Jim Crow Laws: Definition And Facts Writing Sample

Jim Crow laws were a set of state and native statutes that legalized segregation that occurs during the late 19th century early 20th century .The Jim Crow laws are almost like the Black Code because the black code were strict local and state laws that detailed when, where and the way formerly enslaved people could work, and for how much they were paid.The codes were widely recognized throughout the South as a legal acknowledgment to put African-Americans through involuntary labor , to strip their voting rights away, to regulate where they lived and how they were going around looking for children to do hard labor. In this paper I will be highlighting the importance of Segregation, Influential people, and court cases that pertain to Jim Crow Laws.

Jim Crow legal guidelines soon started out to spread at some stage in america with even more violence than earlier. Public parks had been not allowed for African Americans to enter, and theaters and restaurants have been segregated Segregated ready rooms in bus and train stations had been mandatory, additionally as water fountains, restrooms, building entrances, elevators, cemeteries, even amusement-park cashier windows. Laws did now not permit African Americans to live in white neighborhoods.Segregation was utilized mainly in public places such as public modes of transportation, public swimming pools, restaurants and diners, and etc.

I chose this topic because I believe that racial segregation is a big topic to discuss because African-Americans as a whole have endured so much unfairness with Jim Crow Laws in place. African- Americans were restricted from many things like sitting at the front of the bus, sitting at the high counter in diners, and etc.I can’t imagine how the world would look if there was still segregation. Writing a paper about racial segregation would give me the opportunity to gain information about the topic that I never knew before and to get a better understanding of how African-Americans had to undergo challenges during those times.

Under the Jim Crow system, “whites only” and “colored” signs and symptoms proliferated across the South at water fountains, restrooms, bus ready areas, film theaters, swimming pools, and public schools.1African Americans who dared to task segregation faced arrest or violent reprisal.Signs had been used to signify where African Americans should legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat.There was segregation anywhere along with public modes of transportation like buses.The first four rows of seats on each Montgomery bus had been reserved for whites.Most buses have a colored section for African-Americans towards the rear of the bus, even though a majority of bus riders are black.In eating places African-Americans could not be served due to the shade in their skin.The Greensboro sit-in was a group of young African-American scholars who performed a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter in North Carolina, and did not want to leave after not being able to receive service. The sit-in motion soon spread to college towns throughout the South. During the sit in, many of the young African-Americans were hauled away in police cars for trespassing, disorderly conduct, among other things.

When federal troops were faraway from the U.S. South at the top of Reconstruction within the late 1870s and therefore the state legislatures of the previous Confederacy were not controlled by carpetbaggers and African American freedmen, those legislatures began passing Jim Crow laws that reestablished racism and codified the segregation of whites and blacks.Jim Crow laws were created to separate black and White race from even the slightest bit if contact. The Jim Crow Laws have had an impact on both races during this time.African-Americans were mainly affected in unpleasant ways and a couple of Caucasians too.Most Caucasians were keen on the way life was under Jim Crow Laws, but some of the white race thought it had been not right because they felt African-Americans were adequate to them. African-Americans disliked the way of life they were living in the South and tried to escape to the North but usually once they tried they suffered severe consequences. Even some Caucasians were murdered by their own people trying to assist the African-Americans gain equality and respect. Within the South, Jim Crow Laws were strongly enforced and therefore the laws made it difficult for African- Americans to measure.African-Americans wanted better lives and felt that they ought to visit the North to urge them it’s dangerous for any African-American to be going anywhere past sunset. The rationale for this is often because most Caucasian settlers didn’t feel the African-Americans deserved a far better life, so if they got the prospect they could lynch any African-American if they do something they did not like or for even the slightest look in their direction. Also African-Americans might be stopped at any time and made to answer questions on why they were at a selected place at a selected time.There have even been certain towns that warned African-Americans to not let the sun go down on them, basically threatening them that something could happen to them after it got dark. Some of the African-Americans decided that enduring the dangerous endeavor for freedom and safety was worth the trip.

