Jews’ Suffering In “Night” By Elie Wiesel Literature Analysis Essay Sample For College

Introduction

Wiesel’s book talks about Jews’ suffering during the holocaust. The book echoes events in Germany during the Nazi era. The book also reminisces events in Germany’s colonies during the Nazi era. Wiesel uses Eliezer to express Jews’ experiences during the holocaust. At a tender age of twelve, Eliezer endures some of the worst experiences in life. Eventually, Eliezer loses faith in God. Moreover, fellow prisoners like rabbi’s son, among others, dishonor their parents. However, Eliezer remains obedient to his father. This paper will explore Eliezer’s struggle to keep his faith in God (Sibelman 16).

Eliezer’s Struggle to Keep his Faith in God

Throughout the book, Eliezer’s understanding of God changes. In the beginning, Eliezer’s family is conveyed as religious. Furthermore, the family is highly respected in Sighet. The book also states that Eliezer respects his father; he is also devoted to God. This is proved in his strict adherence to Jewish tradition. Wiesel argues that Eliezer is an Orthodox Jew; moreover, his parents are said to be staunch followers of Jewish laws and traditions.

In addition, Eliezer studies both Jewish Cabbala and Talmud, which signifies his faith in God. In essence, Eliezer’s faith in God at the beginning is irrevocable. However, the book also states that Eliezer’s father is unhappy with his unusual occupation. This shows that Eliezer’s reverence for God is absolute since he goes against his father just to discover the mysteries of God. In essence, Eliezer’s faith in God was strong in the beginning. This is quite evident in his struggles to study the laws of God, as well as God’s mystics (Wiesel 3).

After undergoing various horrendous situations, Eliezer’s faith begins to weaken. A vicious supervisor takes out his gold tooth. In addition, Eliezer witnesses numerous deaths in various terrifying conditions, which includes burning in furnaces, among others. Eliezer looks for his God to act, but nothing happens; this weakens his faith, especially when he witnesses people acting inhumanly.

Moreover, Eliezer’s friends become rebellious to their parents as seen in Rabbi Eliahou’s son, among others. His experience is highly psychological considering his age at the time of these horrendous acts. The acts weaken Eliezer’s faith in God; however, the acts do not affect his commitment to the father (Wiesel 12).

Eliezer’s friend Akiba Drumer loses faith in God during these experiences. It is also necessary to note that since Eliezer remains committed to his father, he does not completely loose his faith in God because God commands him to honor his parents, which he does to the very end. Moreover, he acknowledges that God has covered his face in order not to see their annihilations because they have rebelled against him (Young 25).

Conclusion

This paper gives a clear picture of people with unfailing faith in God. Initially, Eliezer stands firm in his commitment to God despite the happenings round him. In fact, Eliezer sympathizes with the biblical Job over the latter’s experiences in the full glare of God. While some victims become rebellious, Eliezer keeps faith and even recognizes the fact that they betrayed God.

However, it is important to note that Eliezer’s faith weakens as the horrendous happenings take toil on him. This is clear when he says, “God is hanging from the gallows as well.” However, Eliezer only considers renouncing God to save his life, but keeps God’s commandments. This is evident at the end when Eliezer demands religious burial for his father (Wieseltier 10).

Works Cited

Sibelman, Simon. Silence in the Novels of Elie Wiesel, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995. Print.

Wiesel, Elie. Night, New York: Hill and Wang Press, 2006. Print.

Wieseltier, Leon. Kaddish, New York: Random House, 1998. Print.

Young, James. Writing and Rewriting the Holocaust, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1990. Print.

Web Reservations International: Company’s Strategy

Introduction

The rapid growth of Web Reservations International (WRI) can be viewed as an example of how technologies can transform a certain area of economic activities. In this case, one should speak about the budget youth and independent travel market which passes through the period of rapid development (Savills World Research 2013). This particular segment becomes important at the time when the growing number of travelers cannot afford the services of hotels oriented towards the needs of middle-class clients. This paper is aimed at examining the way in which this organization became so competitive and the challenges that it can face in the future.

