Jesus, God The Son Sample Essay

“Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, the Savoir of the world” (4:42) According to the Christian Gospels Jesus was born in Bethlehem between 6 BC and 6 AD. The Gospel Mark reports that Jesus was “the brother of James, Joseph, Judas and Simon” he also states that Jesus had sisters. Nothing of Jesus is recorded between 7 AD (Jesus visits the Temple in Jerusalem as a boy) and 25 AD (John baptized Jesus in the river Jordan). The Gospels state that starting around 27 AD Jesus began traveling the country side performing miracles and preaching sermons around Galilee.

Jesus reportedly preformed many amazing miracles on numerous occasions during his ministry. It has been said in the Gospels that among other things Jesus brought the dead back to life, calmed storms, walked on water, cured blindness, and was himself resurrected form the dead. In 28 AD Jesus chooses 12 disciples to teach and spread the gospel, among those were John and Matthew who later wrote two of the four Christian Gospels. Then in 30 AD the Roman authorities decided to arrest Jesus due to his growing popularity and his new interpretations of scripture were seen as a threat.

Jesus was brought before the Jewish authorities, and, after implying affirmative when asked if he was the son of God, was handed over to Pontius Pilate, the local governor in the occupying Roman government. Pilate asked Jesus whether he considered himself the king of the Jews , which could have been considered an attempt at usurping Roman authority, and either received no answer from Jesus, or the reply, It is you who say it . Pilate then allowed a crowd that had gathered to decide whether Jesus, or another prisoner, should be released.

The crowd decided that Jesus should not be released so Pilate, attempting to appease the crowd, had Jesus scourged, and some Roman soldiers fashioned a crown out of thorns and placed it on Jesus’ head. The crowd demanded that Jesus be crucified and Pilate relented. That same day, having carried his own cross, he was crucified on Golgotha, with a sign reading (in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek) Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews placed on the cross upon the direction of Pilate. According to the Gospel of Luke, as he was crucified, Jesus said, Father, forgive them; they know not what they do.

He hung on the cross until his death was confirmed by a Roman soldier piercing his side with a spear. After observing the Sabbath, some of Jesus’ female followers returned to the tomb to complete the Burial rites. When they arrived they discovered the body was gone, and they returned with some of the male disciples. According to the New testament, Jesus rose from the dead in the third day following his crucifixion and appeared to his disciples; the Acts of the Apostles reports that forty days later he ascended bodily into Heaven.

The Apostle Paul’s letters to the Romans, Ephesians and Colossians, as well as a letter to the Hebrews (traditionally attributed to Paul) claim that Jesus presently exercises all the authority and on earth for the sake of the Church. Based on the New Testament, Christians believe that Jesus will return from heaven at the end of the age, to judge the living and the dead. Academics use a logical structure to assess the credibility of sources of information and, faith not being asserted as proof, the Gospels has a very difficult time holding up to these standards.

The first thing that would call the accuracy of the Gospels into to question is that the claims in themselves are highly improbable. The more improbable a claim is, the less willing we should be to accept it merely on the say-so of a witness. Many historians immediately dismiss most of the claims of supernatural activity on the premises that they simply do not accept that God intervenes in human existence.

Other scholars attempt to stay away from such preconceived notions, but still dismiss the more miraculous claims maintaining that extraordinary claims need to supported by (require) extraordinary evidence, and the Gospels are not generally thought of as “extraordinary” evidence. Groups such as the Jesus Seminar (a group of some very prominent scholars that are attempting to illuminate who Jesus was, what he did, and what he said based on textual analysis) have identified numerous fallacies within Biblical text.

One of which is that the Gospels are too limited of a source, that is to say that there are only four (accepted) accounts of Jesus life. Of these few sources none of them completely agree with each other on important issues. This pertains to some of the more critical beliefs in Christianity such as his birth and resurrection. This creates a serious problem for those who wish to interpret the Gospels literately; if the same account is recorded two different ways by equally creditable sources it’s very difficult to distinguish which is the correct one.