There are many influential people that have impacted the African-American community during the 19th and 20th centuries around the time that Jim Crow laws and segregation occurred.Rosa Parks is an influential woman role model to many for her civil rights movements that she has endured such as the bus boycott.One evening Rosa Parks decided to stand up for her rights and refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on the segregated bus which later led to the Montgomery bus boycott. She was then removed from the bus and arrested for breaking the law.The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a civil rights protest throughout that African Americans refused to ride town buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. One evening Rosa Parks decided to stand up for her rights and refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on the segregated bus which later led to the Montgomery bus boycott. She was then removed from the bus and arrested for breaking the law2.The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a civil rights protest throughout that African Americans refused to ride town buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating.The boycott came about from the 5th day in December of 1955, to the 20th day of December in 1956, and is thought to be the primary large-scale U.S. demonstration against segregation.Four days before the boycott began, Rosa Parks, an African-American lady, was in remission and penalized for refusing to yield her bus seat to an adult male.The Supreme court decided to integrate the Montgomery bus systems, and someone who was a part of the individuals who led the boycott, a young pastor named Martin King, Jr., emerged as an outstanding leader of the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King Jr entered the civil rights movement soon after. A young, recently married pastor of a Montgomery, Alabama church, he was asked to steer a bus boycott aimed toward ending segregation of transport in Montgomery. Martin Luther King Jr gave a speech that was touching to the congregation of African Americans.3The boycott, initiated by Rosa Parks’ refusal to surrender her bus seat to a white traveller, lasted over a year and resulted within the integrating of the city’s busses.Ultimately, Lyndon B. Johnson was an important influential individual that made a grand decision that is very beneficial toward the African-American communities. On June 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which was the foremost sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.The Act prohibited discrimination on the idea of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, publicly places, provided for the mixing of faculties and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. Congress expanded the act in subsequent years, passing additional legislation so as to maneuver toward more equality for African-Americans, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965. President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with a minimum of 75 pens, which he gave to members of Congress who supported the bill also as civil rights leaders, like Dr. Luther King Jr.

Lastly, there are numerous court cases that are fighting for equality for the African-American race.Some of the many important court cases are Brown v Board of Education,The Scottsboro boys, Dred Scott v Sandford, and etc. In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court concluded that slaves weren’t citizens that were living in an exceedingly free state or territory, even for several years, failed to free slaves and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark 1954 Supreme Court case during which the justices voted in one accord that segregation of kids in open faculties was unconstitutional. Brown v.The Board of Education was one of many monumental foundations of the civil rights movement, and helped establish the precedent that “separate-but-equal” education and alternative services weren’t, in fact, equal in the least. In his proceedings, Brown claimed that school for black kids weren’t adequate to the white schools, which segregation desecrated the questionable “equal protection clause”of the fourteenth rule in the constitution, that holds that no state will “deny to anyone among its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”The case went before the U.S. District Court in Kansas, that in agreement that public faculty segregation had a “detrimental result upon the coloured children” and contributed to “a sense of inferiority,” however still upheld the “separate but equal” belief. In a unanimous vote, the Supreme Court voted in favor of Brown.The Court found the application of segregation unconstitutional and refused to use its call in Plessy v. Ferguson to “the field of public education.” Justice Warren expert wrote the opinion for the Court.Another important court case was the case of “The Scottsboro boys” who were falsely accused.The Scottsboro Boys were 9 black teenagers incorrectly suspect of raping 2 white ladies aboard a train close to Scottsboro, Alabama, in 1931.The trials and recurrent retrials of the Scottsboro Boys sparked a world uproar and made 2 landmark U.S. Supreme Court verdicts,when the defendants were forced to pay years battling the courts and enduring the cruel conditions of the Alabama jail system.

