Working students will be having bad headaches and tiredness all the time.

They will be having bad moods even talk to their families and friends. Lack of sleep impairs attention and thinking. Plus working students will not be able to comprehend easily. They will be all the time in bad mood, under stress, and in extremely bad health The most important thing in life we have is time: without maintaining it, life will not exist. Studying and working at the same time will burn your time and will make you busy all the time to the point you will not feel yourself to be living. It will make you busy all the time; thus, it will also be a complicated duty; to control school and work.

For example, suppose you have some tests and a lot of homework, so you will have to skip some classes and take some days off work so you can study and do schoolwork. Sometimes you will have to skip classes because you didn’t have chance to do the homework. Other times you will skip classes because you have a test and you didn’t study for it. Working students get fired because they try to take advantage of their free minutes at work to do schoolwork. So lack of time will ruin both of them and you will not succeed on either one.

We believe that working is important for people nowadays but it may affect the students when they do part-time job and study at the same time. That was the biggest challenge, to manage your time between college and work. But, there is no magic trick: time management is the only way to achieve. There is no more than 24hours per day and even if we wished for more hours, it won’t happen! In the other hand, having a part time job while attending school helps students in being better prepared for the real world. Students also improve at multitasking and taking charge of their own life affairs.

Robinson stated that most students didn’t work for financial reasons but because they liked the independence their job gave them, the enjoyment they derived from their work, and those who were employed were more likely to be happy with many aspects of their lives such as money and social life than those who didn’t have a part time employment. Part time jobs give the students an opportunity to enhance their learning. Moreover, students who hold part time jobs are also better prepared to handle surprises and setbacks in the beginning of their professional career due to their more realistic expectations and understanding of work culture.

Atomic Bomb Dbq In World War II

In 1945, the United States developed a formidable weapon known as “the atomic bomb” and utilized it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. The aftermath was catastrophic, resulting in significant loss of life and ultimately forcing Japan to surrender without any conditions. Historians hold differing perspectives regarding President Truman’s decision to employ the atomic bomb – certain individuals perceive it as a means of intimidating the Soviet Union, while others argue that it was a military tactic intended to compel Japan into an unconditional surrender.

According to a report by a scientific panel of nuclear physicists, there were differing opinions among scientists about the atomic bomb. Some believed it was just a demonstration to force surrender, while others saw it as an opportunity to shift international focus towards preventing wars instead of eliminating weapons (Doc G). Consequently, the United States decided to utilize the atomic bomb to both compel Japan into an unconditional surrender and intimidate the Soviet Union.

According to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson’s Memoirs, the United States used the atomic bomb as a military strategy in order to force Japan to surrender unconditionally. The memoirs reveal that Japan had a strong determination to continue fighting until the very end, which would have extended the war for several more months. The U.S. was not willing to take this risk, as it would have inevitably led to a significant number of American casualties.

Truman’s decision to not surrender presented challenges for Truman and the American people as they sought a quick end to the war. It was determined that traditional methods like direct attacks or bombings would take too long and result in more casualties. As a result, Truman opted to use atomic bombs, which had the ability to instantly devastate entire cities (Doc A). Additionally, the Yalta Conference Agreements demonstrated that the primary objective of the U.S. was to bring an end to the war with Japan. During this conference, both the U.S. and Britain agreed to return territories lost by the Soviet Union, including Sakhalin’s southern part and its surrounding islands. America may have viewed this concession as a means of intimidating the Soviet Union (Doc D). Lastly, Harry S. Truman stated in his radio address that dropping atomic bombs served as retaliation against their adversaries in the war.

Truman’s clarification revealed that the United States employed the atomic bomb against those who had attacked them at Pearl Harbor and mistreated American prisoners of war. This indicates that the bombing decision was a military tactic intended to compel Japan to surrender unconditionally. However, some argue that it also served as a diplomatic move to intimidate the Soviet Union. General H.H.’s memoirs offer additional understanding on this issue.

During World War II, Arnold, the Commander of the American Army Air Force, held the belief that Japan was on the brink of collapse regardless of whether or not the atomic bomb would be used (Doc B). This belief stemmed from the fact that most Japanese industries had already been destroyed and they were unable to receive crucial supplies for a large-scale war. Dwight Eisenhower, representing President Truman, shared this perspective and opposed seeking Soviet assistance in fighting against Japan. Truman himself believed it would be unfavorable for the United States to rely on help from the Soviets (Doc C). Additionally, Winston Churchill’s account of the Potsdam Conference highlighted the urgency to end the war before any potential Soviet Union intervention.

Documents reveal that the United States and Britain reached an agreement expressing their desire to not depend on the Red Army for concluding the war with Japan. In 1945, nuclear physicist Leo Szilard recollected a meeting where James Byrnes and a group of atomic scientists deliberated over utilizing the atomic bomb as a means to intimidate the Soviet Union. The scientists were apprehensive about Russia’s increasing influence in Europe, which probably impacted America’s containment policy.

James Byrnes and the atomic scientists believed that demonstrating the bomb would have a positive effect due to their fear of the Soviet Union and desire to manage their power in Europe. This belief aligns with John Foster Dulles’ theory of massive retaliation, which suggests that the threat of nuclear weapons would deter Soviet aggression. Therefore, dropping the atomic bomb can be seen as a diplomatic act aimed at intimidating the Soviet Union, supported by containment and massive retaliation theories.

The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima had two main purposes. One theory suggested that it aimed to force Japan’s quick and unconditional surrender, while another belief was that it served as a warning to the Soviet Union. The use of this powerful weapon by the United States ultimately led to the successful development and testing of an atomic bomb by the Soviet Union in 1949, with assistance from communist spies within America. As a result, intense hostility between these two superpowers emerged, leading to what is known as the Cold War. This period of conflict involved a highly competitive race for arms superiority and numerous nuclear threats, which posed significant risks to both nations’ national security.

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