Juvenile Drug Abuse Problems Analysis Essay Example For College

Introduction

The adolescence stage is known to be a period where behaviors and conditions develop that affect the health of the individuals at the time and their adulthoods. Juvenile drug use remains a huge societal problem that needs to be addressed promptly and viable interventions developed. Several therapies and programs have been devised to ease the challenge but the current drug use statistics indicate the problem is far from over. This essay describes the problem of juvenile drug use and applies the relevant delinquency theory. Additionally, the interventions or programs to fix the issue will be highlighted.

Juvenile Drug Use

The challenge of juvenile drug use is critical as it is usually linked with delinquency. Researchers have found that adolescent offenders display high rates of substance abuse. The reverse observation has also been made – that is there is a direct link between drug abuse and repeated serious crimes (Dakof et al., 2016). The seriousness of juvenile drug use can only be appreciated when examined alongside delinquency. According to Belenko et al. (2017), over 70% of all arrested adolescents had previously abused drugs whereas 78% of them recently consumed alcohol or other drugs. Addressing the vice of drug abuse among the youth, therefore, goes a long way in fighting related crimes in society.

Besides the relationship between juvenile drug use and crime, other problems such as substance abuse disorders (SUDs). About 60% of the juvenile justice involving the youth is related to SUDs (Sanders et al., 2018). The juvenile justice system is obliged to monitor risk behaviors associated with SUDs, including sexual abuse. There is also a need for the system to understand the causative factors for juvenile drug use. Some studies have shown connections between factors such as low socioeconomic status, adolescent friendships (peer pressure), family violence, and coping with failures among others (Dervishi & Ibrahimi, 2018). Dealing with such environmental variables could go a long way in reducing the rate of substance abuse among the youth.

Delinquency Theories

Several theories have been put forward to explain juvenile drug use. According to Beaver et al. (2015), two of the theories explaining the issue are social learning theory and self-control theory. The social learning theory holds that all behaviors, including those regarded as anti-social (for example, drug use) are learned deeds. The learning can take place in the form of reinforcement where those actions are strengthened through rewards or avoidance of discomfort being most likely to persist. Juveniles could, therefore, be perceived to have learned drug abuse behaviors by watching others. Using tobacco and alcohol could be a means to reduce discomforts or to gain other perceived benefits.

Self-control theory, on the other hand, posits that analogous actions such as substance abuse are caused by criminal opportunity and variations in the level of self-esteem. Low levels of self-control, according to Beaver et al. (2015) are linked with a greater likelihood of anti-social conduct. Drug abuse in such situations could be a result of succumbing to some external drives. Criminal opportunity remains a constant and the most salient factor. The variabilities in delinquency are caused, therefore, by the varying levels of self-control.

Interventions

The problem of juvenile drug abuse can be reduced through proper interventions. The current literature has explored in detail interventions such as family therapies or the broader community-based interventions. School-based programs and policies have also been explored and found to positively contribute to a reduction in juvenile drug use. With the advances in technology, digital platforms are also increasingly becoming critical for community-based interventions that involve community leaders and other stakeholders campaigning against drug abuse (Das et al., 2016). Family therapies seek to identify the roots of the problems and to find lasting solutions. As expressed earlier on, many of the risk factors are external environmental issues within which the individuals live. Addressing such concerns and helping adolescents recover from addiction works to reduce the rates of drug use among the youth. Family therapy programs have shown success over the years and they continue to be the major interventions.

Other programs showing promise in the fight against juvenile drug abuse are the juvenile drug courts (JDCs). According to Dakof et al. (2016), the JDCs were developed to help those youths in the juvenile justice system overcome drug problems. The JDCs are designed to offer quality treatment to the patients and, similar to the family therapies, involve the family members to improve the treatment outcomes. One of the key objectives in the JDCs, it should be emphasized, is to reduce the rates of recidivism among drug-related offenders.

Conclusion

The problem of juvenile drug use has been described in this essay where a link to juvenile offending is made to illustrate the seriousness of the problem. Two delinquency theories, social learning and self-control theory, have been used to explain the problem. Lastly, a few interventions have been examined: family therapies and JDCs. The two interventions have shown significant levels of success over the years and they remain the most popular means of fixing the social challenge.

References

Beaver, K., Al-Ghamdi, M., Kobeisy, A., Alqurashi, F., Schwartz, J., Connolly, E., & Gajos, J. (2015). The effects of low self-control and delinquent peers on alcohol, tobacco, and drug use in a sample of Saudi Arabian youth. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(13), 1-19.