In Conclusion, for the higher part of a century,African Americans lived underneath the burden of what are currently called Jim Crow laws.They were treated unfairly with segregation around,African-Americans had little freedom and feared getting tortured or harassed.African Americans ought to of had identical rights as whites and that they failed, therefore I think that Jim Crow Laws were unconstitutional and against the fourteenth change, as a result the fourteenth amendment changed and it states that someone who was born or lived in the United States couldn’t have a laws written and passed to require away his or her rights.Jim Crows Laws took away principally all of the Africans Americans rights.Whites treated African Americans extremely mean and cruel.The Jim Crow Laws do still have an impression today. Even though the laws no longer exist anymore ,their exhilarating spirit still sadly plays a major role in America’s political life.The example of voter suppression, across the United States, variety of Republican state legislatures have attempted to form it harder for African Americans to vote while the illusion of fighting off fraud voters.Actual instances of voter fraud are incredibly rare and yet Republican politicians still insist that it’s a real problem. To this end, laws are passed during a number of states requiring voters to present certain sorts of ID at polling places. In many cases,African American citizens aren’t able to provide the necessary form of id in order for them to vote.

Bibliography

  1. Bredhoff, Stacey, et al. “Rosa Parks Police Records.” Rosa Parks Police Records, U.S National Archives, 21 Dec. 2016, www.archives.gov/files/education/lessons/rosa-parks/images/police-report-l.jpg.
  2. Davey, Sophie. Segregated Water Fountains. sophiedaveyphoto.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/segregated.jpg.
  3. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Montgomery Bus Boycott.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 16 Mar. 2020, www.britannica.com/event/Montgomery-bus-boycott.
  4. “Segregation.” AAPF, African American Policy Forum, aapf.org/segregation.
  5. “Ten Important Supreme Court Decisions in Black History.” Ten Important Supreme Court Decisions in Black History | City of Norman, Oklahoma, City of Norman , www.normanok.gov/content/ten-important-supreme-court-decisions-black-history.
  6. “‘I Have a Dream ‘ Martin Luther King Jr Full Speech.” I Have a Dream Speech Full Video, EDM Is Life, 5 Jan. 2017, youtu.be/yXyr95yfL3M.

Endnotes

  1. https://sophiedaveyphoto.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/segregated.jpg
  2. https://www.archives.gov/files/education/lessons/rosa-parks/images/police-report-l.jpg
  3. https://youtu.be/yXyr95yfL3M

Jim Crow Laws And Black Codes Essay

April 9th, 1865 marked the end of the Civil War. The Reconstruction era began in 1865 after the Civil War as an effort to readmit the confederate states into the Union. In December 6th, 1865, the states ratified the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery and compulsory labor unless it is used as a punishment for a crime. Reconstruction began in 1865 after the Civil War as an effort to readmit the confederate states into the Union. The end of the Civil War and slavery brought big changes in America, but with change comes resistance, opposition, and preservation of old customs and beliefs. For the South, the Civil War destroyed their economy, which was solely based upon the exploitation of cheap labor in agriculture. The south’s prejudice towards blacks and their worries about their economy led to the preservation of their economy by ensuring cheap and free labor. The South created the Black Codes to keep a sense of normalcy, to help the economy, and to keep black people in their place. The Black Codes were laws specifically meant for black people. The American government’s failure to protect the rights of African Americans because of the state government’s creation of Black Codes and the loophole in the 13th Amendment that the federal government passed, led to convict leasing, the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, the creation of Jim Crow Laws, and convict leasing which caused high tensions between Americans.