Overall, it is possible to say that WRI has been able to find a niche in the tourist industry. In particular, this organization serves the needs of price-sensitive customers who are usually very versed in the use of information technologies. These people may live in different countries or even continents. Furthermore, one can argue that effective information management is vital for the growth and sustainability of organizations which serve the needs of travelers whose purchasing power is not very strong. In addition to that, the businesses, which operate in this sector of the tourist industry need to remember that their attitudes of clients can change profoundly as they grow older (Hecht & Martin 2006). Therefore, businesses like WRI need to understand the changing lifestyles of their target audience. They should also be ready for disruptive innovations that can pose new challenges to them. These are the main issues that should be elaborated in greater detail.

Analysis of the major strategic issues

It should first be noted that WRI revitalized budget youth and independent travel (BYIT) market by creating a website for hostel reservation (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). To a great extent, they were able to bridge the gap between service organizations and potential clients. In the past, these stakeholders were virtually isolated from one another. At present, this company provides information about 24.000 budget hotels and hostels located in more than 180 countries (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011).

Judging from their success, one can say that the technological developments continue to influence this industry. Currently, in many European cities, the owners of hotels and hostels attempt to increase customers’ awareness about their services (Mihalcescu, Sion, & Marginean 2011). Hospitality organizations that are oriented towards the needs of young people work closely with companies like WRI. As a rule, the managers of these businesses recognize the usefulness of online technologies as a marketing tool (Mihalcescu, Sion, & Marginean 2011; Terrero 2009). One should keep in mind that several decades ago BYIT market was practically non-existent because it was extremely difficult for service organizations and travelers to find one another. Therefore, the impact of companies like WRI cannot be underestimated.

Apart from that, one should speak about online social networks which enable users to share their travel experiences with one another. For example, they have an opportunity to evaluate the services of a particular hostel or a restaurant. In turn, travel agencies incorporate social media into their marketing campaigns (Joshua & Cairncross, 2011). Furthermore, there are other websites which are closely linked with social networking websites.

For example, one can speak about such a company as Airbnb whose services are similar to ones offered by WRI. Overall, researchers say that the contemporary tourism industry has to accept that user-generated content is an important factor that shapes travelling decisions of people (Joshua & Cairncross 2011, p. 26). Hospitality organizations find it much more difficult to conceal their flaws or unethical behavior (Joshua & Cairncross 2011). The main impact of technological advancement is that they make BYIT market more interconnected. This is one of the issues that should be taken into consideration.

One should also focus on the strategic capabilities this organization acquired with the help of information technologies. For example, it is possible to speak about the ability to differentiate their services in terms of pricing. In turn, researchers believe that the cost-efficiency of an organization can increase the competitive strength of businesses, even if their rivals have a larger market share (Kumar 2006, p. 106). Moreover, this strategic choice has enabled many businesses to erode the market share of their competitors which had previously seemed almost invincible (Prahalad & Hamel 1990, p. 81; Kumar 2006).

It should be noted that WRI was able to reduce the cost of its operations because this company did not need to hire a great number of employees or run many offices. As a result, they could win the loyalty of clients and hospitality organizations located in different countries. For example, they make only a ten-percent charge of the price that clients pay (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). In turn, the services of other websites are usually more expensive. Therefore, they could meet the needs of price-sensitive travelers who were willing to find a hostel in a specific city or a region. In many cases, these people search for new experiences, and they do not want to underline their social status or purchasing power (Hecht & Martin 2006). In turn, this cost-effectiveness helped this business expand the scope of its operations.

For instance, this organization acquired several websites that were also oriented towards the needs of young travelers (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011).

Currently, there are many websites, which are closely affiliated with WRI. Moreover, the effective use of search engine optimization helps this business attract new clients (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). On the whole, these set of strategies enables WRI to reduce the threats which can be posed by new entrants or full-scale competitors. These are the main strategic capabilities that one can identify.

