John Milton’s Poems “L’Allegro” And “IL Penseroso” Essay Example For College

John Milton’s corresponding poems “L’Allegro” and “Il Penseroso” explore the value and the pleasures that people take in two competing but complementary lifestyles and the attractions of two competing sources of artistic inspiration. “L’Allegro” is a celebration of the beauty of rural nature and urban vitality and glorifies mirth and “Il Penseroso” is somewhat melancholic, describing the value of solitude, epic poetry, tragic drama, and contemplative life overall. While it can be argued that the two poems celebrate entirely different realms of human life, they can be analyzed together because they complement one another. The combination of the two poems as the juxtaposition between light and darkness as crucial components of life can prepare future poets.

The name of the poem “L’Allegro” is translated as a cheerful person, which immediately gives a clue about the piece’s content, tone, and mood. The lyric poem centers around the theme of enjoying one’s life and the delights that mother nature has to offer. It is set in the mind of the speaker as he is in anticipation of the pleasures he will enjoy when a warm and exciting spring day comes. The excitement with the coming of spring is illustrated in such lines as: “The frolic wind that breathes the spring, Zephyr, with Aurora playing, As he met her once a-Mating, There on beds of violets blue, And fresh-blown roses wash’d in dew” (Milton “L’Allegro”). In his desire to live through the days filled with joy and happiness, the poem’s protagonist pushes Melancholy away from his life, telling it to find a place among the Cimmerians, those who live in darkness and solitude. To replace Melancholy, the speaker invites Euphrosyne, the goddess of joy, who could bring him “heart-easing Mirth” (Milton “L’Allegro”). Spring comes and banishes darkness, bringing smiles and cheerfulness to people in idyllic small towns.

The snippets describing the joyful life in springtime are significant for transferring the mood and the tone of the poem. For example, the speaker notices a group of shepherds counting their sheep, imagining that “every shepherd tells his tale under the hawthorn in the dale” (Milton “L’Allegro”). The choice of language is illustrated in the description of meadows full of flowers, mountains covered with clouds, and people telling stories to one another over ale: “Meadows trim with Daisies pide, Shallow Brooks, and Rivers wide” (Milton “L’Allegro”). Overall, the descriptions of idyllic life in the countryside and the cities show that spring is the time to move away from sadness and Melancholy and start enjoying one’s life to the fullest extent.

Light and darkness go hand-in-hand, and “Il Penseroso,” being the companion poem to “L’Allegro,” explores the theme that is polarly opposite. The imagery of the poem is reflected in the wording that expresses a solemn tone: “And therefore to our weaker view, Ore laid with black staid Wisdom hue” (Milton “Il Penseroso”). Also, the speaker invokes the goddess Melancholy: “Hail most divine Melancholy,” and describes the value that one can get from solitude, music, and other things that are not joyful but rather sad and dramatic (Milton “Il Penseroso”). In the poem, the speaker starts by calling the “vain deluding joys” to leave him, with Melancholy coming forth and bringing Peace, Quiet, Leisure, Fast, and Contemplation. A nightingale song that can interrupt the silence would be welcome after the celebration and joy. Therefore, the central theme of the poem is to embrace melancholy as a “sober, steadfast, and demure, all in a robe of darkest grain, Flowing with majestic train” (Milton “Il Penseroso”). In the poem, the speaker hails melancholy and invites it to become a significant part of his life as it replaces joy.

Both poems are filled with classical allusions in their language, mainly to the concepts of Greek and Roman mythology. However, in “Il Penseroso,” there is a distinct progression into the predominantly Christian realm by the end of the poem. It is considered symbolic of the author’s struggle with his education in the Greco-Roman pieces and his own Christian identity, and the predominantly Christian lifestyle to which he was used. To a great extent, the struggle is not exclusive to Milton but was rather inherent to many people living in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries who wanted to live in the new Roman Empire. Thus, the allusions signify the author’s keen interest in the works of antiquity and the scholarly strife rectifying the ‘heathen’ with the devout.

A hint of such a dilemma may be found in the language disparity of language in the last lines of the two poems. For example, “L’Allegro” ends with “These delights, if though canst give, Mirth with thee, I mean to live” (Milton “L’Allegro”). “Il Penseroso,” on the other hand, ends with “These pleasures Melancholy give, And I with thee will choose to live” (Milton “Il Penseroso”). The main difference here is the separation between the ‘mean to live’ and the ‘choose to live,’ which shows the deep contrast between the two poems. The difference in language use is also illustrated in the names of the poems: while “L’Allegro” is translated as a happy man, “Il Penseroso” is translated as a melancholy man.

