Jazz Music History And Appreciation Free Writing Sample

Major arts are structured, created, and developed in the context of a medium. The standards vary depending on the type of art. Music is one type of art that uses sound medium in its foundation, progression, and arrangement. All music types have specifications in which they are developed. Precise characteristics govern how particular genres of music are composed. These traits are used in differentiating the various varieties of music. Musical pieces are mainly defined by their origins and developmental backgrounds. Therefore, definitions are usually based on the culture and social context of the pieces music. Musical compositions are diverse and vary among communities. They contrast from stringently structured masterpieces to aleatoric types.

People use music for different purposes and methods. Cultural practices have shown that music can be a vital component of a way of life. Compositions and staging of melodies are designed for various reasons. Music can be developed for enjoyment, spiritual or ritual functions, or as a gratification produce for the public. Some composers of music do it for pleasure while others have intent of making money out of music. Whatever the reason for making music, it is imperative for the composer to appreciate the socio-cultural context of the preferred melody. Understanding the music history will ensure that an acceptable piece is developed. Audiences of a chosen music type have set criteria on what they expect.

All traditional groups and persons hold melodies as an integral feature of their lives. Music braves the intellect, inspires thoughts, conveys delight and pleasure, and acclaims courage to humans. There exists varied kinds of music some foreign others indigenous. Music has a social requirement in many traditions, community levels, age sets, and various units of a population. Specific music pieces can superlatively be figured out in a societal and customary background. Appreciating a tradition involves a level of knowing its melodies and their origins. This also applies in reverse; accepting music requires an understanding of its origin and framework. Understanding a piece of music involves having an awareness of its linked traditions and people. An official global principle for appraising music might not exist, however communities have their unique methods of assessing music and its learning. Learning music in terms of creative and inspired actions, development, figuring out the framework, and increasing suitable logical and decisive abilities are vital to humanity (Johnson, C.M. and Ilari, B 2002).

When people refer to jazz music approaches, they repeatedly end up with many classifications. Occasionally, they refer to locations where they can associate the music with. Some even use composers as means of recognizing certain jazz music. This assortment results in a disorder making it incompetent when differentiating bigger jazz repertory. Leonard Meyer asserts that style and style variation occur due to preferences used by musicians. The likings are controlled by the way of life position, conventions of the music, and psychology. Accordingly, this proves why musicians opt to replicate certain models of music and disregard some. Hildred Roach stresses that style is a typical method of composing or reciting music. It is integrated with a practice that links a system of process plus an exploitation of phrases.

However, if analysis of jazz music could depend on style alone, the outcome is bound to have biases. There are societal uncertainties, persistent disparities in descriptions, and finally influences by individual favoritism. With the aid of a sociolinguistic approach, stipulations and hypothetical representations can be formulated. The hypotheses can use limits to assist in differentiating the numerous variations of jazz music. The learning method recognizes restrictions on idiom classifications with references to opinionated, physical, and communal boundaries. It wraps up the investigations using more sociolinguistic doctrines that can be used in the learning of jazz music. Research of jazz hypothesis uses clear investigative apparatus similar to customary music hypotheses. Societal and recital aspects in jazz performances are used in the investigations (McGowan, J. 2002).

Masterpiece jazz is a combination of soaring sophisticated Western music and jazz melodies. It originated in the United States in the early 20th century. The music is associated with American inner-city surroundings. It develops reflections of traditional, locality, racial and fiscal planes of the black Americans. By utilizing practical mechanisms of tune, synchronization, tempo and structure, the music induces an American uniqueness. Real masterpiece jazz music idioms are sourced from western idealistic customs, American black’s jazz, and American trendy music. Paul Whiteman invented the expression masterpiece jazz in the 1920s. The initial piece of masterpiece jazz was the composition ‘Blue Monday’. Later works were performed by various composers such as George Gershwin, Darius Milhaud, George Antheil, and Ferde Grofe.

The musical traits of masterpiece jazz illustrate the societal customs setting of America in the 1920s. Its distinctiveness can be linked to people’s relocation outlines. When musical phrases of dual customs lend traits to each other, musical acculturation takes place. Nevertheless, by 1970 music and customary characteristics were barely unstated in the scholarly spheres. Through music understanding of opinionated, societal, financial and artistic aspects understandings are made possible. It is in this regard that masterpiece jazz institutes a union with New York City.