Furthermore, this case demonstrates that WRI has been able to use information management and knowledge creation as a source of their competitiveness. One should keep in mind that this company assists client in learning more about potential destinations. For instance, this organization posts podcasts and videos which can give customers a better idea about cities, restaurants, natural sites, and so forth (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). Additionally, their website contains photographs of hostels. So, travelers can evaluate their interior and exterior design. They can also learn more about their amenities which a hotel can offer to them.

Apart from that, they can learn more about available rooms and prices. So, they can take informed decisions when they need to choose among various hostels. Certainly, such a strategy has been adopted by many travel agencies that provide information about hotels or resorts. Nevertheless, WRI was one of the first companies that began to offer this information about hostels and budget hotels. This is one of the main distinctions that should not be overlooked since it is vital for the competitiveness of WRI. More importantly, several decades ago, customers could be very suspicious of such organizations, because they could not find any data about them. Therefore, while travelling, they could rely on the recommendations offered by their friends or relatives. In many cases, they did not want to go some tourist destinations.

In turn, WRI established its reputation in the market by becoming a trusted source of information. To a great extent, this organization has acquired the so-called first-mover advantage. In turn, this completive strength enabled them increase their revenues and attract a greater number of clients. Certainly, there are competitors that can create challenges for WRI; among them, one can single out Travelocity and Expedia since these companies have larger market share and customer base (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). Nevertheless, these organizations do not fully correspond to the demands of tourists seeking hostels and budget hotels. This is one of the main aspects that can be distinguished.

When discussing the competitive position of WRI, one should focus on the major trends that affect this market. First, the bed supply in the major tourist destinations such as Barcelona, Paris, London, or Berlin increases (Savills World Research 2013). This increase can be attributed to hostels, rather than hotels. So, this sector of economy becomes more significant. More importantly, many people aged between 16 and 34 prefer view hostels as an alternative to hotels (Savills World Research 2013, p. 2).

This trend is not likely to disappear in the future because the effects of the global economic crisis are still palpable. As result, a great number of people will may switch from hotels to hostels. Therefore, one can say that there are many companies that may want to provide informational services to such travelers because this segment of the market will become more important. Entrepreneurs will be able to accumulate initial capital to create similar websites. Therefore, the threat of new entrants and substitute products is very high. Additionally, these organizations can eventually imitate the strategic capabilities of WRI. For example, they can improve the design of their information resources and WRI may not be able to distinguish itself among similar businesses. This is one of the risks that should be taken into account by the management of this company.

Apart from that, companies like Travelocity can provide more opportunities for hostels and travelers who cannot afford the services of conventional hotels. Currently, their websites are of little help to these stakeholders. This is another threat that should not be disregarded. Admittedly, there are several specific advantages that WRI has. In particular, this organization is one of the first companies that entered this market. To a great extent, WRI created this market. Therefore, its reputation is one of the factors that help this company to retain its market share. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that this advantage is not permanent. According to the findings of researchers, the travelling behavior of people change as they become older (Hecht 2008). In particular, people, aged above 30 tends to attach more importance to privacy and in many cases, they prefer to use the services of a hotel (Hecht 2008, p. 69).

So, their attitudes change profoundly. Furthermore, at this age, their purchasing power usually increases; so a hostel is not the only option available to them. Therefore, the management of WRI should remember that they will not be able to retain their clients for more than 15 years. Their reputation is not the asset that they can hold permanently. Furthermore, they should continuously study the lifestyles and needs of their target audience; otherwise other businesses will be able to erode their market share. Additionally, they should understand generational differences.

Secondly, this company has been able to design its operations in such a way that they can reduce the cost of their services. Therefore, they contributed to the development of this market, in general. Moreover, the financial performance of this business strongly relies on this strategic capability. Nevertheless, other businesses can adopt a similar approach to the design of their services in the future. Therefore, cost-differentiation strategy cannot ensure their permanent security and sustainability of this company. So, these examples suggest WRI should be ready for possible challenges; otherwise, this business will not be able to retain the positions in this industry.

