Justice has evolved through the multiple disciplinary manifestations and descriptions into the present field of study and technique of inquiry. From humanities to social sciences, history, and natural science, they have played an integral role in developing the present descriptive facets of justice. The generation of a comprehensive overview of the human dimension in assessing justice has become apparent through the open and broad spectrum of enriching the justice perspective. Therefore, developing a unique disciplinary background that centers on examining justice has become the focal point for analyzing justice and determining its influence on the people. The multiple lenses play an integral role in gaining acknowledgment within the interdisciplinary areas of justice examination. Thus, developing a comprehensive analysis of justice from various lenses and a concerted focus on social science and humanities should highlight their influence on the contemporary setting.
Justice across the different lenses of social science, natural science, history, and humanities
The four lenses provide an enabling platform to ask questions and gain information from a different perspective on the description of justice. Rethinking justice from the view of social science, natural science, history, and humanist can provide the framework for comprehending the characteristics that influence decision-making (Norder & Rijsdijk, 2016). Looking at the cultural artifacts presents an enabling platform to construct a thematic evaluation of justice.
Social science denotes the assessment of society and its interplay with people. Hence, generating insight into human behavior and its interactive process translates into the manifestation of justice. Tauginienė et al. (2020) recognize that an integrated relationship between social science and justice emerges due to studying how people interact with each other and the need for the codes of practice that influence decision-making.
Natural science denotes the evaluation of the physical world from the basis of biology, physics, and chemistry. In line with the related disciplines is the emphasis on the natural world as descriptive and intertwined with justice (Norder & Rijsdijk, 2016). Questions that center on description, prediction, and observation of the natural world play a direct part in the assessment of the way we develop indicative elements of value, morals, and ethics.
History, on the other hand, entails the awareness of the events that occur in the past and their interplay in the determination of the interactive process. Firsthand accounts and experiences can influence behavioral dimensions (Fassin & Steinmetz, 2023). People living in specific times can be determinant in the evaluation of the knowledge and the influential factors that lead to the development of principles of justice.
Equally, humanities center on examining cultures across the globe and provide an opportunity to evaluate the socialization process. Humanities should be recognized as a broad perspective that can lead to comprehending multiple experiences, cultures, and values (Fassin & Steinmetz, 2023). The diverse mediums of human expression play a central role in assessing humanities.
Similarities and differences
Humanities and social science are interrelated due to their potential to examine the values, connections, and cultural artifacts that define the human experience. The development of the hallmarks for assessing objectivity and subjectivity for evaluating justice emanates from the two lenses. Central to the examination is the platforms for studying ways of cultural expression and determination of human experience (Fassin & Steinmetz, 2023). On the other hand, natural science is extensively factual-centric and depends on assessing the physical setting as the basis for understanding justice. Additionally, history borrows from the natural world to collect evidence on the parameters that define justice (Norder & Rijsdijk, 2016). However, humanities, social sciences, and history differ from natural since due to their emphasis on qualitative data in the assessment of immediate issues.
Justice across the four lenses
The four lenses highlight a unique insight into justice and its influence in developing diverse areas of inquiry. Humanities, as an avenue of cultural study, can be influential based on literature, art, philosophy, and photography in determining justice (Markusson et al., 2020). On the other hand, social science denotes situational awareness of how we interact with our world. Developing a wide lens on personalization should be the framework for interactive outcomes (Haeffner et al., 2022). On the other hand, the humanities provide a unique insight into how civilization has grown and the role of justice. Understanding what represents the human experience should give insight into the dimensions of interaction that can influence growth and development (Fassin & Steinmetz, 2023). Hence, from the research, the critical questions to assess from the two lenses are:
- Can humanities play an integral role in reflecting on the impact of science on human culture?
- Is social science the basis for examining the causes and effects of interpersonal relationships and justice?