Hiram K. Moderwell, a past devotee of masterpiece jazz, established that ragtime beats suggested the reverberations of New York City. This is due to the beats agitated activity and movement with fundamental musical development in the direction of an unclear destination. Other pieces with recognizable reverberation transpired in the era. Gershwin had a piece, Second Rhapsody, which induced a fascinating tempo of metaphors in building and money-making development. American melody has the reverberation of diverse backgrounds just as the nature of the country. Musicians, song poets, and directors of masterpiece jazz imitate their ways of life using beat, tune, synchronization, strict formation, and mechanization. Specifically, it freely merges the major exciting constituents of black jazz, trendy music of American, and eminent Western way of life melodious techniques (King, B. 2001).

It was on September 26 1898, Brooklyn, New York that George Gershwin was born. He began his profession at the age of 15 in Tin Pan Alley an area in New York City. At this center hopeful musicians and song poets could bring their works for production. The artists anticipated to get a small amount of cash for their melodies. Gershwin worked for the Jerome Remick organization as a tune plugger. This position enabled him to access numerous tunes. His capacity to predict superior and sensational tunes was made possible owing to his position. ‘Sinbad’ melodic distributed by Al Jolson was his first major success song. On the other hand, ‘Swanee’ boosted his compositions in front of the Broadway listeners often. The melody ‘La La Lucille was written by Gershwin in 1919. It was an instant chartbuster. He later worked with instigator George White furnishing him with melodies for the George White Scandals run.

While at the Scandals, Gershwin compiled a short operetta referred to as Blue Monday. Paul Whiteman, a 1920s leading music crew head, was impressed. The principal specially asked Gershwin’s jazz masterpiece to be staged at Aeolian Hall together with a number of leading pieces. Composing the music had escaped Gershwin’s mind for a while. It was about twenty one days to the first staging of his music that he saw an announcement about the melody. In the remaining short period Gershwin wrote the tune which shaped his professional life. The melody promoted him to a height of prominence (Firestone, G. 2006).

The partnership between Gershwin and Whiteman as musician with a rhymester started in 1924. The first piece created was Lady Be Good! this credited numerous hits. Irrespective of his good run on Broadway, Gershwin opted for his Rhapsody in Blue triumph. He included more melodies without accompanying piano such as Concerto in F of 1925, Preludes for piano of 1926 and An American in Paris. The later piece was composed following a tour of Paris by Gershwin. This melody is a verse that carries the audience to the avenues of Paris in the 1920s. In attempts to portray a practical description of the ‘City of Lights’, George’s tune required four vehicle hooting to reproduce the loud vehicle travels of Paris. He later left Broadway and moved with Ira to Hollywood. This switch did not weaken their melodies. Gershwin’s initial show was ‘The King of Jazz’ marking melodies chosen by Paul Whiteman. The show incorporated Rhapsody in Blue as a characteristic melody and Bing Crosby as a top name. The two had continued success reflecting back to the Broadway times.

Gershwin thrived intensely in developing a fusion of jazz with conventional melody varieties. These mergers have stood the trials of periods which have passed. His compositions were respected as solemn for their generation and era. Currently the pieces appear as model pianos, bands, and composition writings. Nevertheless, in earlier staging’s, Gershwin’s daring and novel compositions confused the New York reviewers. Analysts have viewed Gershwin’s efforts as a conduit linking Tin Pan Alley and the grand performance auditoriums of New York. Gershwin directed the performances using his exceptional composition techniques (Firestone 2006).

In 1926 Gershwin reflected on producing a complete opera featuring DuBose Heyward’s Porgy. This was a tale concerning black natives of ‘Catfish Row’ in Charlestown, South Carolina. It was not until October 1933 that the Gershwin brothers in collaboration with Dubose Heyward got into an agreement with the Theatre Guild of New York. Gershwin achieved success in February 1934. He subsisted on in South Carolina writing and incorporating persuasions from Folly Island. From here the brothers were able to monitor the Gullahs, a secluded assembly residing on neighboring James Island. The Gullahs turned out to be models of the Catfish Row inhabitants. This was a joyful partnership as DuBose Heyward jotted down the lines while Ira Gershwin and Heyward compiled the words. He contributed lyrics for two other hits.