Discussion

On the whole, it is possible to argue that that the intensity of competition in this industry can significantly increase in the near future. Moreover, one can say that the competitive position of companies like WRI will depend on their ability to respond to technological advancements and social trends. In particular, they need to learn more about the products that customers purchase and how they use them. For example, the management of WRI wants to design a specific application that will be suitable for the needs of iPhone users (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes 2011). Therefore, this organization should adapt to the changes in technologies. Such businesses need to consider the way in which potential clients use Internet and various mobile applications. This knowledge will be critical for the development of effective marketing strategies.

As a rule, these people are keenly aware of new trends in information technologies, mass media, entertainment, and so forth. Such people can eventually find new reservations website if WRI fails to serve them effectively. So, much attention should be paid to the demographic and social peculiarities of buyers. Moreover, businesses working in the online environment should be ready for disruptive innovation or a breakthrough product or a service that can render many products virtually obsolete. These are the main issues that should not be disregarded by business administrators.

Conclusion

Therefore, this case demonstrates that information technologies can provide a powerful stimulus to the development of an industry. In particular, this organization has been able to create the connection between travelers and service organizations. This company serves the needs of price-sensitive clients who can often be described as backpackers. This is the core element of their strategy. This organization has achieved competitiveness with the help of effective information management and content creation.

Furthermore, the strength of this organization is largely based on its ability to minimize its operational expenses. Currently, this organization is able to retain leading positions in the sector of the tourist industry; yet, the situation can change dramatically, if this business overlooks the changes in the lifestyles of their major clients. Finally, the management should adapt to potential changes in technologies. These are main points that can be made.

References

Hecht, J & Martin, D 2006, “Backpacking and hostel-picking: an analysis from Canada”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 69-77. Web.

Johnson, G, Whittington, R, & Scholes, K 2011, Exploring Strategy. Prentice Hall, New York. Web.

Joshua, R & Cairncross, G 2011, “Small accommodation providers and UGC web sites: perceptions and practices”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 26-43. Web.

Kumar, N 2006 Strategies to Fight Low-Cost Rivals. Web.

Mihalcescu, C, Sion, B, & Marginean, A 2011, “Online Promotion of Tourism in Prague”, Romanian Economic and Business Review, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 7-17. Web.

Prahalad, C & Hamel, G 1990, The Core Competence of the Corporation. Web.

Savills World Research 2013, &l=420818_HTML&u=9295084&mid=7001180&jb=0" title="Go to image.email.savills.info website" target="_blank" rel="noopener">European Tourist Hostel Report. Web.

Terrero, R 2009, ‘Social Revolution: Travel execs share thoughts on industry trends and the impact of social networking. ‘, Travel Agent, vol. 335, no. 1, pp. 8-11. Web.

African American Politics And Their Representation In The Media

Introduction

To a large extent, African Americans are regarded as a minority group of individuals who are economically different from the rest in the wider society. Severally, African Americans have been subjected to unequal treatment in employment, representation in public offices, schooling, and involvement in various social activities. Generally, most studies that address the state of African American politics tend to portray a very hopeless picture. To most scholars, it appears that African American politics are of no consequence (Persons 1).

Although the overall feeling is that the perception of African American politicians among the White community has been changing over time, many still consider African Americans as inferior individuals who can not be entrusted with huge responsibilities. It is alleged that African Americans have a unique claim upon the evolution of American politics and the general political arena (Anderson 1). Debatably, America has largely been shaped by African American politics.

To a large extent, the support for African American politicians within the White community is still very limited. Although Barrack Obama managed to become the president of the United States, this has not completely transformed how African Americans are regarded by most Whites. Certainly, President Barrack Obama’s election is a clear indication that race has no place in American politics.

Method and Road Map

This paper provides a discussion on African American politics and generally looks at how African Americans are represented in the media. The conclusion provides a summary of key issues discussed regarding African American politics. The method applied involved the use of secondary sources accessed through Google-books.