In the case of the Gospels there numerous motivations could easily be pointed out as to why the people establishing the story of Jesus Christ would have ulterior incentives to present him in a certain light. For instance, the Gospel of Mark the Gospel on which Matthew and John was written for the Romans while he was in Rome. According to Mark, the Jews are the ones pushing for the crucifixion while the Roman governor Pilate is advising against this action. There is reason to believe that Mark would not write badly about the Roman Empire while in Rome and if he had, it may not have survived for others to read.

Christian belief is also faced with the problem of alleged censorship and so called pseudepigraphical writing (works written by an unknown individual under another name). Morton Smith, a professor at such and such a school widely accepted as a first scholar) claims to have found an excerpt from the Gospel of Mark pasted into the inside of 17th century printed book in the monastery of Mar Saba, twelve miles south of Jerusalem. When found, the letter was photographed bye Morton Smith, and the monks at the monastery separated it from the book, for analysis and reiteration.

Analysis of the writing and vocabulary shows that the document expresses authenticity. However, the letter quickly became lost prompting accusations of a conspiracy by the Church. Among other later pseudepigraphical writings there is an alleged letter from Herod Antipas (ruler of Judea and tetrarch in Galilee in 4 BC-40 AD) purporting to be directed to the Roman Senate defending his (Herod’s) actions concerning both John the Baptist and Jesus. This letter was said to be found among the records of the Roman Senate but is now commonly seen as a fraud.

These types of writing do hold a historical value though; the very existence of this type of document show an apparent need on the part of Christians to supplement existing documents for Jesus that they felt should have existed. Although the Bible is standard Christian teaching, more liberal Christians do not as strongly agree with the accounts of miracles and supernatural activity. For example, liberal Christians generally attribute the miraculous healing to medicines. Some scholars, such as Biblical scholar Luke Timothy Johnson, even go so far as to criticize Jesus Seminar type thinking.

Johnson reports: “Far from displaying a more scientific, critical view of the New Testament, many of these scholars are touchingly naive in the way they approach historical sources and in their understanding of what history is or can achieve. . . The problem that underlies much of contemporary New Testament scholarship is a serious misunderstanding as to what constitutes historical knowledge. ” In fact, Johnson argues, “Authentic Christian faith is not now, nor ever had been based on the historical reconstruction of who Jesus was. He also reminds his readers that, “Christians do not have faith in this or that scholarly account of the historical Jesus, but in the living Christ rose from the dead. The ‘real Jesus’ for Christian faith is the resurrected Jesus, whom ‘God had made both the Lord and Christ’ (Acts 2:36). ” Mainly though Johnson asserts, as do other scholars, that modern critics ask too much out of the Gospels, and that these documents obviously cannot withstand a court-like investigation.

In response to the criticism of the inconsistencies of the Gospels, Christians have claimed that that its self speaks to their credibility. It has been argued that had the documents been edited and revised by the Roman Empire that they would have altered them to agree with one another, and if they had been completely fabricated to begin with, they then too would be made to correspond. The Romans would not have altered them in a way that would create problems for them in the future.

Johnson’s argument regarding the intensity in which the Gospels are critiqued has been given some credibility in the academic community. His stance on the foundation of Christianity, however, has been questioned. Johnson’s claim that the Christian faith is not based on the history of Jesus but instead on the history of his resurrection is a contradiction in itself. Johnson discredits his own source of information, saying that the Gospels cannot be asked to yield a reliable historical Jesus.

As to the level of inspection applied to the Gospels, it is generally agreed that the more a historical event is studied the more that can be learned about it. Furthermore, when conservative Christians present the Gospels as a historical document, an educated society has no choice but to critique and analyze the sources. This also does not account for the lack of the other recorded history of the time taking any interest in the miraculous and amazing ministry of Jesus. Jewish records, both oral and written, of that period, were complied into the Talmud, a work so large that it fills at least 32 volumes.