In the tenth month of 1935 at a major theatre in New York, contrast to a composition quarters, Porgy and Bess released their songs. The opera could not get back its venture capital and shut down despite having 124 shows. Nowadays, the project is admired as a major striking opera model ever written by an American lyricist. The apparent sway by Gershwin was from religious tunes, black diviners, and African-American jazz beats. Majorly, the manipulations permeate tales of affection, killings, and desire in a style unmatched in all recorded opera. Melodious and composition influences were seen in African-Americans emergence thanks to Gershwin. The inspiring splendor of his music gave immense dignity to the black countrymen. This was prepared in an exclusive American composition background echoing global humanity topics. Porgy and Bess is certainly Gershwin’s best melodious success. It is occasionally staged in opera domes universally and is revered as a twentieth century symphonic composition (Firestone, G. 2006).

The study of jazz music is unique as it has made a shift from casual to recognizable spheres of discovery. The spotlight has been on what has been passed on as opposed to how it was established. This attention transfer has influenced our perception of jazz compositions as a group. Most of the musical styles can be related using their past accounts. Mutual society beginnings and overlying neighborhoods were means that promoted the notion of historically coerced jazz assembles. Jazz practices have encountered numerous impediments. These barriers are useful in appreciating how to study jazz and how its histories were instituted. It was the original melody of the African inhabitants that were staged at the societal showground’s. Prime inspiration to make official jazz studies was essential. Ascertaining validity to finally see jazz as part of a larger melody custom was crucial. Recognizing the probability of connecting the forms of spread to melodies being conveyed was important. The procedure through which jazz changed into a conventional constituent of music learning was through historical studies. Most studies originate from an exact acceptance of the jazz customs (Gatien, G. 2009).

The diverse perceptions of recitation ideas between melodies and theatre learners depict a unique study task. Learning music in the framework of its community and their way of life is revered by many scholars. A recital learning method inquires what a melody permits persons to engage in. This view visualizes music as a practice inside a broader communal and customary norm. The study design is slowly deviating from its primary focus, the acceptance of melody or its significance, to why the melody or its worth is so central to humanity and communities. The shifting enables learners to engage into deeper research of the origins of a melody (Madrid, L.A. 2009).

A foremost fault in criticizing black music is that it shreds the melodies, too honestly, of its communal and intellectual objective. The detractors try to describe jazz as a talent which has surfaced from no logical source of thinking. Communal and intellectual settings and a way of life that shaped Mozart are regarded as ordinary. The way of life and customs of the black people of America are significant, especially, when it comes to the music that emerged from the communities. It is impossible to comprehend their melodies apart from being aware of the outlook that created them. The values of black’s music are vital in appreciating the melodies. The beliefs are in part as a product of the communal nature of blacks in America. Detractors were usually unprofessional in their analysis. Their thoughts stood at their recognition of the music and nothing more. One has to be responsive to the values that created a music piece so as to give a detailed account of the melody. To completely grasp a jazz artistic composition, comprehensive listings of its communal perspectives are required.

Modern jazz, recently, has started to generate disorder and enthusiasm. Melodies such as Omette Coleman, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane, Cecil Taylor and many more have impressed audiences. The music has evolved due to the same reasons it did a couple of decades ago. Bop originated from a rejoinder by new artists towards the unproductiveness and regulations of Swing. The New Thing is the latest connotation of contemporary jazz. This is a response to the tough bop and pop-dance group.

In recent times, just two American dramatists have emerged. Eugene O’Neill and Tennessee Williams who are weighty on the account of thoughts as Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker or Omette Coleman. However, a group of theatrical censure equally exists in America. This is made possible by the importation of ideas from Europe. Nevertheless, detractors of jazz music cannot be found in European customs or hypotheses. Black jazz music is essentially an American experience. Therefore, regulations for reviewing and artistic brilliance will rely on inhabitant familiarity of the fundamental values and indigenous way of life of jazz. Scholars have adequate time to commence their preparations (Baraka, A. 1960).

All in all, it is apparent that research on music has specifications which should be adhered to. Community settings and cultural backgrounds are paramount in the study of a community’s music. Investigators cannot study one aspect in the absence of the other. Most musical genres have traditions that show how they were created. Appreciating musical pieces require a wholesome study of the social and cultural context of the piece. This approach will ensure a comprehensive analysis of music of different genres.