Although the racial problem has existed in the United States for a long time, different races have been presented with an environment that has enabled them to evolve. This notwithstanding, the level of oppression witnessed among African Americans is not in any way comparable to that seen among other minority groups in the United States. It has also been alleged that the dominant color of African Americans puts them at a disadvantage and thus subjects them to greater racial pressure unlike other minority groups. By and large, African Americans tend to experience a completely different form of oppression and ethnic evolution experience when compared to other minority groups in the United States.

A number of research professionals have directed their efforts to coming up with strategies meant to help eliminate the racial barrier in order to promote greater support for politicians of African American origin. The idea has always been to neutralize the hatred among Whites and to get them to take a neutral position as far as dealing with African Americans is concerned. Evidently, addressing the challenge of race among Whites has been and continues to be a very important issue that concerns all stakeholders. Ordinarily, Whites favor their own when it comes to leadership in public offices and will rarely vote for African Americans in any competition that involves Whites versus African Americans. Apparently, mistreatment of African Americans creates a strong bond among and gives them a reason to continue the fight against any form of injustice (Persons 8).

Generally, it is alleged that African Americans must take a radical stand if they are to advance in American politics (Davis 135). As noted by Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, some African Americans are strongly opposed to non-violent strategies used by African Americans such as Martin Luther King (155). In the same way, it is not easy to isolate racial politics from African American politics.

To understand the potential power of African American politics, it is imperative to be aware of the principles as well as systems that control American democracy (King 2). This is further complicated by the fact that African American political reasoning has been split into different schools of thought (Anderson 2). Research findings also indicate that American democracy as far as the involvement of African Americans is concerned has greatly been affected by a number of factors. To start with, African Americans have for a long time been subjected to various institutional limitations including their rights not being recognized as clearly stipulated in the Constitution of the United States.

The participation of African Americans has also been hindered by personal fear and intimidation. Apparently, extra-legal fears and intimidation tactics have widely been used to keep African Americans oppressed and afraid of practicing their political as well as legal rights. As a consequence, some scholars contend that African Americans have operated under a pretense of democracy in the United States.

Although it is assumed that every individual in the United States can influence the American political system and be able to govern, this is not the case when it comes to actual practice. As pointed out by King, all citizens of the United States including African Americans are allowed to be involved in the American politics through organized groups that have the ability to command power within the American electoral system (13). Through such interest groups, African Americans have an opportunity to elect whoever they want besides being able to shape policy at different levels in the American society.

Involvement of African Americans in American Politics

Various competing models of involvement have been used to determine who governs in the United States. Based on the pluralist model, every single individual in has an opportunity to utilize his or her political talent to influence political outcomes as well as public policy in the United States. The approach enables individuals and groups to democratically determine political outcomes by lobbying decision makers and influential leaders in the politics of the United States. According to King, the pluralist approach has had an effect on African American politics since the 1960’s (14). A notable benefit of the pluralist approach is the ability to bring together resources owned by different individuals and organized groups so as to change the political system as well as institutions that have for a long time been out of reach for African Americans.

Despite the fact that the pluralist approach is a good way to explain the formation of groups and how different groups or individuals end up becoming leaders in the United States, the system fails to provide tangible political involvement of African Americans. The pluralist approach also fails to take into account the historical barriers that generally hinder the advancement of African American politics. In addition, pluralism as a model of African American politics has a limitation in that it does not clearly separate the strong influence that interest groups tend to have on the future of African American politics. The pluralist approach has also been faulted for its failure to account for the impact of pre-established institutional networks and the part played by power and wealth in the African American politics.

