Jumia Nigeria E-Commerce Company’s Analysis Homework Essay Sample

Jumia’s PESTEL Analysis

Jumia Nigeria E-commerce Company benefits from the ever-improved market conditions. Improved Africa’s economic performance since the turn of the century lowered the poverty level and enabled the countries to gain when it comes to GDP per capita. The favorable marketplace motivates competitive business that aims at maintaining sustainable economic success. Unfortunately, specific threats exist to undermine the entrusted parties’ efforts to guarantee the company’s success (Ramon & Arora, 2017). Notably, the region’s macroeconomic conditions influence its success, with the stakeholders needed to make appropriate changes.

Political Factors

Many political factors can influence a company’s efficiency, such as rigorous guidelines for hazardous waste disposal, which raise a company’s chances and boost sales. According to the findings, the market has a good reputation for being free from fraud and corruption (Titiloye, 2019). For instance, because of the workers’ celebration after the 2011 elections, Jumia Nigeria’s reputation might be harmed if the party refuses to follow the protocols.

Economic Factors

The company has a certified workforce with an elevated level of conserving the environment and other limited resources. Consumer knowledge of bioplastics is one economic driver that affects operational productivity. The country’s taxation system favors the online market, thus attracting many players. Unfortunately, the emergence of China and India’s marketplaces threatens the efforts of Jumia Nigeria to realize sustainable profitability (Titiloye, 2019). Additionally, the firm’s operations require heavy machinery that increase their expenses.

Social Factors

Besides the high literacy rate and low infant mortality rate, Jumia’s analysis revealed that its marketplace has joint population development. The changing societal gender roles in the region are also influencing the success of the industry (Titiloye, 2019). For instance, many women in the area prefer disposable Jumia Nigeria. The scholars add that the women are always willing to pay extra for the Jumia Nigeria retail to the marketplace.

Technological Factors

The company has shown a keen interest in advancing technologically because of fierce market competition and a burning desire to increase its market share. Due to the tremendous technical pressures, the corporation has increased its R&D domain spending to make advanced technologies and innovation conceivable. As a result of environmental concerns, the firm is being forced to utilize more high-tech products, considered environmentally benign, since they use fewer non-biodegradable plastics (Titiloye, 2019). This investment in high-tech equipment helps the company manage its product diversity.

Environmental Factors

The market has come under fire from environmentalists for its use of non-biodegradable plastics. In the Jumia Nigeria marketplace case solution, the plastics used caused contamination and posed a health risk to customers. K-C and P&G have completed numerous recycling jobs to avoid market criticism and are making significant efforts to adapt to Japanese technologies to produce eco-friendly outputs (Titiloye, 2019). Thus, it is evident that e-commerce values the environmental conservation models.

Legal Factors

The country has a transparent legal system and suggests sophisticated monetary control. It is possible to make progress in the legal field. However, it is illegal for businesses in Nigeria to use non-biodegradable materials in their unique operations because of the 1976 disposal of trash laws, and this increases company expenses (Titiloye, 2019). While environmentalists push for eco-friendly techniques and equipment, they also set restrictions and require businesses to use them. If they do not, they risk harsh condemnation and many legal notifications.

Jumia’s Path to Profitability

Jumia has always prioritized expansion above profitability in its goal to become Africa’s largest e-commerce platform. However, to maximize profits, the corporation is currently prioritizing specific initiatives. With a total population of approximately one billion individuals, Africa does have one of the lowest rates of e-commerce penetration in the world (Ramon & Arora, 2017). However, with advancing technology, investors are enthused about Jumia’s potential, hence boosting the firm’s profitability.


Ramon, C, & Arora, N. (2017). Jumia Nigeria: From retail to marketplace (A). Harvard Business School Case, 401-718.

Titiloye, O. (2019). Nigerian e-commerce market research (Business to Consumer Market).