Reference List

Baraka, A 1960, “Jazz and the White Critic”, Black Music, New York, Morrow.

Firestone, G 2006, “George Gershwin”, Bestofbroadyproductions.com. Web.

Gatien, G 2009, “Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education”, Categories and Music Transmission, [Online], vol. 8, no. 2 pp. 94-119. Web.

Johnson, C M & Iiari, B 2002, “International Journal of Music Education”, Policy. Web.

King, B 2001, “American symphonic jazz” an excursion into the geography of music, La Scena Musicale.

Madrid, L A 2009, “Why Music and Performance Studies? Why Now?” An Introduction to the Special Issue, Transcultural Music Review, no. 13 ISSN 1697-0101. Web.

McGowan, J 2002, “Understanding Jazz Styles Through Sociolinguistic Models”, Discourses, vol. 4, no. 1. Web.

Kelo V. City Of New London – An Analysis

In Kelo v. City of New London, U.S Supreme Court held in June 2005 that the state government can influence the private parties to sell their property for the object of economic development. Whether a government can control the use of private property for a public purpose or whether the government can take private property was the key question to be answered in the above legal case.

The key issue, in this case, was as follows: the City of London, Connecticut wanted to develop some area for commercial purposes. Some property owners declined to part in their properties. The City of New London employed its power to acquire those properties through its renowned sphere to denounce the rights of properties. The owners opposed on the footing that alienating their property would infringe their privileges granted under the Fifth Amendment of the U.S Constitution which runs as follows: “nor shall private property be grabbed for public use without paying just and adequate compensation.”

The Supreme Court of the U.S.A made its verdict on the following grounds: A government is authorized to acquire private property only if it is meant for a public purpose and only if it pays just compensation to the owner of the property. Further, the City of New London asserted that its action was rationalized in compulsorily acquiring the properties owned by the private owners as the intended development assured to create new jobs and cash starving city municipal with tax revenues. However, the plaintiff argued that there was no justification present to tantamount a ‘public use’ within the definition provided in the Fifth Amendment. It was held by Supreme Court that the takeover came under a public use concept. (Persily, Citrin & Egan 286).

The decision in the Kelo case aggravated a wave of resentment and ended in instant legislative retort. In Berman v.Parker, in 1954, it was held that taking over of two non-blighted stores on the footing that it located in the plagued area. The Court further held that it was not necessary on the part of Congress to initiate a bit-by-bit approach but it had wide powers to condemn the whole area. Due to these rulings, hundreds of black residents were removed from their habitual residence. (Kanner 2006).

Sometimes, the government has to take harsh steps to compulsorily acquire some properties where private owners refuse to sell or by quoting a high price for their property by employing its authority of eminent domain to compel the sale and to move forward with the project.

It is worthwhile to recall the dissenting views made by Justice O’Connor in this case. All the private property is now vulnerable to the acquisition of government under the guise of economic development footage. She cautioned that under the liberal view of the eminent domain employed by the majority, nothing has forbidden the states from acquiring any motel to change the same into a five-star hotel and any residence with a supermarket or any agricultural farm with a production unit. (Bodenhamer & Ely 114).

In actual parlance, state courts are at liberty to interpret their constitutions to offer a larger safeguard for the property rights of their citizens than the Supreme Court has employed under the U.S.A’s constitution. Many state courts have held that the employment of eminent domain for economic development by private parties did not tantamount a convincing ‘public use’ under the state constitution. Thus, depriving of personal property rights without offering alternate sites for those owners is not only an unethical attitude but also against the property rights guaranteed under the U.S.A’s constitution.

In Kelo’s case, by inference, the apex court compelled some individuals to get into some automatic exchange with the government. It is to be observed that the involuntary exchange with the government is not coherent with economic efficiency. One of the main ethical issues, in this case, is that Supreme Court has disregarded critical variation between the subjective value of that property to the landlord and the market value of the real estate acquired. Thus, the ethical issue here is that forced exchange not only infringes the concept of economic efficiency based on voluntary exchange but also makes erstwhile owners worse off.

Kelo’s case also poses an important question of whether the mighty private developers, with the help of local and state government, can deprive susceptible groups in the guise of doing good to the public. (Malloy 152).

