Juvenile Violence And Influence Of Education Essay Example

In law, the term Minor or infant is used to denote an individual who is below the age in which one lawfully becomes an adult and is legally yielded rights granted to adults in society. The terms “infant”, “child”, “adolescent”, “teen”, “youth”, “juvenile” and “young person” are used interchangeably, though some jurisdictions make some distinction amongst these terms. This age may vary, with respect to the jurisdiction and application, but is normally set at 18, 20, or 21. In specific, the position of “minor” is influenced by the age of the majority. Minor status holds unique restrictions, penalizations, and securities that are not applicable to adults (Vitacco, pp. 537-544).

Authorities ratify laws to brand certain forms of activity as unlawful or illegal. Activities of a more unsociable nature can be denounced in a more positive manner to express society’s dislike by means of the application of the term criminal. Pertaining to this context, laws have a tendency to use the expression, “age of criminal responsibility” in two different fashions.

As an explanation of the process for handling alleged wrongdoers, the scope of ages specifying the immunity of a minor from the adult system of prosecution and penalty. Most nations maintain a juvenile justice system co-existing along with the adult criminal justice system. In this case, the hearings are basically welfare-based and children requiring unavoidable steps of treatment and/or care are dealt with. Children committing offenses are redirected into this system.

As the physical capability of a young to perpetrate a crime. Thus, children are judged incompetent of committing some sexual or other offenses which require the capability of a more senesced quality (Crews, pp. 126-8).

Hence, each jurisdiction considers whether any given child is a party to a committed offense, and accordingly, decides the proper actions to be taken to deal with the child. It is evidenced that, in some cases, an association is made between youth as a defense and defenses that moderate accountability on grounds of mental infirmity. Differentiation between children, young offenders, juveniles, etc. are used to signify matching intensities of incapacity. The observation of most is that this association is not beneficial as it entails that children are in some way psychologically imperfect but in reality, the fact is that they just lack the perspicacity that grows with age and experience (Sprague, pp. 197-206).

This is a facet of the civic policy of parens patriae. With respect to criminal law, each jurisdiction considers the characteristics of its own society and the accessible substantiation of the age at which unsociable conduct begins to evidence itself. A number of societies have a certain degree of indulgence toward the juvenile and inexperienced, thus do not desire their exposure to the criminal law system ahead of all other approaches being exhausted. This leads to some advocating the policy of doli incapax (i.e. incapability of doing wrong) and leave out liability for all acts and omissions which would be deemed criminal up to a particular age (Dünkel, pp. 37-9).

Thus, in spite of any act of wrongdoing by a minor, a criminal prosecution cannot take place. However, even though no criminal charge is inferred, other avenues of law can be implored. As evidenced in Nordic countries, an offensive activity by an individual below 15 years of age is regarded by and large as an indication of the troubled development of a child. This causes the public authorities to take suitable administrative steps to aid the development of the child. These measures are decided upon by assessment of the needs of the child which include counseling or arrangement at a special care unit or juvenile homes. This policy in dealing with minors as incapables of committing offenses does not essentially reveal contemporary sensibilities. Thus, if the validation of the excuse is that a child below a particular age lacks the capability to form the men’s rea of an offense, it may not be a sustainable view. Certainly, given that different people develop physically and intellectually with varying speeds, specifying an explicit age limit might be termed uninformed and unreasonable (Crews, pp. 126-8).

At the same time, the logic of children and adults being treated in similar ways in criminal evaluation is also quite irrational. Keeping in mind, their inexperience of life, nascent mental and intellectual capacities, it might be considered unjust to treat young children and adults along the same lines. Thus in accordance with the above discussion while judging a juvenile on an offense a number of factors should be taken into account: the severity and nature of the offense, age of the offender, circumstances under which the offense was committed, mental status of the child being tried, his/her upbringing, the attitude of the adolescent and last but not the least proper analysis of the case. It is also the responsibility of authorities to take proper measures to reinstate the child. In order to counter this social problem, an in-depth analysis of this hazard must be carried out (Vitacco, pp. 537-544).

