Jose Rizal As Asian Hero Essay Example

A friend from schooldays recently asked for my opinion on an article titled “If Rizal were alive, he’d visit his old Jesuit mentors here” published in another newspaper. The article explicitly discussed the controversy surrounding Rizal’s alleged retraction and the role of a former Jesuit teacher in persuading him to retract. According to reports, this teacher brought along a statue of the Sacred Heart, believed to be carved by Jose Rizal during his time at Ateneo.

The Jesuit reminisced about his education at the Ateneo and its significance to him as he approaches the end of his life. I informed my friend that he had chosen the wrong person to approach, as even if it were proven that a retraction occurred, I would still be curious about the motives behind the Jesuits’ efforts to prompt it. I would have titled it differently, posing a question: “If Rizal were alive today, would he have visited his former Jesuit mentors here?” This approach might be more contentious but would emphasize the influences that molded our country’s formation. Regrettably, there was no national discourse on this matter, depriving Filipinos of valuable insights they could have gained. These insights encompass scrutinizing both positive and negative roles played by Jesuits in our nation’s progress. To this day, it is widely believed that he indeed retracted, with any objections to this belief being dismissed over time.

Despite the controversy surrounding Rizal’s alleged retraction, his heroism has been tarnished. If there had been no debate about Rizal’s actions before his execution, it would have greatly influenced the intellectual progress of Filipinos. The legacy of a hero who remained firm in his beliefs until death would have been immensely powerful. Both the people of that era and future generations would have known that Jose Rizal was unwavering in his defense of his countrymen until the end.

The symbol cannot be fabricated or eliminated and would have enhanced the determination of the Filipino people in other important principles. I do not intend to disrespect Rizal’s Jesuit instructors who undoubtedly provided him with a solid Christian education. In fact, it could be the quality of that education that motivated him to seek more than what an Ateneo school could provide. He discovered intellectual freedom in Europe where enlightenment and reformation (now known as thinking outside the box) had spread throughout what was previously a solely Christian Europe.

The exploration of questioning despotic religion and the pursuit of liberal ideas, along with defiance against Spanish friar colonization, infused him with a reformist spirit that ultimately led to his execution. This intellectual inquiry prompted him to delve into the essence of the Philippines prior to Spanish conquest. Were we merely a colonized people devoid of our own culture and identity? This investigation took him to the British Museum, where he penned notes on Antonio de Morga’s “Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas” from 1609 to underscore his country’s pre-Christian Spanish colonization identity.

However, when examining the execution and retraction controversy surrounding him, it becomes clear that he did not retract. On December 30, 1896, the day of his execution, it is logical to conclude that he did not retract based on the sequence of events. His Spanish jailers supposedly offered him two concessions in exchange for his retraction. Firstly, he would be granted a Catholic burial, and secondly, he would be permitted to marry Josephine Bracken in Catholic rites prior to his execution. However, there is no evidence to suggest that both concessions were granted, further supporting the argument that he did not retract.

However, if those who advocate for retraction insist, we can deduce that the Spanish colonizers were deceitful: they presented terms only to betray their end of the agreement after it was fulfilled. Following his execution in Bagumbayan, his body was clandestinely laid to rest in an unmarked grave at Paco Cemetery in Manila. His sister, Narcisa, had to extensively search in order to locate the burial place of her beloved brother. Furthermore, it was to her that he entrusted the lamp concealing his “Mi Ultimo Adios.”

Despite the assistance of informants, she eventually discovered it within a guarded cemetery plot that had recently been dug up. The evidence convinced her that her brother was buried there, leading her to pay a caretaker to label it with his name reversed as “RPJ.” It is important to note that these events do not provide any evidence of a deal being made between our national hero and those holding him captive. Many articles advocating for Jose Rizal’s retraction were written long after his execution and raise suspicions about their motives.

The purpose of the text was to frighten Filipinos from rebelling against colonial authority. Regardless of whether Rizal retracted or not, his fate was used as an example for future reformists. Thus, his resistance to the attempt to degrade his heroism is considered his greatest gift to the country. Filipinos have the capability to revive that greatness, even if our GDP may not match that of other countries in the region. Our history is comparable to any in terms of sacrificing for our country.

Indeed, insufficient attention is given to the significance of Rizal’s peaceful advocacy for institutional reforms in Asia. This role is acknowledged by other Asian nations. Rizal pioneered the concept of peaceful resistance while acknowledging the possibility of violence from colonial authorities if they ignore the pleas of a suffering population. Jose Rizal stands alongside Asia’s esteemed figures such as Gandhi, Tagore, and Sun Yat Sen, who all played a pivotal role in the decolonization movement across the region.

Together, in their own countries, they both fought for freedom and democracy during the Western conquest. It is important to teach our children that a Filipino holds the honor of being the initial Asian hero. We must keep this in mind as we observe and rejoice in Rizal’s execution at Bagumbayan, presently known as Rizal Park, on Wednesday, December 30, 2009. Visit the site to recall the cause he gave his life for. Visit and refute the misconception that it was the West that enlightened us about freedom and democracy due to our alleged lack of comprehension.