The Role Of American Women In World War II


Women have proved to have a stand in many things such as family care and leadership positions. Over 350,000 women served in the U.S. military during the Second World War, both in the U.S. and abroad (Brinkley, Giggie and Huebner, 2019). The women played a critical effort in the war, reducing the gap in industrial labor. WWII opened up doors for other women outside the military for job vacancies thought to be male-dominated (Brinkley, Giggie and Huebner, 2019). Eleanor Roosevelt formed women groups after noting that the British used women in the army. The Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps was upgraded into the Women’s Army Corps, and it was given full military status. The members of WACs worked in various non-combatant jobs, and it attracted more women (Miche,l 2017). By 1945, the group had over 100,000 members, of which 6000 were female officers (Miche,l 2017). The number grew even after the war had ended because of the empowerment they were given by Roosevelt’s wife.

Impact of Women in WWII

The first woman to complete training and get a pilots certificate in the U.S. was absorbed in the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) forum. Thereafter, many women joined the pilot training and joined WASP. These women enabled the ferrying of trains from factories to bases, transporting cargo, and participated in transporting military personnel and equipment to target missions (Brinkley, Giggie and Huebner, 2019). The U.S. women pilots accumulate over 60 million miles in flying, thereby freeing thousands of males to focus on the WWII active duties. However, 38 of the 1000 women WASPs members died in the line of duty (Merryman, 2020). These women ensured they created time for their country and relieved men to the active representation of the U.S. ideologies. Through them, more men realized they could rely on women to take active measures in security measures.

Active participation enables women to be liberated from inequality notions. After the Great Depression, WWII transformed the jobs that women were allowed to do. Initially, women were in traditional fields such as nursing, teaching, and taking care of the kids (Nagata, Kim and Wu, 2022). WWII showed that women could take up manly duties and demonstrate expertise. The aviation industry saw a boom in the number of women that showed up for training. Over 310,000 women registered for aviation classes (Dawson, 2019). The fight for women’s rights was raised, and many movements came up to ensure women in the U.S. were given equal rights.

The women took up positions that enabled the men to avail themselves of the war. Women handled the office and clerical jobs. The ideologies of masculine jobs seized because women worked as laboratory technicians, analyzed photographs, served as radio operators, rigged parachutes, and handled anti-aircraft artillery gunners (Dawson, 2019). Others joined in the fight through medical service provisions. The medical and nursing staff saved the lives of the army while on the battlefields. The ambient conditions created by the women made the government and the men focus on the war. It also reduced the tension or stress that husbands had about their families while on the battlefields (Chappine, 2022). It was an ideal condition through trust and belief that women in the U.S. could handle family matters that gave their husbands the fighting spirit.


The absenteeism of fathers in their fighting to their families led to the Lanham Act in 1940. The Act was a caution for childcare services where defense production has eroded men. Franklin Roosevelt urged for reforms that allowed women to go to grocery stores and leave their working environment during working hours (Chappine, 2022). Therefore, WWII empowered women and opened their liberties as equal citizens of the U.S. It enabled them to have equal pay, and they gained the trust to handle delicate situations in many organizations. The country also recruited more women into masculine affiliated jobs to reduce their unemployment rates.


Brinkley, Alan, John M. Giggie, and Andrew Huebner. 2019. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. Ninth Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Chappine, Patricia. 2022. “Organizing the Home Front: The American Women’S Voluntary Services in New Jersey during World War II”. New Jersey Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 8 (1): 50-68. doi:10.14713/njs.v8i1.264.

Dawson, Sandra Trudgen. 2019. “Women and the Second World War”. International Journal of Military History and Historiography 39 (2): 171-180. Doi: 10.1163/24683302-03902002.

Merryman, Molly. 2020. Clipped Wings: Merryman, M. (2020). Clipped Wings: The Rise And Fall Of The Women Airforce Service Pilots (Wasps) Of World War II. Fourth ed. NYU Press.

Michel, Sonya. 2017. “American Women and the Discourse of the Democratic Family in World War II”. Behind The Lines, 154-167. Doi: 10.12987/9780300157499-013.

Nagata, Donna K., Jacqueline H. J. Kim, and Kaidi Wu. 2022. “Relationship between Religion and Redress Relief among Japanese American World War II Incarceration Survivors.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Doi: 10.1037/ort0000605.