The threat that an adolescent will become tangled in aggressive offenses depends on several different factors, including individual features, family values, peer and school factors, surrounding environment, and everyday actions. The center of the majority of the juvenile violence research is based on personal characteristics and the environment of the surroundings in which the child grows up and a few other factors which relate to an amplified risk of association with juvenile violence, mostly as offenders or in some cases even as victims. In general, the findings of the juvenile violence researches indicate violent crimes are in most cases committed by males. Nevertheless, the numbers of females becoming involved in violent conduct seem to be raising surprisingly, with a report even stating that, at age of 13, females exhibiting a slightly raised rate of vehement behavior than observed in males. The findings of these reports point out that numerous juveniles who incorporate violent behavior start doing so by the age of 15. A closer look at neighborhood conditions of underage offenders indicates that several violent juveniles are residents of impoverished neighborhoods (Sprague, pp. 197-206).

Nevertheless, the majority of minors who reside in those surroundings are not involved in severe delinquency. In an assessment of adolescent males residing in hazardous neighborhoods in the District of Columbia and Los Angeles, it was found that a small group of outlaws were accountable for a high percentage of violent offenses and that the majority of youth in these vicinities were not involved in violent offending. A report prepared by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) for the US Congress states that the contribution of firearms plays an evident role in juvenile violence that is grave enough to come under the attention of the law enforcement authorities. It goes on to say that firearms were involved in 80% or more of the violent occurrences in each of the analysis reports on this topic. In particular, the usage of firearms was reported in 85% of juvenile homicide victimizations in the DC juvenile violence analysis and 91% of the homicide occurrences involved a juvenile in the Los Angeles homicide evaluation (Dünkel, pp. 37-9).

Further, 83% of the juvenile homicide reprobates in the Milwaukee homicide study used firearms to assassinate their victim. The study of adolescent males residing in high-risk localities in Los Angeles reported that 40% carried, at some point in time, a gun or knew a close companion who possessed a gun, signifying that guns are fairly easy to get to these youth. The convenience of accessing firearms in rural areas seems to be fairly comparable. Nonetheless, it comes out that not all juvenile gun possessors are uniformly dangerous. Few researches on this topic recognized high-risk and low-risk firearms owners and established a linkage between high-risk gun ownership and unsociable conduct. A considerable number of situation-guided conditions seem to be related to a rise in juvenile violent offending, such as surroundings, an hour of the day, and the existence of gangs (Dünkel, pp. 37-9).

Certain studies probed these situational circumstances and concluded that forms of juvenile violence are not consistent across locations. In Washington, DC acts the violence mostly took place either on or close to school premises and often during the after-school hours. The disparity was observed among the findings on juvenile homicide victimizations in DC and those in Los Angeles. Here, incidents occurred mostly during the late hours of the night, in open public places, and in some association with gang members. As found in prior examinations, the juvenile violence studies reported escalated rates of delinquency among juvenile gang members than the non-gang members. Even though the majority of young in these quarters are not into gangs, most of them are very conscious of gang activity in their surroundings. As a matter of fact, 36% stated that in some cases force is exerted on neighborhood children to join gangs. Those who had been a gang member at some time testify that they initially used to hang out with permanent gang members, on average, at age 12, and eventually were promoted a full membership at age of 13. Largely, these findings put forward that juvenile violence often occurs in the background of unsupervised factions of adolescents (Jones, pp. 148-50).

The OJJDP reports state that roughly half (48%) of the offenses committed were in a situation where the absence of a grown-up prevailed on a regular basis after school. The children who find a supervised environment tend to be less offending than those with lesser amount after-school hours overseen by grown-ups. The knowledge of the primary caretaker of a child regarding the whereabouts of his/her child after school is in reality a much more concerning factor than adult supervision. More concerning is the fact that a number of adolescents, including the non-delinquent as well, are debarred from school at least once. This shows that educators and schools are facing troubles in providing positive guidance to these youth. Even though temporary removals and rustications may be defensible from the school establishment’s angle, plainly releasing young people, unsupervised, only intensify the problems. There are also other factors that contribute to the rise in juvenile violence (Muschert, pp. 840-846).

Movies, music videos, video games are easily accessed by the youth. Some of these exhibit disturbing content and leave a mark on the innocent subconscious of the young. These eventually arouse violent feelings in the adolescent. To summarize the causes it may be said that there is no single cause of violence among the juveniles. Many concerning factors may be stated which is likely to increase the disturbing turbulence during adolescence. Significant influences include accounts of premature aggression during childhood, exposure to family or neighborhood violence, disadvantaged relations with parents, drug and alcohol abuse, having aberrant company, gang membership, and performance failures in school, and domiciling in an underprivileged community with decreased economic opportunities (Spain, pp. 85-102).