Seeking Self-Esteem Through Plastic Surgery

According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, there were over 10. 2 million Cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed in the United States in 2008. This is an increase of 162 percent since 1997 (Nowak, R. (2006, October 19). The most common procedures done were breast augmentation, liposuction, eyelid surgery, rhinoplasty, and abdominalplasty. Cosmetic surgery has gone mainstream. There are several reasons why someone might consider plastic surgery. The most common reason reported was to improve their physical appearance, and in return boost their self-esteem. However, like all hings, there are pros and cons of this drastic, permanent decision. Plastic surgery can have many positive outcomes. The most common one is the improvement of one’s self-esteem after a positive surgery outcome. Most people who choose to get plastic surgery, do it simply because they are unhappy with the appearance of a certain part of their body. Some examples of these surgeries include breast augmentation, liposuction, body lifts, body implants, botox, hair transplants, and hair removals. Breast augmentation is the most popular plastic surgery, yet it has no real health benefits, only potential health risks.

So why would one choose to get breast augmentation? Women who have gone through this surgery report that they feel more sexually confident and empowered. In the United States, society and media portray beautiful women as tall, thin, and large busted. This may be why women associate having larger breasts with greater self-confidence and acceptance. Both men and women in the United States feel pressured to be thin and fit, in order to be considered attractive. For that reason, many people seek out quick fixes such as liposuction, body implants, and abdominalplasty.

Plastic surgery can also provide some health benefits. There are various procedures done to help alleviate pain and discomfort, or to simply make someone more comfortable. Some examples of these surgeries are scar revision, hand surgery, cleft lip and palate repair, ear surgery, breast reduction, and breast reconstruction. Scar revision may be necessary for excessive scar formation, which could cause physical restrictions in that area. Hand surgery is chosen when someone is missing fingers, has abnormally shaped hands, or perhaps webbed fingers.

These things would affect a person’s daily life. The doctors could possibly fix these deformities so that this person could potentially live a much more normal life. Cleft lip and palate repair is done when a child has been born with this birth defect. Without the surgery, the child would suffer from difficulty nursing or being bottle fed, malnutrition, speech problems, irregular dental development, and hearing loss. Ear surgery is performed on children when their outer ear is severely deformed and leads to several different levels of hearing loss.

Breast reduction is typically performed on women with overly sized breasts that affect their daily lives. This reduction relieves back and neck problems and skin irritation. Breast reconstruction is chosen when a women has lost a breast or breasts due to cancer or the deformity of a breast. With these procedures being performed, based on health reasons only, they still provide an emotional balance in patient’s lives by making them more comfortable and functional. These surgeries make them feel more “normal” and able to live a less self-conscience life style, and fit in with societies expectations.

In return, this helps boost their self-esteem. For example, a person who previously had webbed fingers can now do things “normal” people take for granted, such as shake hands, pay their waitress without the embarrassing stares and even play sports if they so choose. The woman who previously lost her breast to cancer can now feel “woman-like” again and regain her sexuality and self-esteem, by not having to buy specialty bras and being able to make love to her significant other without the shame of being half the woman she was before.

Most people only think about the positive effects of plastic surgery, however most don’t think of the negative effects it could cause as well. People go into plastic surgery with high expectations, but then there are others who have unreasonable expectations. Also, some do not realize the permanency of the procedures. Some of the negative results of these procedures being done could appear in many ways such as scarring (physical and emotional), infections, and long term pain. Also, a person may be expecting a certain result from the surgery and be disappointed with the actual results.

This may leave them feeling worse than they did to begin with. Before a person can get the surgery, the doctors will do a consultation with the potential patient to decide if further counseling is necessary. The doctor may decide to not do the surgery if the individual shows any high risk signs that he or she is not ready for the operation. For example, an individual going through a crisis maybe seeking to achieve goals that cannot be reached through changing their appearance. The patient would be advised to work through their crisis and then consider surgery at a later date.

Also, if the doctor feels like the patient might be impossible to please, they may decide not to do the surgery at all. These patients want to fix a problem that cannot be fixed with surgery. A good example of a person who shouldn’t be considered for plastic surgery is someone suffering from Body Dysmorphic Disorder. These individuals believe they are ugly even if they are beautiful, also known as “imagined ugliness. ” These are the type of patients that focus on something they imagine to be wrong with their appearance and obsess on it. A study done by the Psychological Medicine (vol 36, p887), shows that at least 2. percent of female college students suffer with Body Dysmorphic Disorder. In the U. S. , it is expected that at least 1 to 2 percent of the entire population suffer from some form of BDD, ranging from mild to severe. Studies also show that a person with BDD is 45 times more likely to commit suicide compared to a “normal” thinking individual, thus proving that not all individuals are the right candidates for these surgical procedures. Another example that could make the doctor decline to do the procedure is if the patient suffers from a mental illness, such as bi-polar disorder and schizophrenia.