Justice across the two lenses: Learned aspect
Justice and Social Sciences
From the question raised, it is clear that social science is comprehensively human-centric. Generating insight into human behavior denotes evaluating interactive dimensions and the framework for developing mutually beneficial outcomes (Norder & Rijsdijk, 2016). A wide variety of assessments represents the intersection of human values and the determination of the tenets of relationships that lead to the determination of justice. For example, in a classroom setting, justice is expressed in the daily interactive process (Haeffner et al., 2022). The way that a teacher assigns grades is a manifestation of justice, especially from a personal perspective when a fellow student plagiarized his work, and the teacher opted to rank me higher than him. The experience showed high human interaction as a facet of social science can lead to the development of principles of justice (Norder & Rijsdijk, 2016). Consideration of the social lens denotes the promotion of better living and interactions that can be beneficial to the determination of principles of inclusivity and socialization.
Justice and Humanities
Tauginienė et al. (2020) emphasize that humanities often overlap with science, and it is crucial to develop situational awareness of the interactions based on the creative approaches of expression. For example, assessing literature, fine art, dance, and photography promotes an enabling platform for examining humanity. Central to the assessment process is the comparative process of societies and primary sources (Markusson et al., 2020). Acknowledgment of one’s values is through authentic expressions that can provide an opportunity for scientific study. Central to the assessment is the generation of insight into how the existent artifacts lead to learning about ourselves (Haeffner et al., 2022). Thus, the brief evaluation can offer a framework for cultural aspects and the scientific dimension that shapes people. Correlating the humanities with human experience can highlight the scientific description of culture, values, and their interplay with the development of facets of justice. For example, assessing literature such as Plato’s philosophy plays an integral role in the scientific comprehension of humanity and the progress made in determining justice.
Justice plays a progressive and integrated dimension in assessing humanities, social sciences, the natural world, and history. A comprehensive assessment of its influential part is vital in discerning how the lenses can be compared. However, evaluating humanities and social sciences highlights the considerable part of understanding justice from the purview of interaction and human experience. Emphasis on the interpersonal approaches that influence people can be beneficial in determining justice and the facets that led to its emergence.
Fassin, D., & Steinmetz, G. (Eds.). (2023). The Social Sciences in the Looking Glass: Studies in the Production of Knowledge. Duke University Press.
Haeffner, M., Hames, F., Barbour, M. M., Reeves, J. M., Platell, G., & Grover, S. (2022). Expanding collaborative autoethnography into the world of natural science for transdisciplinary teams. One Earth, 5(2), 157-167.
Markusson, N., Balta-Ozkan, N., Chilvers, J., Healey, P., Reiner, D., & McLaren, D. (2020). Social science sequestered. Frontiers in Climate, 2, 2.
Norder, S. J., & Rijsdijk, K. F. (2016). Interdisciplinary island studies: connecting the social sciences, natural sciences and humanities. Island Studies Journal, 11(2), 673-686.
Tauginienė, L., Butkevičienė, E., Vohland, K., Heinisch, B., Daskolia, M., Suškevičs, M., … & Prūse, B. (2020). Citizen science in the social sciences and humanities: the power of interdisciplinarity. Palgrave Communications, 6(1), 1-11.
Maslow’s Theory: Hierarchical Order Of Needs Essay Example For College
According to Abraham Maslow, certain physiological and psychological needs motivate and control what we do, and these needs progress from basic needs to more advanced and complex needs. Being a humanist, Maslow discovered that all humans desire to be whom they want to be. Some of the basic needs every human needs are love, self-esteem, safety, and food. Just as instincts play a significant role in motivating, he believed these needs were equally important. Maslow placed the needs into five different levels based on the following order:
- Physiological needs
- Safety needs
- Love and belonging needs
- Esteem needs
- Self-Actualization Needs
The lowest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is physiological needs. These are essential things that every person needs to survive. These include food, shelter, clothing, and enough rest. At this level, a person is motivated by the need to survive.
Safety needs come second in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. These are the needs concerned with the safety and security of a person about their surrounding environment and the people they interact with. The level is motivated by the need for law and order and protection from prevailing conditions that are dangerous and unpredictable. Some things that allow people to fulfill their safety needs are police officers, medical care, and learning institutions that enable them to acquire various skills and knowledge in different fields of specialization (Hopper, 2020). At the workplace, these needs are fulfilled through monetary remunerations and safe working conditions. External pressures and accidents are brought about by social and financial stability. Apart from physical safety, a person needs economic security to thrive in the modern world.