Within this vast record there is very little mention of anyone called Jesus, the closest match being a person called Yeshu. However the description of Yeshu is very different from the Biblical accounts of Jesus. There are other documents that mention the early Christians but they are not seen as a testament to Jesus’ divinity. One non-secular source is Pliny the Younger, the Governor of Bithynia, who mentions the early Christians in a letter to the Emperor in about 112 AD; in his writings he says that he had discovered Christianity was a foolish superstition.

A few other writings of the time mention the early Christians but usually in relation to being “misled” and “superstitious”. Many Christians also cite a passage from Josephus as evidence that the Bible is not the only contemporary document proclaiming the history of their faith (such as the Resurrection of Jesus). Many historians have noted that has many internal indicators that seem to be inconsistent with the rest of Josephus’ writings, along with Josephus’ cooperation with the Romans has lead them to believe that part or all of these passages may have been foraged or fabricated.

The popular historian Will Durant wrote about the history of Jesus in his book Caesar and Christ, Durant stated, “In summary, it is clear that there are many contradictions between one Gospel and another, many dubious statements of history, many suspicious resemblances to the legends told of pagan gods, many incidents apparently deigned to prove the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies, many passages possibly aiming to establish a basis for some later doctrine or ritual of the Church. ”.

The original Gospels have long been lost, and there is no record of anyone ever having seen them. The oldest authentic New Testament material that has been discovered consists of a few tiny scraps of papyrus possibly dating to the early second century. The evidence presented to support the claim that Jesus is the son of God does not seem to posses the necessary and sufficient proof that is required. More historically credible sources must be available to defend such a strong and improbable claim.

Work Cited:

Bruce Milne, The Message of JOHN

www.Wikipedia.com

Historical Jesus

http://www.answers.com/topic/historical-jesus

http://www.answers.com/topic/resurrection-of-jesushttp://www.answers.com/topic/new-testament-view-on-jesus-life

http://www.answers.com/topic/miracles-of-jesus

http://www.answers.com/topic/detailed-timeline-for-jesus

http://www.answers.com/topic/religious-perspectives-on-jesus

http://www.answers.com/topic/historicity-of-jesus     

http://www.answers.com/topic/historical-jesus -Christian Gospels and New Testament Chafer, Lewis Sperry. Major Bible Themes. Dallas:  Zondervan Publishing House, 1953. Revised, Grand Rapids, Michigan: John F. Walvoord, 1974. Leon Morris, Jesus Is The Christ (STUDIES IN THE THEOLOGY OF JOHN)

Divorce And Its Consequences

Among the many problems attacking the families today, divorce is one of the biggest and most stressful dilemmas that families have to face. In the verge of technology and industry progress, the family faces a lot of adjustment problems. At times, these problems bring the whole home down to pieces. But as it is accepted in the modern times, many writers who wrote about divorce say that divorce doesn’t have any victims or that it is nobody’s fault at all. Many parents have been eased down the road to divorce by a few widely touted cliches.

They believe on the idea saying: “Divorce is better for the kids than an unhappy marriage; just wait until the children are ‘the right age,’ to spare them any pain; kids bounce back from the trauma after only a couple of years. Yet, the surveys and psychological studies around the world state opposite conclusions about the matter basing from actual results. Some have bolstered these optimistic notions. For example, authors Susan Gettleman and Janet Markowitz discount “the myth of the damaged child. ” They assert that divorce need not be traumatic for children as long as the parents ‘handle it maturely. They even argue that a parental divorce may help children to cope with their own divorces some day! They claim: “The real objects of reform ought to be the institution of marriage and the myth of domesticity itself” (The courage to divorce). But the question is, is it really true that divorce has no dreadful effects to the people involved in it, namely the members of the family? What is Divorce? A marriage counselor describes divorce as a painful experience for any family undergoing a supposed “unresolved” problem. Many psychologists say that divorce is one of the

Divorce and Its Consequences page # 2 biggest factor causing individuality or personality problems among children today. However it may be described, divorce can be simply defined as the separation of the two most important foundations of the family, the father and the mother, the married couple. Usually, the disagreement between two married couples starts with a very small argument that turns into a big problem. Later on, this problem becomes so clouded that the real root of the unwanted situation is already hard to resolve.