For Sama Documentary On Syrian Filmmaker


The topic of war is common in modern cinematograph, and due to significant advances in technological equipment, realism and drama are characteristic aspects of such films. The documentary For Sama directed by Waad Al-Kateab and Edward Watts will be examined from the perspective of the cinematic elements used, the theme and public impact, and the political content involved (For Sama). The Syrian Civil War portrayed from a first-person perspective in an amateur filming genre is a vivid story. It reflects the events of the protracted conflict in the country from the standpoint of an ordinary journalist who builds her family in parallel with participation in hostilities. The interweaving of tragic stories and joyful events conveys a wide range of emotions and reflects the authors’ critical position regarding the negative impact of political and social disagreements on ordinary people’s fates.


Historical Background

The Syrian Civil War is a protracted armed conflict that has directly affected the lives of thousands of residents. Beginning in 2012, the confrontation between government forces and radical extremists has continued to this day and is the cause of a tense geopolitical situation in the Middle East (Galvan-Alvarez 204). This topic regularly covered in media sources has become the object of research not only for political scientists but also for filmmakers. Reflecting on difficult living conditions during the civil war was a key goal of Waad Al-Kateab and Edward Watts who, in their joint project, set out to show how destructive the power of political strife might be.

Documentary journalism, as a genre of cinematograph, is an individual area that addresses acute social problems through the prism of everyday life. According to Galvan-Alvarez, a wide range of movies in this genre about the Syrian War is the rationale for how serious and emotionally challenging this conflict is for ordinary citizens (205). As a rule, such projects carry an overt propaganda context and are designed to influence political elites by drawing attention to people’s acute problems. Thus, For Sama may be called an example of educational journalism work in which multiple emotional impacts are the main driving force.

Literature Review

The topic of the Syrian War touched upon in For Sama covers a wide range of challenges. Most of them prove that any geopolitical disagreement affects ordinary citizens as strongly as possible. In the study on military journalism, Galvan-Alvarez mentions the personal nature of such films as For Sama and notes “the agendas of filmmakers behind the camera” as crucial prerequisites for working on this genre (205). LaRocca, who also explores the style, cites the truth as one of the main tools that explains the relevance of these movies (46). As a rule, filmmakers turn to poignant emotional stories to convey to the audience the idea of the inadmissibility of war and its cruel consequences (LaRocca 46). Therefore, the witness experience of the military documentary is a tool that creates a special background of impact and allows reflecting the desired message as vividly as possible.

For Sama is fascinating because the main character and creator of this movie is a woman. Van de Peer analyzes the gender aspect of filmmaking in Arab society and states “that women have been able to platform for themselves in Syrian cinema,” which is a surprising fact (194). At the same time, there are limitations that are manifested in styles. First of all, this concerns documentary cinematography since, according to the author, “feature-length fiction films by women are non-existent in Syria” (Van de Peer 194). Therefore, For Sama may be called one of the few movies that have managed not only to be released but also achieve worldwide recognition. Nevertheless, while taking into account the context of this film, the military theme is the only potentially successful idea to implement. Wessels draws attention to “political articulation” as one of the tools to draw public attention to the current problems in Syria (214). To form a rough idea of ​​the horrors of war is one of the main messages. Thus, the military documentary in For Sama is an approach that has influenced the success of cinema and its worldwide recognition.

Cinematic Elements

For Sama is a first-person amateur documentary with characteristic cinematic elements. According to LaRocca, this approach is a practice that creates a special bond with the audience, although, in general, no special staged scenes are filmed (46). The author notes that filmmakers often risk their lives being in the midst of hostilities, but this, in turn, gives them an opportunity to convey the realism of the events described (LaRocca 46). This outcome may be more valuable than a beautifully edited shot. Regarding the mise-en-scene in For Sama, there is no clear order or structure because all the characters are real and do not act as the director intended. In addition to her family, Waad Al-Kateab also reflects the lives of other Syrian citizens who are forced to fight for their lives daily. A wide range of emotions and feelings conveyed through the camera lens are the key tools for influencing the public.

The camera work in the film under consideration includes different techniques. The filmmakers focus not only on capturing people in different scenes but also on broader shots. Individual scenes shot from the quadcopter enhance the impact on the viewer by showing massive destruction due to the consequences of hostilities from a bird’s eye view. In addition, this is done for the sake of the ease of editing to divide individual parts of the film into structural parts. Viewers have a chance to comprehend and analyze what they have just seen. LaRocca mentions “an ethical impulse” as one of the main elements of war documentaries (46). In For Sama, various scenes are shot with lively and sometimes even frightening realism, which is done on purpose. Therefore, in a general perspective, the movie complies with its style comprehensively and, at the same time, has an individual look and the methods of influence.