The third level in the hierarchy of needs is love and belonging, which majorly comprises social needs, which include the feeling of love and belonging. Once security has been achieved, people tend to establish romantic and non-romantic relationships with people in their immediate environments while attempting to overcome loneliness, seclusion, and anxiety. The need for family, love, intimacy, and friendships are addressed at this level. These needs are important in people’s lives since they directly affect their productivity, engagement, and motivation with their colleagues in various fields. Friendships, love, trust, and acceptance are the major sections of social needs.
Like the previous levels, esteem needs are often attributed to a deficiency brought about by deprivation. Esteem needs to motivate individuals when they are left unaddressed. Esteem needs are grouped into two categories which are esteem for oneself and the need for respect and reputation from other people. Esteem from oneself can be related to a person’s dignity, confidence, independence, and freedom, whereas respect from others entails fame, prestige, and recognition (Hopper, 2020). Most people always desire to be recognized by others when they achieve something to feel a sense of value and importance.
The highest level in Maslow’s classification is the need for self-actualization, which according to him, is a growth need. At this level, a person is driven to realize their full potential. The need for self-realization can only be addressed when all four other needs have been addressed. The self-actualization needs are motivated in different ways, such as acquiring skills, advancing your education, seeking happiness, doing things that calm the spirit, soul, and mind, and pursuing your dream life.
Intrinsic rewards are those that are acquired from work itself. Intrinsic rewards are mostly based on feelings and emotions. Some examples of intrinsic rewards include self-esteem, challenging situations at the workplace, feeling that your work is meaningful and important, and the achievements you make every day at the workplace (Manzoor et al., 2021). The friends you meet and social interactions at the workplace are also considered intrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards are commonly provided by designing good working conditions and tasks.
Extrinsic rewards are those that are granted to an organization by the employer. They include salaries, promotions, status recognition such as having a personal office at the organization, recognition by titles such as the department heads, and praise from other employees and the employer (Malek et al., 2021). Fringe benefits such as being given the company’s car, insurance cover, expense account, and a fully sponsored vacation are extrinsic rewards.
Other Motivational Theories
McClelland’s theory of needs is based on the fact that regardless of age or gender, one of the three motivating drives will greatly impact our behavior. One of these motivating drives is achievement which is the need to accomplish and demonstrate our competency levels. People with a stronger desire for achievement prefer doing tasks geared toward their responsibility and getting results from their efforts. They also like having their efforts quickly acknowledged. The second drive is affiliation which is the need for love, the market to be socially accepted, and the need to feel a sense of belonging. Such people are motivated by what people think about them and how they can impress the people around them. They are primarily active in social gatherings and don’t like being engaged in conflicts. Power is the third drive, and it refers to the need and desire to control a person’s work or the works of others (Arquisola & Ahlisa, 2019). Such people enjoy influencing others, and they are more concerned about their influence levels than their performance at the workplace.
Alderfer’s ERG theory suggests that there are only three basic needs that a human being needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are those we primarily require: shelter, employment, food, water, clothing, and sleep. Relatedness needs are concerned with the interpersonal relationships between people and are mainly based on the social interactions between people. These relationships include family, friends, and intimate relationships. Growth needs are primarily based on our desire for self-growth and development. According to Alderfer, when a certain category of needs is unmet, people often have to double their efforts to achieve that need.
McGregor’s theory X and theory Y. Theory X implies that’ leaders in managerial positions who use this theory are more likely to use an authoritarian management style. According to this theory, these managers believe that their staff members hate work, have little or no motivation, and can’t work without supervision hence incapable of being accountable for their work. According to McGregor, such managers have to micromanage every duty each staff member performs so that the work is appropriately conducted (Acquah et al., 2021). Theory Y is used by managers who use a decentralized participative management style. Managers who use this theory believe that their staff members are willing and able to work under little or no supervision, they are proud of their work and do it passionately, they are driven by the desire to achieve more, and they are directly managing their efforts and take full ownership of their work.
In conclusion, motivation is a way of renewing the state of people’s minds and pushing them towards achieving more than just the bare minimum with a good spirit and a positive mindset. The above motivation theories help get a clear insight into the factors that drive motivation.