Kelo, Poletown, and Hathcock cases were all related to the public use requirement defined in the Fifth Amendment. All these three cases have a common thread or knot namely low property tax base, local bodies worsening economic conditions, additional job promises offered by private companies, and augmented revenues in barter for local government employment of eminent domain to purchase the required property for their development activities. In these cases, the Supreme Court of U.S.A granted certiorari to decide whether economic development takings confirmed with the Fifth Amendment’s public use necessities. (Malloy 154).

Observations or Ethical Alternative’s

The decision in Kelo’s case appeared to aggravate an immediate collective acknowledgment of the Supreme Court’s public use concept. Due to Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans witnessed extensive damages in 2005. Due to Katrina, about sixty percent of New Orleans rental housing was shattered and thousands of poor citizens especially blacks were displaced. At that juncture, there was a prominent question of whether the decision in Kelo will be employed by the local and state government to alienate the poor from their property and afford it to the mighty developers in the guise of economic development.

Further, there prevails an ethical question now whether the ruling in Kelo’s case has widened the class segregation and gentrification of the U.S society which has already seriously divided the urban landscape during a natural disaster. (Malloy 151).

Epstein disputes that courts do not appear to be precise in establishing equitable compensation due to limiting valuation techniques that are unfavorable to the individual concerned. He also emphasizes that attributing a monetary value to the land that the government takes over offers an ethical question rather than a legal issue. This connotes by which the government values and takes over the land are frequently harsh to alter before the condemnation of such property. (Brodsky 184).

In Kelo’s case, housing is the main issue and there are no disputes between the parties. Further, a prohibition tends to lessen the positive need for government to make certain that its citizens are not being harassed by forcing them to leave their homes. Further, people have the right to know when they are likely to be forced out of the housing. If they possess an independently enforceable right, they will protest and will approach the court and get an appropriate remedy like an injunction against the government for evicting them from their home. In fact, in Kelo’s case, petitioners are not demanding the court to oversee anything: but they are pleading that they could be left alone. (Ryskamp 24).

Thus, the Supreme Court verdict is in clear contradiction with the existing culture in the U.S.A which respects stable and credible private property rights. The obvious evidence of this ethical issue is that majority of states have passed or are in the phase of introducing constitutional amendments or legislation that forbid government land acquisition initiatives through eminent domain to customary purposes. (Pejovich and Colombatto 157).

Supreme Court’s decision in Kelo’s case has been illustrated as an impediment to private property rights and as employing an overreaching and unprecedented use of the eminent domain to the disadvantageous of individual’s property privileges.

Works Cited

Bodenhamer David J & Ely James W. (2008). The Bill of Rights in Modern America. Indiana University Press.

Brodsky Stanley L. Principles and Practice of Trial Constitution. New York: Guilford Press, 2009.

Mallory Jane P, Barnes James, Bowers Thomas & Langvardt Arlen, Business Law Columbus: McCraw-Hill College. 2007.

Malloy Robin Paul& Robert. Property, Community Development, and Eminent Domain. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2008.

Pejovich Svetozar & Enrico Colombatto Law, Informal Rules and Economic Performance. Las Vegas: Edward Publishing, 2008.

Persily Nathaniel, Citrin Jack & Egan Patrick J. Public Opinion and Constitutional Controversy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Ryskamp John. The Eminent Domain Revolt. New York: Algora Publishing. 2007.

Velasquez Manuel G. Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1998.

Economic Political And Social Contexts Of Italy

The report here presents the economic political and social contexts of Italy which are considered by the marketing team to evaluate the country for penetration. Here the required details for the marketing considerations are provided which may make the decision to enter Italy or not a lot easier. This essay will portray the numbers that a marketer should be concerned about while deciding to enter an economy in order to judge the market’s viability.

Italy’s economy has a GDP of $1.18 trillion with GDP growth at a CAGR of 0.95 percent in 2007 (Datamonitor). Though it is the eighth largest economy in the world, its performance has been stagnating over the past few years. Further in 2008 the country has shown a decline in the industrial performance and a consumer demand also dipped in 2008 (Datamonitor). So as far the economy is concerned it shows a few strengths i.e. a strong, well developed economy with hospitable investment climate. The weaknesses that the economy shows are that of a stagnating economic and industrial growth (which is actually decelerating) and a declining consumer demand which makes the market look less attractive. As table 1 show, the GDP growth rate has declined considerably while the inflation is increasing. This indicates that the economy’s fundamentals are becoming weaker. This indicates that investment in this economy is risky.