Political Content and Intent

The political subtext of For Sama is the movie’s covert theme. The characters’ reasoning about bombing and rescue chances intersect with their views on the causes of hostilities and the geopolitical background of the problem. As Wessels argues, the powerful methods of politics featured in war documentaries are directly associated with human sacrifice and suffering (214). Syrian citizens are forced to adapt to the current inhuman living conditions not of their own free will but due to the contradictions that have arisen between the country’s government and radical extremists. Despite the fact that the aggressors’ motives are based on a religious context, the political factor is one of the main ones. The increasing influx of refugees, the failure of the authorities to provide protection to civilians, and other gaps are shown in For Sama without embellishment. This proves the intention of the creators to draw attention to the incompetence of the current political regime.

When analyzing For Sama from a political content perspective, one can note that this war documentary is hardly unexpected in the context of the agenda. Wessels states that films produced in Arab countries by women have a similar message and methods of reaching their target audiences (216). The filmmakers of For Sama intend to create the clearest possible picture of the incompetence and weakness of the Syrian political elites. In an attempt to maintain their authority and power, the government fails to protect the people, including the most vulnerable segments of the population. This idea can be traced throughout the movie and underscore the severity of the Syrian problem.


The film by Waad Al-Kateab and Edward Watts combines the ideas of constant threat and simple human pleasures to create a movie with a wide range of emotional impacts on the audience. In addition, when assessing the political context of For Sama, one can remark that the film is highly significant as a tool to draw attention to the Syrian problem. According to Van de Peer, “the power of a good documentary is precisely that it can entice political action and the dissemination of certain social or political ideas” (204). The film in which the creator and the main character is a woman enhances the effect of the impact. The characteristic cinematic elements, in particular, amateur first-person shooting, give the movie realism and bring the filmmakers closer to the audience. Therefore, from the perspective of its role of impact, For Sama has achieved the ultimate goal, and its recognition in the world cinematograph proves this.


The theme of the civil war conveyed through the prism of ordinary life joys is a strong driver to draw public attention to the Syrian conflict. Although, as Galvan-Alvarez notes, documentaries are often similar in their agendas, For Sama has demonstrated a vision of the current crisis in the country from an individual perspective (213). Open criticism of the existing geopolitical disagreements is smoothed out by the description of the life challenges of one family that has to survive and raise a child. Assessing this genre of cinematograph within the framework of a specific country’s ethnocultural characteristics gives an opportunity to highlight the relevant gaps and omissions of the government. Therefore, the political subtext reveals the complexity of the threats and dangers that the Syrian civilian population faces daily while trying to preserve the possibilities for a normal life.


The documentary For Sama raises the acute issues of human tragedy in the Syrian conflict through the prism of political incompetence, and combining the horrors of war with the simple joys of life enhances the impact. The cinematic effects make the movie as realistic as possible. The historical background of the war conveyed by the female filmmaker aims to show an individual’s perception of harsh living conditions and is unlike many documentaries that have similar agendas. Conflict resolution is imperative to save human lives, but in For Sama, the script and numerous scenes demonstrate a person’s vulnerability to geopolitical disagreements complicated by ethnocultural misunderstandings.

Works Cited

For Sama. Directed by Waad Al-Kateab and Edward Watts, performance by Waad Al-Kateab, Budapest International Documentary Festival, 2019.

Galvan-Alvarez, Enrique. “Performing Sovereignty: War Documentaries and Documentary Wars in Syria.” European Journal of English Studies, vol. 22, no. 2, 2018, pp. 204-216.

LaRocca, David. “Shooting for the Truth: Amateur Documentary Filmmaking, Affective Optics, and the Ethical Impulse.” PostScript, vol. 36, no. 2/3, 2017, pp. 46-60.

Van de Peer, Stefanie. Negotiating Dissidence: The Pioneering Women of Arab Documentary. Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

Wessels, Josepha Ivanka. “Cosmopolitanism, Activism and Arab Documentary Film.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, vol. 13, no. 2, 2020, pp. 210-231.

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