Future leaders in the United States have also been determined through coalitions. In a way, the coalition model is regarded as an extension of the pluralist model (King 19). This notwithstanding, it is advisable to study the model in isolation as it addresses very specific issues. Unlike the pluralist model, coalitions are specifically concerned with the empowerment of minority groups including African Americans through power sharing and political deals. Furthermore, the coalition model is founded on the belief that minority groups with similar ideologies can join hands in their quest to influence the political scene as well as political leaders and decision makers. A number of benefits may be associated with the coalition model. Unlike the pluralist model, the coalition model brings together thoughts and ideas of different individuals and groups to lobby political leaders and influence policy.

The coalition model also has the ability to eliminate any form of competition among people who seem to share similar ideologies. Like the pluralist model, the coalition model has limitations. The dynamics of coalitions, for example, create a leadership challenge that must carefully be addressed. Ordinarily, the fact that people with varying ideologies have to be brought together in support of a common agenda often presents a serious challenge. Groups also tend to work against each other during times of political or even economic hardships. Coalitions also fail to fully address the problem of shifts in coalitions. For example, in the event that a common issue has been dealt with, the greatest concern that follows is what to do with the coalition formed to specifically deal with the issue.

The concept of coalition models is also based on the assumption that the interests of African Americans are similar to those of other minority groups in the United States. Another limitation has to do with the fact that coalitions may be formed either around powerful or powerless individuals or groups and this may have a negative impact. In addition, they rely on the morals and ethics of individual members to succeed. In spite of the limitations, however, coalitions are considered to be the best choice for influencing political leaders and changing the way African Americans are viewed in the American politics. Ostensibly, this is based on the allegation that coalition politics is well aligned with African American politics. Undoubtedly, the coalition model provides a strong solution to dealing with most problems that affect the development of African American politics.

The participation of African Americans in America’s political arena received a great boost during the civil rights movement that happened in 1960s (Morrison 43). To a large extent, the involvement of African Americans took a completely different turn with the ending of slavery. To many, the election of Barrack Obama in 2008 and his re-election in 2012 as president of the United States seemed to present a great opportunity for African Americans to get their voices heard and to deal with the problem of marginalization. While this may be true, a number of studies indicate that the election and subsequent re-election of President Barrack Obama has led to further marginalization of African Americans.

As explained by Persons, however, Obama’s election represented a unique accomplishment for African Americans (215). In general, it was a tremendous achievement for all Blacks. Politically, Obama’s election totally transformed African American politics and got scholars asking many questions regarding the future of black politics in the United States. Although it is clear that the election of Barrack Obama has brought changes to African American politics that would probably continue into the future, it is not easy to determine how long this will continue especially after his term in office.

Conclusion

From the discussion presented in this paper, it is obvious that African American politics has greatly been influenced by the American political arena. Although the development of African American politics has faced numerous challenges, this has changed in the recent past especially due to the election of Barrack Obama as president of the United States. However, while some people regard Obama’s election as a great boost for the growth of African American politics, there are others who see it negatively. Pessimists are convinced that the marginalization of African Americans may increase as a result of the election of President Barrack Obama.

According to some scholars, the survival of African American politics requires a radicalized approach that is not dependent on race and socioeconomic plight of African Americans. This is regardless of the fact that President Barrack Obama took a less radical approach throughout his campaigns. Others are, however, convinced that African American politics can not be devoid from racial politics. Apparently, the non-violent approach taken by activists such as Martin Luther King is considered unhelpful in dealing with the challenges of African Americans. Despite the fact that some growth has been realized regarding African American politics, the perception of African American politicians has not changed much and it is imperative to continue lobbying leaders and decision makers.

Works Cited

Anderson, Kevin. Agitations: Ideologies and Strategies in African American Politics. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2010. Print.

Bardes, Barbara, Mack Shelley and Steffen Schmidt. American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials 2009 – 2010 Edition. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Davis, Theodore. Black Politics Today: The Era of Socioeconomic Transition. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. Print.

King, Kendra. African American Politics. Malden, MA: Polity, 2010. Print.

Morrison, Minion. African Americans and Political Participation: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.

Persons, Georgia. Contours of African American Politics, Volume III: Into the Future: The Demise of the African-American Ethnic Moment? Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2013. Print.

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