Some issues, named “protective factors,” facilitate reducing the probability of violence in adolescence. These comprise of personal bigotry toward violent activities and dedication to school, caring attitude of parents (or other grown-ups), and keeping the company of people who condemn violence. Individual personality as well as family, school, and friend group influences interact in complicated ways with environmental circumstances to fabricate violent behavior. Family interactions are of utmost importance before the age of twelve, whereas influences of people whose company an individual obtains are most significant during later adolescence (Feld, pp. 3-22).

Awareness is the most probable strategy to counter juvenile crimes. Knowledge aids in understanding a problem and reaching a solution. It furthermore brings forth the path to self, social and global consciousness. These three phases of awareness guide oneself through self-discovery and assessment invokes realization of one’s surrounding social world’s functioning and provides background for the individual’s understanding of his role in society. This multi-phased awareness generates an understanding of the changes necessary. This remarkable ideology is brought forth by Ginwright and Cammarota in their paper New Terrain in Youth Development: the Promise of a Social Justice Approach. This paper asserts a social justice model offering three major contributions to the subject of youth enhancement (Muschert, pp. 840-846).

  1. The focus is repositioned from personage and psychological models to the problems met by the youth.
  2. The center of attention is shifted to sociopolitical and economic aspects affecting young people.
  3. The youth is boosted to implore the roots of social issues and to address them.

The earliest form of education that an infant must receive is parental. Delaying the start endangers both the infant and society. This begins an informal learning process at a very early stage and gradually education is formalized. Even economically impoverished parents should be educated about the influence of their actions and inactions on their offspring. The infants may require stress management, anger management, ways to stay alert, and methods to conquer certain learning disabilities. This calls for further open curricula and better-trained educators. Along with the formal learning programs of the school after school initiatives are also critical. The objectives of these programs are to steer the youth away from gang activity and drug abuse, bring down the degree of non-attendance and enhance academic performances, and at the same time structuring vital self-discipline, communication, and job skills. (Muschert, 840-846)

Implementations of many of these necessary alterations are time-consuming. This is where the friction begins between the existing deep-seated institutional bureaucracy and the philosophy of teaching. With the advent of the Internet, it can be used as a means for change. Education is now just a mouse click away for anyone who needs it. It presents itself as an unparalleled instrument in the war against ignorance, racial discrimination, dearth, and crime. This course can only be presented to the ones who have hope. Hope appears with the realization of change as a possibility. Change, as a possibility, can only be brought about when presented with the opportunity. Opportunity arrives if the gates are unbolted. (Spain, 85-102)

Works Cited

Crews, Gordon A & Reid H. Montgomery; Chasing Shadows: Confronting Juvenile Violence in America; Prentice Hall, 2000

Dünkel, Frieder & Kirstin Drenkhahn; Youth Violence, New Patterns and Local Responses– Experiences in East and West: Conference of the International Association for Research Into Juvenile Criminology; International Association for Research into Juvenile Criminology, International Association for Research into Juvenile Criminology; Forum Verlag Godesberg; 2003

Jones, Gerard; Killing Monsters: Why Children Need Fantasy, Super Heroes, and Make-believe Violence; Basic Books, 2002

Muschert, Glenn W; Teaching and Learning Guide for: Research in School Shootings; Sociology Compass, 1, 2, 840-846; Miami University; 2007

Feld, Barry C; Race, youth violence, and the changing jurisprudence of waiver; Behavioral Sciences & the Law; 19, 1, 3-22; Centennial Professor of Law, University of Minnesota Law School, 229 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; 2006

Spain, Sarah E. Kevin S. Douglas, Norman G. Poythress, Monica Epstein; The relationship between psychopathic features, violence and treatment outcome: the comparison of three youth measures of psychopathic features; Behavioral Sciences & the Law; 22, 1, 85-102; Department of Mental Health Law & Policy, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida; 2004

Sprague, Jeffery, Hill M. Walker, Steve Stieber, Brandi Simonsen, Vicki Nishioka & Linda Wagner; Exploring the relationship between school discipline referrals and delinquency; Psychology in the Schools; 38, 2, 197-206; Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, University of Oregon College of Education; Lane County Department of Youth Services; 2001

Vitacco, Michael J, Michael F. Caldwell, Gregory J. Van Rybroek, Jason Gabel; Psychopathy and behavioral correlates of victim injury in serious juvenile offenders; Aggressive Behavior; 33, 6, 537-544; Mendota Mental Health Institute, Madison, Wisconsin; 2007