Given the economic strengths and weaknesses of Italy, I will now demonstrate ease of entering the Italian market and how international trade policies help or hinder the process. Italy has a friendly trade climate which is friendly to foreign direct investments (FDI). Further, due to its affiliation with the EU, Italy’s trade, and business climate has improved tremendously as it is bound by EU treatise and legislations. Further, in the 1990s the country’s FDI policy and company laws underwent a change which provides greater in order to provide greater flexibility and transparency in doing business in Italy. Further, the structure of commercial companies were also changed and simplified in order to enhance the process of setting up business. The Italian government adheres to the EU tariff schedules and EU trade barriers. Imported goods can also be brought in the free-trade zone which facilitates in payment of no taxes or duties, if those are for manufacturing products meant for export. Italy has applied a value added tax (VAT) ranging from 4% to 9% on all imports (Datamonitor). The country’s corporate tax in 2008 was 27.5%. In addition there is a local tax (IRAP) imposed at a rate of 3.9% which makes the effective corporate tax to be 31.4% (Datamonitor). Further, there is a tax on capital gain at the rate of 12.5% from shareholding and non-qualifying shareholding of 20%. The capital gains tax rate for companies is 27.5% (Datamonitor). This shows that the tax structure is complex, increasing the cost of operation in the country and foreign companies will not be very comfortable working in the country. Further, Italy’s foreign credit rating has been declining indicating the government’s inability to handle the debt burden (Political Risk Service).

From the point of view of market in the country, Italy’s per capita income provides an indication towards the people’s income strength. The average per capita for 2003-07 has been $3057 which is an increase from the average of 1997-02 (Political Risk Service). The economy has been growing unbalanced economically. Report shows that the disparity increased by 2% from 1980s to 1990s (Datamonitor). Further, the level of income of the population is not very high with majority of the Italian population i.e. 42.8%, belonging to the lowest income group (Datamonitor). 13.2% of the population is under poverty line (Datamonitor). Further, the disparity is seen more with the income concentration in top 20% of the population. When the country’s earning data is compared to other EU nations, the average monthly earnings of individuals are less than that of other EU nations (Datamonitor). The income inequality in the economy is high with household income being low. This data indicates that the economy’s potential as a market for income groups is low. The people have low income reducing their purchasing power. But the Italian household consumption expanded by 1.4% (Datamonitor) which is due to the increase in disposable income. This indicates that even though the average income is low, the disposable income has been increasing to increase the consumption rate which indicates a market which has increasing demand.

Table 1: KEy Indicators, Source: Datamonitor

2006 2007 2008
GDP, Constant 2000 Prices ($ billions) 1,161.73 1,180.32 1,187.40
GDP growth rate (%) 1.84 1.60 0.60
Inflation (%) 2.05 2.00 3.00
GDP, Constant 2000 Prices, per capita ($) 19,984 20,299 20,421
Mid-Year Population, Total (million) 58.13 58.15 58.15
Unemployment rate (%) 8.06 8.08 8.11

Unemployment is high in Italy and has been increasing marginally (table 1). The unemployment rate is higher than the EU average of 7.3% (Datamonitor). The labor force is fairly well educated and the government has a high investment level on education (Political Risk Service). Hiring and firing employees by foreign companies may become a problem as a company may hire a non-EU employee only if the government-run employment office certifies that no qualified unemployed Italian is available to fill the vacant position (Political Risk Service). Further work visas are subject to annual quotas.

The above discussion on the Italy’s economic and social condition indicates that the country’s viability for new foreign investment plan. This view is shared by AT&T who withdrew from investing in Telecom Italia in 2007 (Political Risk Service). Further, the income inequality and low household income also makes the market less attractive for chocolate chip market in the country. Apart from this high corporate tax makes operating costs higher in Italy, which cuts into the company margin. So from a marketing point of view, Italy is not a very lucrative market to start business.


  1. Datamonitor. Country Analysis – Italy. Country Analysis. New York: Datamonitor, 2008.
  2. Political Risk Service. Country Report Italy. Country Report. New York: PRS Group Inc., 2008.

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