Acquah, A., Nsiah, T. K., Antie, E. N. A., & Otoo, B. (2021). Literature review on theories of motivation. EPRA International Journal of Economic and Business Review, 9(5), 25-29.
Arquisola, M. J., & Ahlisa, S. U. W. (2019). Do learning and development interventions motivate employees at PT Danone Indonesia? Applying McClelland’s theory of motivation to FMCG industries. FIRM Journal of Management Studies, 4(2), 160-176.
Hopper, E. (2020). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 24, 1-3.
Manzoor, F., Wei, L., & Asif, M. (2021). Intrinsic rewards and employee’s performance with the mediating mechanism of employee’s motivation. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 563070.
Malek, S. L., Sarin, S., & Haon, C. (2020). Extrinsic rewards, intrinsic motivation, and new product development performance. Journal of product innovation management, 37(6), 528-551.
Measurement, Data Display, And Data-Based Decisions Sample Assignment
Measurement, Data Display, and Data-Based Decisions are based on intervention to reduce instances of spitting behavior in a case study of an eighty-year-old child diagnosed with Angelman’s Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Spitting is any instance where saliva or liquid is ejected from MaLa’s mouth towards someone while throwing it with his hands. Attempts and connections will be included. Lip movement alone (no liquid) will be excluded. An example: producing saliva, grabbing it with his hand, and throwing it toward someone. A non-example: sneezing or speaking while expelling liquid will be excluded (Calvo, 2022). The child’s name is Mala studying in private special education in a classroom alongside nine others. Mala has difficulties in non-verbal communication and task refusal making him frustrated. He possesses few disruptive and maladaptive behavior towards himself. Currently, he is not receiving any therapy; therefore, during school and social settings, his behaviors have increased and become disruptive to the classroom and family.
The previous invention has been ineffective, whereas, for Mala, they made the situation worse. The intervention targets how he might reduce the effect of affecting the comfort of others, a situation that increases his frustration and worsens his behavior in the first intervention. Mala has been redirected to blow kisses when he engages in spitting behaviors, and this intervention is ineffective because it has not decreased the behavior. An effective intervention has been showing Mala appropriate responses to frustration or requesting attention. Second is interventions implemented by caregivers. MaLa’s caregivers have implemented interventions such as requesting MaLa to stop and apologize when the behavior occurs. This intervention has been ineffective because it creates more frustration in MaLa, increasing the behavior. The current study will focus on long-time intervention, which targets reducing or maintaining spitting instances to zero based on four triggers; denied access to a preferred item, attentional removal, demand, and transitioning.
Spitting is a behavior for which frequency count is an appropriate assessment method since it gives more exact and trustworthy data. In the direct observation approach, known as frequency count, the observer maintains an account of the frequency with which an event occurs during a certain period. It is remembering how often something occurs throughout a certain period. Collecting this information in real-time or recording it on film enables the observer to get an accurate count of occurrences of the behavior. Direct observation and recording techniques, such as continuous and partial interval recording, are required to measure and document replacement behavior reliably. Continuous recording is a direct observation and recording in which the observer maintains note of each occurrence of the replacement behavior within a certain period (e.g., minutes, hours, days, weeks). The timeframe you choose for fulfilling your outcome criterion will be measured in days. During partial interval recording, the observer keeps note of how often (or seldom) the replacement behavior happens over a specified period (such as minutes, hours, days, or weeks) (Gast & Ledford, 2019).
The frequency count is a crucial measuring tool for this case study since it may provide a reliable and precise evaluation of MaLa’s spitting habit. With this method, disruptive and other behavioral behaviors in autistic children may be precisely monitored (Reichow, 2019). The frequency count has been used to assess the intensity and frequency of disruptive behaviors to identify whether or not behavioral therapies are effective. In this case study, it is vital to measure behavior both before and after the application of treatments; hence, frequency count is essential. This is essential because it permits a direct comparison between the intervention and the baseline behavior, which is required to determine its effectiveness. This approach is often used in applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatments because it provides a more accurate and reliable behavior evaluation.