The loophole in the 13th Amendment became the backbone of convict leasing, a practice which ensured slavery in the form of prison labor, a substitute for cheap labor in the South. The Black Codes were the stepping stones to the use of convict leasing. The Black Codes were very specific laws that regulated black people’s live strictly. In South Carolina’s Black Codes, vagrancy laws helped arrest black people for simple reasons like unemployment. Pig Laws were also used to raise the penalties of misdemeanors so that it equaled a penalty for a felony which gave prisoners longer sentences. A longer sentence meant more cheap labor for white people. With black people being arrested and jailed, they were loaned to private business under labor contracts to pay off their debts from their offenses and to work off their punishments. Black Codes also had laws that helped create the standard for labor contracts and what was considered acceptable in a labor contract. Unfortunately, the standard for a labor contract was very low, as servants were treated worse than slaves and had horrible working conditions. In South Carolina, white people could “moderately” whip black people as a form of discipline because it was acceptable in a labor contract. The process of arresting a black man and then loaning him to a private business for cheap became known as convict leasing. Convict leasing had horrible effects as it gave Americans a disproportionate view of the populations in the prison system. It gave the impression that most convicts were black, which reinforced the beliefs that black people were unworthy criminals that turned to savagery due to the loss of slavery. It gave rise to stereotypes, such as black men are criminals, which is still seen today. This was not true as black people were arrested for silly crimes which were reported as felonies, so that they could be used as a cheap labor force under the 13th amendment which allowed slavery only as a punishment.

With the emergence of the Black Codes, it set the precedent for new types of racial laws called the Jim Crow Laws. The existence of the Black Codes paved the way for Jim Crow laws because it showed citizens and lawmakers that it was possible to have racist laws in a post civil war society. An early version of a Jim Crow law appeared in Louisiana under the name the Separate Car Act, which required separate cars for white and black people. In an act of civil disobedience, Homer Plessy, challenges the law by sitting in the white car section only of the train. Plessy would be arrested and his case would eventually go to the Supreme Court. Plessy would then use the argument that the Separate Car Act violated the 14th Amendment. After hearing the case, the Supreme Court decided that the act was not in violation of the 14th Amendment because there was no “difference in equality of the railway cars” (oyez.com). The ruling led to the doctrine separate but equal. The ruling legalized racist laws as long as they followed the doctrine of separate but equal. The case changed everything in America as Jim Crow laws became widespread nationwide. The Jim Crow laws would stay in effect until it was dealt with almost seventy years later in the 1960’s during the Civil Rights movement.

The Black Codes set the precedent for the use of laws in support of white supremacy. The words used in the Black Codes exemplified the racist attitudes at the time. In South Carolina parts of the codes use the words “master” and “servant” when describing the laws about labor contracts and regulations. Lawmakers could have chosen different words and yet they specifically used master and servant to emulate the feelings during slavery. The Black Codes gave white’s a sense of superiority because the laws specifically targeted blacks, especially freed slaves, into similar conditions of slavery. They were forced to work in plantations or big business for cheap labor with horrible conditions and were subject to racial hierarchy wherever they went. The Plessy v. Ferguson ruling made the creation of Jim Crow laws possible and legal through the doctrine of “separate but equal”. The Jim Crow Laws were laws that segregated white and black people in school, restaurants, public facilities, etc. It was discriminatory as it favored whites over blacks by giving black people inferior treatment and facilities. It is also degrading to see a sign in public that said “for colored people only”. The laws forced them to sit in the back of the bus. If more white people came and there were no seats, they were to give up their seats. Refusal to obey the laws led to an arrest and time in jail. The laws caused much tension between the two races as their segregation didn’t allow for interaction, so people’s perceptions of others were just based on stereotypes and false information. The tensions would be at their peak during the Civil Rights movement when some peaceful protests were met with violent opposition. The segregation would also lead to the Civil Rights Movement because of the African-American’s pent up frustration with waiting for equal rights for all.

The ruling in Plessy v Ferguson, the creation of Jim Crow laws, and convict leasing, are examples of the effects of the Black Codes and the loophole in the 13th Amendment which caused high tensions between Americans. The Black Codes and the loophole in the 13th Amendment help enslave black people into a system called convict leasing which gave rise to modern-day stereotypes. The Black Codes helped paved the way for the creation of new racist laws called the Jim Crow laws which would be in effect for about 70 years. The Black Codes also helped the ruling the Plessy v. Ferguson case, as it gave lawmakers the ability create an early version of a Jim Crow.