And because of the ease brought about by separation, as these married couples believe at the time, they decide to part ways. Aside from this, the family code of many countries around the world makes it easier to file for divorce than to stay together in a family of constant quarreling and arguments. Many couples say that divorce brings to them peace of mind, something they couldn’t have if they would stay together for a long time. As a result the divorce rates around the world to day soars high. Among the many couples that resort to divorce according to the surveys, are young couples who also entered marriage for negative reasons.

Some just to hide unwanted pregnancies and some just to “have fun” or as said by many youths today, “it’s just out of curiosity. ” Other frequently cited reasons for divorce are sexual dissatisfaction, unfulfilled emotional needs, constant argument, problems with in-laws and physical abuse. At times divorce can even be related to why persons marry in the first place. Writer Sydney J. Harris observes: “More young people marry for negative reasons than for positive ones—and negative reasons are incapable of holding any relationship together.

More couples, for instance, marry out of than into. They marry out of loneliness, fear, desperation, a bleak home life, and a sense of insecurity. They are running away from something rather than to something. Many are trying to escape their own feeling of isolation or alienation” (New York Times). Divorce and Its Consequences page # 3 At the other end of the age scale, younger couples who become disillusioned with each other during their honeymoons decide to have a Narita rikon (Narita divorce).

Narita is Tokyo’s international airport, and the expression refers to newlywed couples who say good-bye to each other and their marriage when they arrive back at Narita. In fact, 1 out of 4 or 5 couples seek divorce in Japan. They view divorce as the door to a happier life. On the other hand, the influx of Western ideas, however, is transforming the way that Eastern women view marriage and married life. “The ‘liberation’ of women,” observes Asia Magazine, “is implicitly the single-most important factor in leading to the rising divorce rate in Asia. Anthony Yeo, director of Singapore’s Counseling and Care Center, said: “Women have become more assertive of their rights and more conscious of their dignity. They are no longer willing to sit back and take things quietly. Today’s women have more options and less tolerance of neglect and abuse. And divorce is a real option for those who cannot find marital happiness, especially when the stigma surrounding it has been largely lifted and is not what it used to be 25 years ago. ” True, as many couples divorce, the ratio of the consequences of the said marital move is also growing in numbers.

Who are the real victims of divorce and how do they face the dilemma of separation? This will be tackled in the paragraphs to follow. The Consequences and the Victims of Divorce IT IS neither the lawyers nor the friends nor the media nor the “experts” who have to pay the price of divorce. It is the divorcing couples—and their children—who pay the final bill. Far from being a liberating experience, divorce may come at a staggeringly high price. As marriage is a highly significant form of attachment bond, it gains a lot of negative effects when it is broken.

True, contrary to what many writers say that divorce is easy to accept Divorce and Its Consequences page # 4 as long as it is taken maturely, many broken marriages result to depression of the separated couples. Of course, many would say that this claim is a fraud because they claim that everything is going on just fine after the break-up. This is because they hide the real feelings they have inside out of pride and shame. Consequently, many are blinded that people who undergo divorce feels better about the state of their marriages and their relationship with their ex-marriage mate.

According to psychological surveys, about 19 percent of suicides and suicidal attempts resulted from divorce and 15 percent of this comprises of the divorcees as well. The pain brought about by divorce to the once married couple is usually accompanied by lost of trust and self-confidence. Many ex-married individuals question themselves on what they have done wrong, what short comings were they not able to resolve, and what is it that made them incapable of handling the marriage disputes that occurred before the break-up?

These stressful situations have also brought about serious personality changes to the couples. Many people claim that the once jolly and approachable personality of a certain married individual changes gradually once the marriage is already broken. Well, a lot may say that this is not true with everyone undergoing divorce. But there always comes a time or “point of realization” as referred by psychologists, when the individual would be able to remember everything that happened in the past relationship with the ex-married partner they once shared their lives with.

As an addition to this, A recent study published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family indicated that divorce is linked to unhappiness and depression. The divorced were more likely to be depressed, and those who had divorced more than once were likely to be depressed more frequently. Sociologist Lenore Weitzman, in her book The Divorce Revolution, notes that divorced and separated people have the highest rates of admission to psychiatric facilities; they also suffer higher rates of illness, premature death, and suicide.