Belenko, S., Knight, D., Wasserman, G., Dennis, M., Wiley, T., Taxman, F., Oser, C., Dembo, R., Robdertson, A., & Sales, J. (2017). The juvenile justice behavioral health services cascade: A new framework for measuring unmet substance use treatment services needs among adolescent offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 74, 80-91.

Dakof, G., Henderson, C., Rowe, C., Boustani, M., Greenbaum, P., Wang, W., Hawes, S., Linares, C., & Liddle, H. (2016). A randomized clinical trial of family therapy in juvenile drug court. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(2), 232-241.

Das, J., Salama, R., Arshad, A., Finkelstein, Y., & Bhutta, Z. (2016). Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: An overview of systematic reviews. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(4), S61-S75.

Dervishi, E., & Ibrahimi, S. (2018). Risk Factors Related to Juvenile Drug Use. Open Journal for Psychological Research, 2(2), 53-60.

Sanders, J., Hershberger, A., Kolp, H., Um, M., Aalsma, M., & Cyders, M. (2018). PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and substance use risk in juvenile justice-involved youth. Child Maltreatment, 23(3), 226-233.

Assessment Of Policymaking: Healthcare

Governmental establishment of any policy includes several stages: building, formulating, adoption of the law system, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Policy implementation is a variety of actions made to put a federal legislative decision into effect by the local authorities and organizations (Gholipour, 2016). It often leads to changes in broader laws or governmental systems because it considers the interests of particular social groups or institutions. The policymaking process’ crucial part is interconnectivity: a statement that the government, agencies, institutions, and policymakers are adding a regulation beneficial for the public. Interconnectivity must be considered at the implementation stage as it can improve deliberation between administrative policymakers and institutions who will execute it in action (Ansell et al., 2017). The United States’ policies include regulations in such spheres as economy, politics, health, environment, and education.

Health policies are a sound example of the importance of interconnectivity in applying new legislative decisions. World Health Organisation (2020) states that “health policy refers to decisions, plans, and actions undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society.” The health policymaking process is directed to implement programs to improve the quality of citizens. The procedures it goes through are data collection, criteria formation, legal confirmation, and decision-making.

Different approaches can be utilized while applying a new health policy. The convenient strategy is to use a learning analysis that leads the government for better guidelines and frameworks to support (Broos et al., 2020). Interconnectivity in health policies combined with learning analysis is effective in decision-making for local institutions. For example, if divided by states, the sports-related health policies regulate better, as they are based on evidence from particular states, and the health conditions of citizens (Adams et al., 2017). The United States government regulates many parts of the healthcare system, such as medicine, pharmaceutical, sports, food, and water control institutions. The policymaking and implementation procedures should be as pragmatic and straightforward as possible to provide the public with policies that improve their quality of life (Obama, 2016). Interconnectivity can be performed as a dialogue between health representatives and government via the healthcare organizations’ events and activities.

References

Adams, W. M., Scarneo, S. E., & Casa, D. J. (2017). State-level implementation of health and safety policies to prevent sudden death and catastrophic injuries within secondary school athletics. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(9), 2325967117727262.

Ansell, C., Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2017). Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking. Policy & Politics, 45(3), 467-486.

Broos, T., Hilliger, I., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Htun, N. N., Millecamp, M., Pesántez-Cabrera, P.,… & De Laet, T. (2020). Coordinating learning analytics policymaking and implementation at scale. British Journal of Educational Technology. 51(4), 938-954. Web.

Gholipour, R. (Ed.). (2016). Social, economic, and political perspectives on public health policymaking. IGI Global.

Obama, B. (2016). The United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532. Web.

World Health Organization. (2020). Health policy. 

The Information Transmission Through The Internet

Introduction

The rapid development of computer technologies has fastered the process of the information transmission through the Internet. Nowadays, we cannot imagine our life without internet communication since it is closely connected with many spheres of our life. Thus, internet serves as a universal source of the electronic database that helps to exchange the information despite geographic and economic conditions. The introduction of the World Wide Web has influenced the sphere of Media coverage and of information distribution. Powerful software companies provide the customers with new media services and propose the advanced method for the information exchange. That is why, it is necessary to be aware of Microsoft Media services and to clarify different ways of information broadcasting.

Microsoft Media Services and Media Distribution

Microsoft Media Services uses the Microsoft Media Server protocol to transfer the unicast data. Microsoft Media Server may be transported ether by User Data Protocol or by Transmission Control Protocol. There are several standardized formats of Media transmission. The most widely used streaming platforms are MPPeg-1 and MPEG-4. The oldest one is MPEG-1 that is also called as MP3 is a digital audio player that encodes the information in a compressed form required to present audio materials. MPEG-2 and MPEG-3 were ejected by the MPEG-4, a more advanced format for encoding video and audio digital data. This type of format is used by web streaming data and CD distribution. This format allows to hold video conversations and to broadcast television (The University of Utah 2009).