In comparison to other forms of measures, this one has several advantages. Counting the frequency of an occurrence is a reliable method of data collection since it is less prone to bias from the observer or other variables, such as the surroundings or the subject’s emotions. Second, the frequency with which a behavior happens is an excellent measure of its relevance since it enables accurate monitoring of the relevant occurrence. Thirdly, quantifying the frequency of behavior may disclose essential features, such as duration and intensity, which guide intervention tactics. The frequency count data collection method is versatile since it may be utilized for short-term and long-term efforts.
The Method is relevant for this case study because it objectively measures MaLa’s spitting habit. As a result, the behavior can be monitored without bias or misreporting. Its development over time can be traced, a vital component in establishing the success of therapies. In this case study, the ability to follow behavior over time is vital because it will allow us to compare how individuals behaved before and after the intervention was implemented. Frequency counts are easy to execute and need no specialized equipment since they do not involve the environment or other individuals (Delano, 2020). This is essential for the objectives of this case study since it enables valid behavioral assessments despite confusing ambient factors.
Using frequency count may also aid in making educated decisions. The effectiveness of the intervention may be measured by observing the subject’s behavior over time. Furthermore, behavior patterns, such as when and where the action is most likely to occur, may be discovered by analyzing frequency count data. To better develop treatments and assess their efficacy, these data are crucial. Spitting is a good behavior to measure with a frequency count because it is readily observable, it provides enough information about the behavior, and the gathered data may be used to impact policy and practice. Frequency count has also been validated for measuring the prevalence of self-injury, aggression, and stereotypy, among other problematic autistic behaviors (Gresham & Smukler, 2017). So, measuring the frequency of an event is an excellent approach to determine whether or not MaLa has accomplished its purpose of spitting.
A line graph is one of the most efficient visual presentations used in data analysis when the data consists of numbers that may be shown on a continuous scale. A line graph is a helpful tool for examining the temporal correlations between several variables. The line graph best represents the data obtained from the case study of an eighty-year-old child with Angelman’s Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who received an intervention to reduce instances of spitting. Line graphs are a great tool for illustrating the evolution of data over time. Thus, it is essential to assess the intervention’s effectiveness over time. Suppose the intervention is conducted over time, and its success is monitored, for example. In that case, a line graph may be used to compare the data points and depict the overall trend rapidly and efficiently. This enables the examination of data and the determination of the treatment’s effectiveness.
In addition, line graphs aid in demonstrating the connection between two variables. The efficacy of an intervention may be determined by comparing the number of instances of spitting before and after its implementation using a line graph. This makes it easier to determine whether the intervention resulted in a reduction in spitting episodes. In these graphs, nonlinear relationships between variables may be shown. A line graph indicates that the intervention effectively decreased the number of spitting occurrences but that the effect was not consistent over time. This would assist in detecting any issues with the intervention and determining if improvements are required.
Due to its capacity to give a rapid visual representation of the data and trends, the selected line graph is a suitable data display for making data-driven decisions for the case study. The line graph makes it easy to see changes in spitting frequency over time and form inferences about these shifts. As direct observation is an objective data collection method, the graph’s data may be relied upon. Several observers should uniformly collect the data to improve accuracy and reliability of the data. While viewing the line graph, looking for trends or changes in spitting frequency is essential. Such data may identify changes in behavior after intervention or repeating patterns that may reveal the reasons for problematic behavior. On a line graph, you should also keep an eye on the slope, which may indicate if the behavior is improving or worse with time. Hopefully, the intervention is effective if the behavior is improving and the line graph is flattening. The line graph may be used to make evidence-based determinations on the effectiveness of treatments and the need for changes.
Calvo, A. (2022). Spitting as a Maladaptive Behavior in Angelman Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, pp. 45, 24–37.
Gresham, F. M., & Smukler, S. M. (2017). Applied behavior analysis in special education: From evidence to practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Delano, M. (2020). Frequency Counts: A valid and cost-effective measure of behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(4), 517–521.
Reichow, B. (2019). Measuring problem behaviors in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 439–450.
Gast, D.L., & Ledford, J.R. (2019). Applied Behavior Analysis in Education: A Systematic Approach. New York, NY: Routledge.