Juvenile Justice Research Article Free Essay


The purpose of this research article is to show that most of the crimes committed by juveniles are co- offending crimes. This means crimes that are committed by one or more people. While reading this article I noticed they specifically focused in on co- offending is related to the age of the offenders, recidivism, and the violence of the crime committed. In the article they go deep into the reasons that juveniles are more likely to commit co- offending crimes through various studies. I believe that this article was written to show that there are various factors that lead into juveniles committing crimes. Also, another reason I believe this paper was written is to bring light to possible solutions to this problem. We know the reasons behind why juveniles are committing crimes. Now we have to find ways to get to the perpetrators before they get into trouble with the law.

Hypothesis/Research Question

The author did not state a hypothesis. The research was to investigate the reasons behind why juveniles are likely to commit co-offending crimes. In this paper the author dives into several studies done that show the connection to age and co-offending, co-offending and recidivism, and violence and co- offending.


In this article the author used a study from the National Institute of Justice (NIOJ). Another report came from the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. The study in this case contained the criminal histories of a random sample of juvenile offenders. In this case when they looked into if violence is learned the sample size contained 400 people who had not committed a violent crime before committing a crime with others. Also used was a report from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) and statistics from the Bureau of Justice (BJS).

The topics that were focused on in this study were as follows: Why consider co-offending, How age is related to co-offending crimes, how co-offending is related to recidivism, how co-offending is related to violence, and finally they wanted to know if violence is learned.

What methods can be set in place in order to prevent juveniles from committing co-offending crimes, and crime just in general.


Crimes involving juveniles are far more likely to involve more than one suspect. For example, as pointed out in the article 40% of violent crimes involving juveniles were committed by more than one person, while just 23% of violent crimes committed by juveniles contained just one suspect. This shows that juveniles are more likely to commit a crime if it involves more than one person helping them.

The younger your age at your first time of arrest the more likely you are to commit co-offending crimes later on in life, and the less likely it is that you will commit a crime alone later on in life. The same goes for the opposite, the older you are at your first arrest makes it more likely that you will commit crimes alone later on in life. At first arrest you are more likely to have committed a crime with a group of people. For example, in exhibit 3 we see that 40% of offenders committed a crime with an accomplice at first arrest.

The younger you first get into trouble with the law, the more likely you are going to see recidivism in this persons case. Also if your first time getting into trouble with the law is co- offending than the greater the chance is you are going to commit more crimes in the future. For example, a research was done on 411 male criminals in London. They discovered that recidivism declined with increasing age at first offense, and also that co-offending delinquent’s committed crimes at a higher rate than solo offenders did.

If you commit a crime with others, the more likely it is going to be a violent crime. They found that it is more likely for young starters in co-offending to commit violent crimes then it is for older starters. Peer pressure could definitely play a big role in this outcome.

Violent crimes are learned according to a research done in the article. A group of 236 people who had never committed a violent crime before committing a violent crime with others. Among the 236 surveyed 90 committed violent crimes when around a group of people. So basically when they took a group of offenders who never committed a violent crime before, and mixed them all together the more likely they were to then go out and commit a violent crime.


After reading this article I took away several things. One is that crimes that involve juveniles are more likely to be co-offending crimes then it is to be a solo crime. Second, is that juveniles are more likely to commit co-offending violent crimes than they are to commit violent acts alone. These could be due to peer pressure, and also could be from gang activity. A way that we could try and solve this issue of juveniles committing co-offending crimes is by trying to get kids to stay in school, and get them involved in extracurricular activities. This is obvious a big problem in our country and needs to be addressed.

Critical Review

This article relates to the podcast caught because it involves a co-offending crime topic. In the podcast we meet a teen named Z who fits this research perfectly. In the podcast Z started to get into trouble with the law at a young age. And as he got older he got into big trouble when he and his friends got arrested for an armed robbery. This supports all of the research done in this paper. That the younger you get involved with the law, the more likely it is you are going to commit a co-offending violent crime as you get older.

Juvenile Justice Process

Depending on the case, and if the actions of Jack were not the serious the arresting offices may want to set up a conference with the parents and the juvenile; however in the case of Jack a custodial arrest was made based on the severity of the case and was transfer to a juvenile detention center. Jack will now go through the juvenile justices process, and intake will have to be done and reviews all elements of the case against him. The prosecutor would proceed with a discovery of facts, in order to build their case against Jack an analysis all factors will be conducted, witness statements, discuss the seriousness of the offense, review previous juvenile records if any in order to decide whether to charge jack with a felony or not.