Divorce and Its Consequences page # 5. Aside from the said facts, the main victims of divorce are the children. Psychology Today magazine answers that a recent five-year study of over 100 ‘children of divorce’ revealed that divorce is not good for children. Even children in very unhappy homes did not want their parents to get divorced Indeed, five years after the divorce most of these children were not happy, and over one third were seriously depressed. Experts agree that when a child sees his family splitting up “he feels his world is shattered. ” Young children may even conclude that the whole thing is their fault that Daddy went away because they were bad.

This can give rise to severe emotional problems. Extensive surveys indicate that children of divorce, when grown are more likely to have marital problems than are children of intact families. As adults, they are also more likely to be bothered by crying spells, insomnia, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and despair, say psychologists. Aside from this, when the court hearings for divorce proceedings are considered, the children are more likely to experience the hardship of making decisions on with whom they are supposed to choose to live with, especially if the children’s age is already beyond seven.

With this kind of situation, the children’s decisions are usually split up which results to serious state of depression. As years pass, the divorce effects don’t stop just after the break-up. In fact, it continues to influence the child’s personal development. Among the most frequent results of divorce are poor school performances, low self-esteem, behavior problems, distress, and adjustment difficulties. The children, however, often are the principal sufferers. In the U. S. alone, some 11 million children live in single-parent homes.

Many are at the center of custody battles, and commonly, they are snatched from one parent by another. Meyer Elkin, an expert on family Divorce and Its Consequences page # 6 problems, laments, “We are now raising a generation of children from broken homes—and creating a social time bomb” (Awake! 14). Conclusion True, around the world, many married couples rather chose to separate than to take time and talk things over. When actually, divorce is easier to prevent than having to face the long court proceedings of divorce or marriage annulment.

Divorce may seem to be an easy way to escape the unpleasantness of marital problems. But a balanced view is needed, for in many cases divorce has only made matters worse for those involved. Psychology Today, of May 1975, contained the following comments: “In spite of all the cheerful books on creative divorce, no-fault divorce, and better living through divorce, people whose marriages fail are miserable. ” Especially difficult for divorced persons is loneliness.

It must be acknowledged that many persons have struggled for years to make a success out of their marriage, but have not received cooperation from their mates. But the situation should not be overlooked. An element that a sometimes lead to problems is the unrealistic expectations that one or both of the marriage partners may have. Romance novels, popular magazines, television programs, and movies can create hopes and dreams that are far removed from real life. When these dreams do not come true, a person can feel cheated, dissatisfied, and even bitter.

Really, it takes work to achieve a successful relationship. Rather than just put an end to the marriage, it is important to take time to talk things over and try to understand the roots of the problem and be able to save the marriage. This would also help the couple to spare not only themselves but also their mates and their children from future distressful consequences of divorce. Divorce and Its Consequences page # 7

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Magazines and Journals: 1. Sydney J. Harris. (1985). Young at heart. New York Times. 15. 2. Markowitz, J. Gettlemen S. (1972). The courage to divorce. Family Journal. 21. 3. Yeo, A. (1999). Singapore Counseling and Care Center. Asia Magazine. 32. 4. Journal of Marriage and Family. (1989). Vol. 4 No. 5. 21. 5. Psychology Today. (1975 May). Vol 8 No. 4. 12. 6. “If marriage is at the breaking point”. (1999). Awake! Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Brooklyn New York. 14. Internet Source: Dr. Anne-Marie Ambert, York University. (1998). DIVORCE: FACTS, FIGURES AND CONSEQUENCES. http://www. cfc-efc. ca/docs/vanif/00005_en. htm. (June 8, 2006).

Essay- The Effects Of Divorce On Children

One of the most devastating and spreading social diseases of our times is divorces. Recently almost half of the marriages in the United States sooner or later ends with separation (Children and Divorce, July 2004). Overwhelming majority of such break-ups is connected with scandals, humiliation and other negative outcomes. Undoubtedly, separation of parents impacts enormously on their children. A known psychologist, Dr. Todd E.