Modern VS. Old Media Stereotypes In The 1920s – 2000s

Martin Luther King Jr. fought against inequality and single-handedly led the Civil Rights movement. One thing he fought against was the Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow laws were a series of laws passed that separated the whites from the blacks. These laws were one of many reasons for the cCivil rRights movement that. This movement was all about fighting for equality. Fighting against stereotypes in that time such as, Hispanics only do manual labor, and new ones today such as millennials can not live without devices, these stereotypes make our history. The Jim Crow laws and pictures in media, is one of many segregation issues minorities have fought to stop for many years. People like Martin Luther King Jr. worked very hard to stop the stereotypes of the 1900s. These rights impacted minorities history but, even minorities struggle with stereotypes today.

The Jim Crow laws affected black people all over the country. “In U.S. history, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s.”(Urofsky, 2018). OneSome examples of these laws was are how black people were required to could only ride in the back of the bus. African Americans They would have to sit in separate waiting rooms and buy tickets at separate windows. Children could not go to the same school, Whites and Blacksblacks would learn separately. Last, iIf you wanted to enroll in a militia, whites and blacks would be enrolled separately, would not serve together, and would be lead by white militiaman.

These laws impacted blacks in many ways. They would often live less prosperous lives and could only hang out with their kind. Blacks had no rights at all. They were forced to follow these laws. These laws lead to the civil rights movement. A big part of the civil rights movement was lead by Martin Luther King Jr. the laws affected his early childhood a lot. He lost one of his best friends in his neighborhood do to segregation. This is one of many reasons why he became passionate about the civil rights movement.

Martin Luther King Jr. was born January 15, 1929 in Atlanta Georgia. He grew up on Auburn Avenue and was exposed to segregation at a young age. One of his best friends was not allowed to play with him because of their race. Martin Luther King Jr. lead the civil Rights Movement in the 1940s. He walked marches and gave many speeches about racial equality. He fought for equality until the day he died in 1968. Thanks to Martin Luther King Jr. he broke many old stereotypes.

There are many old stereotypes. Including anti- Italianism and anti- Irish. Anti- Italianism is hostility toward Italian people and Italian culture. It uses stereotypes about Italian people, a popular one being that most Italians are naturally violent, or somehow associated with the Mafia. (Anti- Italianism) Another stereotype is anti- Irish. Anti- Irish is In the past the Irish have been unfairly stereotyped as “thick Paddies”, “alcoholics”, “terrorists”, etc, and whilst some Irish people may have looked upon this as a bit of banter, others object, viewing it as a form of racism. (twopunchman2016) these stereotypes hurt entire races like how blacks were hurt in the 1920s.

Another stereotype would be how Hispanics were considered unintelligent and only work manual labor. Blacks were also considered coons or picannyies. These are both derogatory terms that are offensive to black people.

There are many modern stereotypes as well. A lot of them have to do with how you look or feel like you have to be skinny to look pretty. Others are about how people can’t live without devices. Examples of this are how millennials can’t live without their phones and how they can not socialize because of it. These modern stereotypes are just like the ones in the 1920s. The stereotypes separate people.

Every generation will have its own stereotypes. It’s important to fight against them like martin Luther King did. People like Martin Luther King Jr. worked very hard to stop the stereotypes of the 1900s. These rights impacted minorities history but, even minorities struggle with stereotypes today.

Work Cited

  1. Editors, History.com. “Civil Rights Movement.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 27 Oct. 2009, www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement.
  2. Urofsky, Melvin I. “Jim Crow Law.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 Aug. 2018, www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law.
  3. Carson, Clayborne, and David L. Lewis. “Martin Luther King, Jr.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 16 Jan. 2019, www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr
  4. “Jim Crow Laws.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, www.nps.gov/malu/learn/education/jim_crow_laws.htm.
  5. Editors, History.com. “Segregation in the United States.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 28 Nov. 2018,www.history.com/topics/black-history/segregation-united-states.
  6. Carson, Clayborne. “American Civil Rights Movement.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 Dec. 2018, www.britannica.com/event/American-civil-rights-movement.
  7. SparkNotes, SparkNotes, www.sparknotes.com/biography/mlk/summary/. “Hibernophobia.” Urban Dictionary, www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Hibernophobia

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