To conclude, Milton’s “Il Penseroso” and “L’Allegro” cannot be read independently from one another because the true revelation comes from the power that is brought when the pair is considered. The meaning of the two contrasting moods allows for reaching a state of balanced harmony: where there is joy, there will ultimately be sadness. As with human nature, which only becomes whole when two sides are considered, the two poems represent the completed picture of the world, which cannot always be joyful and bright, nor can it be always dramatic and sad.

Works Cited

Milton, John. “Il Penseroso.” Poetry Foundation.

“L’Allegro.” Poetry Foundation.

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Amazon: Process Management And Locations Planning

Process management

Amazon is an internet-based retailer and web service provider with millions of customers. Its headquarters are located in Seattle, Washington. It has revolutionized online purchasing by making delivery quick, inexpensive, and painless for customers. This essay will focus on the process and location strategies it has put in place to increase its sales. Process management strategy is the organization’s plan for converting its available resources into tangible goods and services. Like any other organization, Amazon’s goal is to create a process that can supply products that meet their customer’s needs while staying within their budget and other managerial requirements. An organization’s choice of process strategy has long-term effects and results in its operations, from costs to the quality of goods and services they provide (Gunasekaran et al., 2018). Customers may order things from the convenience of their own homes, and the goods are delivered to their houses, thanks to Amazon’s automation.

Customers can check out the goods available on the website, select the type they want, and pay for it. Processes used by Amazon are primarily automated to ensure efficiency and faster manufacturing due to the high volume and variety of orders they get (Wieland, 2021). Repetitive focus comprises employing previously prepared components or modules to allow additional customization. Because Amazon has a production procedure, customers may order something with unique features and personalize it more easily. The organization also receives the majority of its retail merchandise from other shops. This provides them plenty of time to procure high-quality merchandise from vendors. Mass customization is another process management strategy the company has put in place. Amazon has improved its capacity to fulfill distinct client wants over time. This was accomplished using a new tool on that allows users to customize t-shirts with photographs or text.

Location Planning

This is how a corporation determines where it will be based. The primary goal of a location strategy for an organization is to increase its sales and revenue. Location is a significant boost to an organization’s cost and revenue and is one of the reasons for a company’s growth and development. Amazon has its headquarters in Seattle, located in America’s capital city; this is a strategic location since Washington, DC is centrally placed. Amazon can efficiently distribute its products to the rest of America. The choice of location for an organization’s warehouse location is influenced by the availability of the market and the mode of transport available (Nunes et al., 2020). Amazon has and operates several warehouses in countries like Canada and Europe to serve their customers quickly for the above reasons. This strategy by Amazon seems to be working well for them since they have recorded a consistent increase in sales and revenue over the last couple of years.

When warehouses are located close to clients, delivery times will be faster, and costs will be lower, allowing more customers to continue to utilize the services. Amazon has employed this method to boost the number of customers that use its services. The target market depends on the place chosen (Heizer et al., 2017). For example, in most large towns and cities worldwide, the residents have to put up with busy schedules, and for that reason, they have little or no time to go and do their shopping in person. The accessibility of suppliers is another reason location is essential to a company like Amazon. Because Amazon obtains the majority of its products from shops, its warehouses must be located close to the supplier’s location to lower the expense of long-distance transportation.


Gunasekaran, A., Dubey, R., Fosso Wamba, S., Papadopoulos, T., Hazen, B. T., & Ngai, E. W. (2018). Bridging humanitarian operations management and organisational theory. International Journal of Production Research, 56(21), 6735-6740. Web.

Heizer, J., Render, B., Munson, C., & Sachan, A. (2017). Operations management: sustainability and supply chain management, 12/e. Pearson Education. Web.

Nunes, L. J. R., Causer, T. P., & Ciolkosz, D. (2020). Biomass for energy: A review on supply chain management models. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 120, 109658. Web.

Wieland, A. (2021). Dancing the supply chain: Toward transformative supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 57(1), 58-73. Web.

Greek Polis: Researching Of Advantages

At around 1,000 B.C., Greece accumulated significant knowledge from nearby empires and invented a new type of settlement. Polis referred to an independent city-state governed by a set of laws instead of the king’s decisions (Hunt et al. 42). In my opinion, compared to the previous forms of reign, a polis was a more effective and unprejudiced means of governing. Athens and Sparta were some of the most developed Greek city-states; however, their values and social hierarchy differed (Hunt et al. 58). Athens was a progressive and democratic polis emphasizing trade. On the other hand, Sparta focused on military expansion and chose the political direction of oligarchy (Hunt et al. 64). The rivalry between the two poleis was transparently demonstrated during the Greek Golden Age in the Peloponnesian War. As a result of the conflict, Sparta was able to conquer most of the nearby territories and submit Athens to its rule, despite a significant number of disadvantages.

Work Cited

Hunt, Lynn, et al. The Making of the West, Volume 1: Peoples and Cultures (6th Edition). Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2019.