Linamann comments the effect of divorce on children, quoting the Newsletter of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (summer 1997): “Only acts of war and the events of natural disasters are more harmful to a child’s psyche than the divorce process. ” (Linamann, 2005) As a rule, the first reaction of children on the news about the divorce is confusion, denial, disagreement, fear, anxiety or other psychological response. These reactions frequently grow into hard emotional disorders, like aggression, anger, disobedience, vulnerability, depression, suicidal thoughts, panic attacks, etc.

In such situations constant support or even medical help can be in need for the child. Within the time emotional anxiety decreases and the child starts learning to cope with the divorce. Usually, separation of parents brings a lot of different changes in daily life, and most of them are negative, like loneliness, stresses, nervousness, new obligations, etc. Therefore, a child can demonstrate protest against the situation by weird and unusual behaviors, failures in school, withdrawal or other behavioral patterns.

Psychologist-consultant Wayne Parker names some most frequent long-term outcomes of divorce on children. Those are fears to lose the attachment for the parents, fear of being rejected by one or both of them, fear of misunderstandings and tension between the parents (Parker, n. d. ). All this fears considerably affect psychological condition of the child. Another common reaction of a child on divorce of the parents is blaming himself in being a reason of the separation.

In such case the child will do everything possible to put his parents together again, and failure to do so will bring him to more suffering and misery. Such situation can result in loss of trust and respect of the child to his parents, accompanied with above mentioned psychological reactions. Recent studies pointed that children of divorced parents usually demonstrate poorer performance in high schools and colleges, have lower abilities to handle interpersonal problems and conflicts, have difficulties to establish long-term relations based on trust, etc.

It also became clear that sons of separated parents display harder reactions within some first years after the divorce, but daughters emotionally suffer much longer, than the sons. (Linamann, 2005) Finally, the most striking impact of divorce on children is growing up with a single-parent or step-parent. Besides, child has to remain constantly in the middle of continuous tension between his divorced parents.

It affects psychology of children and especially teenagers, therefore the risk of alcoholism, drug abuse and being involved into criminal activity is considerably higher for children of separated parents. Also, children of divorced parents are twice more likely to divorce their own spouses in the future (Linamann, 2005). Certainly, there are situations when parents’ divorce brings relief to the children and causes no negative reaction. For example, if a child is tired of permanent quarrels and confrontations between the parents, their break-up can be accepted by the child as freedom from a burden.

But in anyway, sooner or later the child will start missing his withdrawn parent, because parental love and connection can not be replaced or forgotten. Recent researches of the U. S. National Center for Health Statistics showed that annually about 1. 5 million children in our country have to overcome the problems, connected with separation of their parents. (ARA Content, 2005) It is very important for divorcing parents and other people around to pay proper attention on such children and help them to cope with the difficulties they face.

Bibliography:

• ARA Content: The Effects of Divorce on Children. (2005). The All I Need. Lexur Inc. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from: <http://www. theallineed. com/family/05031904. htm>. • Children and Divorce. (2004, July) Facts for Families. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from <http://www. aacap. org/page. ww? section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+And+Divorce>. • Clandos, R. and Kemp G. (2006, July 20). Children and Separation. Help Guide. Mental Health Issues. The Rotary Club of Santa Monica. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from <http://www. helpguide. rg/mental/children_divorce. htm>. • Linaman, T. E. (2005). The Effects of Divorce on Children and Families. Family Life Facts. Family Life Communications Incorporated. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from <http://www. flc. org/hfl/marriage/mar-flf03. htm>. • Parker, W. (n. d. ). The Effects of Divorce on Children and How to Cope. About. New York Times Co. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from: <http://fatherhood. about. com/cs/divorceddads/a/divorcekids. htm>. • Russian, S. G. (2004, July 17). Children and Mediation in Divorce. Divorce Net. Lawtek Inc. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from <http://www. divorcenet. com/states/maryland/mdart_15>.

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