Although if the procedure is in fact beneficial; the doctor may go on with the procedure but only if able to do so while working in conjunction with the patients personal mental health physician. Another negative way a cosmetic surgical procedure may affect an individual is being confronted by associates, family members or close friends. If a family member sees the individual has changed a family trait, whether it be the size of their nose or their family chin, or even the color of ones skin, they may show jealousy, anger, or disappointment.

These things could cause unexpected or unwanted disapproval and make people feel threatened by their choices. The individual may notice a wedge forming between them and their friends or loved ones. This could cause loneliness and depression and maybe even self-loathing and regret. Many people find themselves asking why a person would still continue with surgery even after they have researched all the potential negative and positive effects. I believe when a person has such an obsession or desire to have the procedure done, that individual will do it despite the risks and high financial expense.

Because these procedures are permanent, painful and life changing, it’s very important to have a definite understanding of how the surgery may affect how you will feel in the long run. We each have an idea of what we believe is beautiful, and the person who is having the procedure done is the only one who needs to be happy with the results. In return, if they truly are happy with the outcome of their procedure, this person will more than likely have a greater self-esteem, and be more comfortable with themselves.

They may also be more successful in a social or work environment, and more comfortable and secure in their personal relationships. If you are truly considering having plastic or reconstructive surgery done to improve your self esteem, remember to be honest with yourself. Don’t set your expectations too high, otherwise you may be extremely disappointed with the results and experience some form of depression, in return lowering the self esteem you were searching for. Know why this procedure is right for you and what you think it will give you back after all the money spent and time put into it.

If at the end of the day you are happy and content with the life you live, and can happily look at yourself in the mirror and like what you see looking back at you, then you know that your procedure was a success. As said by David Sarwer of the Center for Human Appearance and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia “We have to believe that cosmetic surgery will improve our self esteem and body image, and make us feel better about ourselves. If not, we’re wasting an awful lot of time, effort and money. ”

Nineteenth-Century And Early Twentieth-Century United States Expansionism

Throughout its history, the United States has pursued expansion. With the exception of the Civil War and Reconstruction era, the US has acquired substantial amounts of land, establishing considerable global influence and developing its current territory. Additionally, the US began to look beyond its borders, giving rise to imperialism and reinforcing expansionism. The early 20th century expansionism in the US can be seen as an extension of late 19th century expansionism. As America explored newly discovered lands, the idea of “Manifest Destiny” emerged, asserting Americans’ right to all land between the eastern and western coasts. Through events like the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and joint occupation of Oregon in 1818, American imperialism expanded by colonizing areas beyond the Appalachian Mountains and reaching as far as present-day Mississippi. This expansion continued until complete control over continental United States was achieved.

Following its expansion domestically, the United States did not cease its desire for further territorial acquisitions. Instead, it shifted focus towards foreign regions such as the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Hawaii. Driven by a sense of national pride, America held the belief that it possessed superior wisdom to determine what was optimal for other nations. American imperialists perceived Rudyard Kipling’s “white man’s burden” poem as affirmation of their honorable pursuit of imperialism.

Both expansionism and imperialism, both before and after the 20th Century, ultimately led to conflicts. In the era of expansionism, there were violent events like the Border War, driven by the desire for more free slave states. This characteristic is even more prevalent in imperialism, where revolts against American control occurred in countries like Cuba and the Philippines. Racism is another noteworthy parallel between late 19th-century expansionism and 20th-century imperialism. Native Americans were disregarded and ignored as Americans expanded their territory.

A decade later in the Philippines, an act of “criminal aggression” occurred which demonstrated racism and expansionism. The American Anti-Imperialist League accused America of being responsible for the deaths of Filipinos, leading to resentment among the American people. Josiah Strong, a prominent minister, advocated for America to acquire as much unoccupied land as possible to strengthen the Anglo-Saxon race. President Roosevelt embraced an aggressive foreign policy during this time period, utilizing his newly acquired naval power.

He was influenced by Alfred T. Mahan’s The Interest of America in Sea Power, which put forth the argument that the United States required expansion for both military and economic reasons (Doc C). Nonetheless, there are numerous characteristics that distinguish these two periods. The shift from expansionism to imperialism is more evident than its continuation. Initially, expansionism encountered fewer obstacles since it pertained to domestic growth. Conversely, imperialism was more intricate as it aimed to conquer foreign lands, often leading to uprisings.

Before the United States focused on international matters, countries like Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia had already exerted their dominance worldwide (Doc A). America took inspiration from these nations and felt the need to assert its own power. Furthermore, the methods employed by America in acquiring new territory varied significantly. During its expansion phase, America obtained land through treaties and land purchases. Conversely, when engaging in imperialism, America invaded and forcefully subjected foreign nations. This is evident in the annexation of Hawaii in 1898, which ultimately resulted in dissatisfaction and resistance among the Hawaiian people towards the United States.

Throughout its history, America has consistently displayed imperialistic tendencies. From its establishment as a nation to its current position as a global enforcer, the country has pursued expansion and territorial acquisition. In the early twentieth century, the United States shifted from a national focus to an international one but still maintained its goal of growth and territory accumulation.