Sugar Processing: Term Definition

Introduction

Sugarcane is a fleshy, tall perennial grass crop that grows fast infertile tropical soils (Sheridan, 2000). Physical and climatic factors such as temperature, soil, rainfall, and other factors largely affect its growth (Sheridan, 2000). The crop’s origin can be traced to South Asia and Southeast Asia, where it was first grown as early as the 7th Century (Galloway, 2005). In about the 18th Century, there was only one variety of sugarcane known as Saccharum officinarum, which was indigenous to the South Pacific, and was commonly known as Creole cane. After a detailed study of the crop, British planters introduced an improved cane variety known as “Bourbon” or “Otaheite” (Davis, 2006).

The Creole crop had a usual height of between four and eight feet and had stalks of varied thickness from one and a half to three inches (Galloway, 2005). These aspects of sugarcane were all dependent on the perfection of light and spongy deep soils supplied with sufficient rainfall and sunlight (Sheridan, 2000). From India, there were several varieties, such as Saccharum Barberi and Saccharum edule, that grew in different areas. The first variety, Saccharum officinarum, was a native crop of New Guinea (Sheridan, 2000).

The thick stalk of sugarcane stores sugar and sucrose in sap form. This was the main interest of the people who cultivated the crop (Galloway, 2005). Sugar is extracted from the sap by evaporating the liquid part of the sap. This method was used for the first time in India more than five thousand years ago; hence, India had its first sugar during that time (Galloway, 2005).

Sugarcane cultivation was introduced in the Americas by Christopher Columbus during his voyage. Later, the cultivation spread to countries in South America and the Caribbean, such as Jamaica, Barbados, Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, Belize, and Brazil.

In spite of its origin in Asia, South America embraced the cultivation of sugarcane so much that production in the region soon overtook that of South and South East Asia, and the activity spread to other countries of the world too (Williams 2006). Today, more than 200 countries in the world grow the crop, producing 1,324.6 million tons. Comparing production by country, Brazil leads followed by India with reference to 2005 rankings.

Sugarcane is used in the production of a variety of products and by-products such as sugar, molasses, rum, soda, and bagasse (Hutchinson, 1957).

Cultivation and harvesting of sugarcane

Unlike many crops, sugarcane is propagated from cuttings rather than from seeds (Raphael, 1983). Although few varieties still produce seeds, modern methods of stem cuttings have become the most common method of propagating the crop (Raphael, 1983). Each of the cuttings for propagation must contain at least one bud, and planting of the cuttings is done by hand (Raphael, 1983). The cuttings reproduce prolifically; hence, several harvests can be done on a set of cuttings planted just once. When the fully-grown sugarcane is cut, new ones sprout from the cut stems. These are called ratoons. Several harvests are obtained from one set of planted cuttings, and the magnitude of harvest dwindles as more and more harvesting is done (Raphael, 1983).

Harvesting of sugarcane is done manually in many countries but is mechanized in some. Harvesting by hand accounts for more than half of the world’s production of sugarcane, especially in developing countries (Raphael, 1983).

In situations where hand harvesting is practiced, some of the sugarcane plantations are set on fire so as to clear the dry leaves of sugarcane as well as scare away poisonous snakes that are commonly found in sugarcane fields. The fire, however, does not damage the water-rich stalks. In some countries, sugarcane is just harvested without subjecting the plantations to fire (Raphael, 1983). The process of harvesting is done by skilled men who use cane knives or machetes to clear the cane plantations by cutting each cane just above the ground level. It is estimated that a skilled harvester can cut 500 kg of sugarcane in one hour (Sachs and Collins, 1989).

When mechanical harvesting is done, a combined harvesting machine is used. The blades of the machine cut the sugarcane stalks at the base (Raphael, 1983). The machine then separates the canes from the leaves and piles them into a haul transporter to take transport them to the factory for processing (Raphael, 1983). These later stages are done manually and by use to tractors if the harvesting process is not mechanized.

Chain of processing for sugar production

Most sugar factories are usually located within close proximity to sugarcane plantations. At the processing factory or sugar mill, the sugarcane is washed and then chopped or shredded into fine pieces by revolving blades (Galloway, 2005). The fine pieces are mixed with water several times and crashed between rollers (Galloway, 2005). The resulting juice or sap contains between ten and fifteen percent sucrose, while the rest of their composition is usually fibrous solids that are identified by the name bagasse (Galloway, 2005). When the bagasse is burned, it produces energy, which surpasses the processing factory’s needs. Bagasse can also be burned to generate electricity to supply the neighboring areas (Sheridan, 2000).