Once all the above elements are met the prosecutor will proceed with the case. However a court case can go several different directions, depending on the offender age, the severity of the crime that has been committed, was there an illegal firearm involved, did a victim get severally injure, was intentional, or premeditated, the case can be a public proceeding or closed. In Jack case the fact that he is an underage minor and entitles to closed proceedings. Jack will need to meet with his public defenders to go over his options of pleads, guilty, or not guilty, his attorney will go over his option, and advise him what will be the best option for him. The public defender will work on behave of Jack interest. Also in a criminal case, the offender has the right to confront the accuser; however in Jack case, the legal defense will do the cross-examination and the confrontation with Jack’s accuser.

Most attorneys when submitting a deposition on behalf of their clients will reference in their deposition to the judges a precedent case with similarity to the case their handling. The day of the hearing the Judge, Jack’s public defender and the Prosecutor will meet in the courtroom, to discuss the outcome of Jack’s case. If determined that it was Jack’s first offense, there may be some leniency, and Jack would be remanded to probation and community services. With probation, he will be a pointed a Juvenile probation officer, which will act as mentor and support guide for Jack at the same time and enforcer of the law, for the charges his probatee was found guilty of and being held accountable for. Again, court cases are very complex, and when a minor child is involved is very important to protect the child privacy, and at the same time find the options on how to hold the juvenile accountable for their actions, by applying the law and deterrent the juvenile from continue on the wrong path or growing to become repeated offender.

Juvenile Justice Transfer Law Of California

The case is eight-year-old Madyson Middleton murdered by fifteen-year-old Adrian Gonzalez. In Santa Cruz, at an apartment complex on the 26th of July, 2015, eight-year-old Madyson was lured by her fifteen-year-old neighbor Adrian with ice cream to his mothers apartment. Once he had her in the apartment he raped, duct taped her neck and stabbed her three times. After that he stuffed her body into three plastic bags and threw her in a recycling bin at the apartment complex. When the mass search for Madyson was going on Adrian repeatedly asked for updates and joined in the search for her. About twenty-four hours went by before the body was found. Adrian was around the body when the body was discovered. Adrian was arrested and placed in Santa Cruz County juvenile hall until further notice.

The apartment complex cameras caught Adrian dumping Madysons body in the recycling bin. Immediately right after dumping the body he played with his toy yoyo like nothing ever happened. The coroner said that Madyson died by positional Asphyxiation, and stabbing and not so much by the strangulation. It was the way she was positioned in the dumpster that killed her. He then ruled her death as a homicide.

Adrian was transferred to the adult court, for a couple of reasons. One his age, because he was fifteen. The transfer law works if the juvenile 14-16 and committed first or second-degree murder, and that means with the intent or personally killed the victim. Which he did. Another reason was the category and he did several assaults to her person. Adrian was charged with murder, forcible rape, lewd acts with a child under fourteen and rape by instrument. The offenses are to serious for a juvenile court. Adrians case was Statutory Exclusion transferred. Statutory Exclusion means “the state law excludes some classes of cases involving juvenile age offenders from juvenile court, granting adult criminal court exclusive jurisdiction over some types of offenses. Murder and serious violent felony cases are most commonly “excluded” from juvenile court.” The offense was murder and a violent felony Adrian was trialed as an adult.

The defense attorney did not want him to be tried as an adult or put in with the dangerous population in prison. He said that his client was an awkward and slightly autistic teen. Adrian ended up giving a confession:

Eventually Adrian gave a lengthy confession on how he murdered and tortured Madyson and it was read during the hearing. He said that he lured Madyson to his mothers apartment with ice cream, choked her until she lost consciousness, raped her and stabbed her in the neck. He also played loud music that way no one could hear them. While he was choking her, she asked him “what are you doing?” and she looked sad and confused.”

After the confession it was difficult for him to be not guilty. The lead prosecutor mentioned that Adrian had a long life of issues that could not be helped with therapy. Adrian would also not be tracked if he left the juvenile justice system. Adrian showed signs of psychopathy. Adrian was sentenced to Santa Cruz prison.

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