Consequently, this type is the most appropriate platform for the broadcasting information because it gives the opportunity to stream data within the newspaper and television network. Moreover, telecommunications that broadcast information from different sites of the world require wireless data streaming.

Data streaming is often held through MPEG-2 platform. There is a wide variety of transporting data within MPEG-2 transport stream. The most appropriate techniques consist in asynchronous data streaming, synchronous data streaming and synchronized data streaming. The scope of the former mechanism is destined for the cases where the data rendering is not limited by time. The next type of data streaming is used for applications where data streaming should be rendered continuously without timing. Finally, the synchronized data transfer involves applications that is to be presented at the exact time but without (Jack, Keith 728).

The introduction of MPEG-4 platform facilitated the rendering of information streaming. Especially, it is the most typical mechanism for television broadcasting and media distribution within media organization.

Unicast and Multicast

For broadcasting audio and video, on can use unicast or multicast. The choice of one those types of broadcasting depends upon target clients and the type of network environment. Hence, uncast is a closed connection between the user and the server when there is a single receiver and a single recipient. This type of connection is delivered through User Data Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol. In other words, the user has a direct link with Windows Media Server.

Unlike Unicast, Multicast does not imply straight relationships between the customer and the server. This type of forecasting insures the transmission of packets and listening of the clients. Multicast has a single server and a selected number of receivers. Muticast is used to play online games for holding videoconferences or interact chat lines. With the help of Multicast, special newsgroups are created which provide you with additional material for distant learning.

Multicast’s principle is used in Multiple Unicasting when independent copies are rendered to a selected number of clients. Multicast is rarely used on the Internet since only separate areas of the Internet are multicast-enabled. However, this type of broadcasting is of high practical use within one company and is quite suitable for the improvement of collaboration management. Another advantage of the IP Multicast is possibility of the simultaneous information transfer to a specific group of people using unique copies for the selected links of the network. In addition, the copies are made in case there are several recipients (What is Multicast unpaged).

Windows Encoder Enable Streaming of Media over a Network

Windows Media Encoder permits to administer your PC and to encode the information from different media sources on your web camera or microphone. The Media Encoder helps to stream media over the internet by deciphering audio and video and sound data from the microphone. It also enables broadcasting the media streams on the port of your PC. It should be mention that Windows Media Encoder requires the hardware of the latest models with a diligent main storage.

Thus, if you are going to broadcast the information to your web camera, it will be impossible to carry out some additional operations on your PC. In addition, Video Media Explorer outputs can be viewed when Windows Media Player is installed. Windows Media Encoder is software that also allows broadcasting the life events though the laptop of even telephone (Aspiral, J 97).

The last version of the software is Windows Media Encoder 9 series. There are different procedures to encode video and audio files. If you want to encode video, first, you should seek foe the files and folders with.wav extension and the C hard drive to note the search results. Then you should copy the selected file to the temporary folder and name it. The audio files are encoded with the help of wizards that help to find the selected file for conversion.

Secondly, you should find the browser, which is usually Internet Explorer and find your source audio file. After opening the file, it is necessary to select the directory for saving the output file. Then, with the help of Windows Media server selected in the Content Distribution dialog, the Encoding Options window should be opened to check the 19 kbps options in Total Bit Rate Column (Follansbee J. 10).Finally, you are to define the location of the output file in the Settings Review Dialog. Therefore, Windows Media Encoder is free software that carries out media streaming (Follansbee J. 11).

Conclusion

The data streaming over the Internet influenced the improvement and invention of the updated media platforms. That opens a wider range of possibilities to render the live video and audio files at the newspaper and television stations. This function allows the station to transmit the output information directly to the users. Windows Media Platforms help to store the information in the compressed form that is quite important since volumes of data are growing fast. In addition, Multicast and Unicast services help to split the information and to transfer it to the selected number of users both within the stations and beyond them.

Works Cited

Aspiral, J. CNET Do-It-Yourself Home Networking Projects. US: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007.

Follansbee J. Hands Guide to Streaming Media: an Introduction to delivering on-demand media. US: Focal Press, 2006.

Jack, Keith Video Demystified: a handbook for the digital engineer. US: Newnes, 2005.

The U on iT U –Terms. The University of Utah 2009. Web.

What is Multicast. University Information Technology Services 2005-2009. Web.

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