The juice is then limed to adjust its pH to a neutral value of seven. This process arrests the decay of sucrose into glucose and fructose. In addition, it precipitates out some impurities (Sachs and Collins, 1989). The neutral mixture is then allowed to settle, and the clear juice is drawn into a multi-effect evaporator to make syrup containing about 60 percent sucrose (Sachs and Collins, 1989). The syrup is further concentrated in a vacuum until it is supersaturated. Upon supersaturation, the syrup is seeded with crystals of sugar, such that when the contents cool, sugar forms as crystals out of the syrup (Sachs and Collins, 1989). The contents are then centrifuged in order to separate sugar from the remaining liquid referred to as molasses.

Raw sugar is usually yellow or brown in color. However, if sugar is desired white, sulfur dioxide is bubbled through the cane juice just before it undergoes evaporation (Sachs and Collins, 1989). This process ensures that many color-forming substances or impurities in the juice are bleached to colorless ones. The resultant white sugar is referred to as mill-white sugar (Sachs and Collins, 1989).

Sugar refining

The brown or white sugar is usually impure and may have to undergo further processing to refine it. In sugar refining, the sugar is mixed with syrup and then centrifuged (Sachs and Collins, 1989). The efficacy of this process involves washing away the coating of raw sugar crystals. The remaining sugar is then dissolved to make syrup before being allowed to crystallize again (Sheridan, 2000).

Distribution of sugar

From the factory, sugar is usually packed into large bags and kept in depots to await access by wholesalers. Some sugar factories also package the sugar into smaller units to facilitate access by retailers, who then sell them to consumers. Consumers can also access sugar through the wholesale store, which offers both retail and wholesale services. Alternatively, some sugar factories may set up their own retail outlets to avoid hoarding of sugar in case there a looming shortage of sugar is foreseen.

Transportation of sugar from factories to wholesalers, retailers, or consumers is usually done by rail, water, road, or air depending on the bulk of the cargo, distance to be covered, and the urgency of need of sugar in given localities.

Consumption

Sugar is one of the commodities that have very diverse markets. Sugar is used in homemade beverages such as coffee, tea, cocoa, and so on. There is a wide range of beverages, and anyone who uses a particular beverage is likely to have a taste of sugar. Nonetheless, sugar is not just used in beverages; it is used in industries that manufacture ethanol, pastries, sweets, and chewing gums. Soda manufacturers also use sugar as one of their raw materials (Mars, 2000).

Sugar is, therefore, an all-time food item. If it is not taken as a beverage, it is taken in a sweet, toffee, chewing gum, or pastry. Cane ethanol, which is a by-product of sugar processing, is also used in large applications in the production of biofuel, which is an alternative to gasoline.

Labor issues in the field

In many countries of the world, particularly the developing nations, sugarcane production is too manual, and this exposes the participants to a lot of hard labor. The processes of tilling the land, harrowing, preparation of cuttings, and application of fertilizer are time demanding and labor-intensive (Hutchison, 1957). In addition, the sugarcane crop has to be given secondary care to enable it to flourish into a bumper crop (Hutchison, 1957). This exposes the staff involved to risks such as contact with fertilizers and harmful pesticides. There are many environmental concerns over the use of pesticides and fertile. Apart from being harmful to the users, in the long run, these chemicals also accumulate in the environment and, particularly in the soils, and cause havoc (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For instance, some of the pesticides used in sugarcane plantations contain heavy metals, which are harmful to aquatic organisms (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Harvesting and transportation of sugarcane too are tedious processes that need the intervention of machines.

In the factory, a lot of water is used for cleaning the machines and mixing the chemicals used in the production line. In addition, water is also used for cooling machine parts that constantly become hot (Carter, 2005). The bagasse and molasses produced in the factory too have to be cleaned and disposed of. All the chemicals used and the resultant effluents, therefore, ultimately end up in water bodies such as rivers, lakes, or streams (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Pollution of high magnitude results from such operations and causes high levels of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand of water. Toxic substances may as well cause harm to aquatic organisms such as fish (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005).

Atmospheric pollution during sugar processing can also not be gainsaid. Sugar factories usually have huge clouds of smoke billowing above them. This is not a good environmental characteristic of air in the purview of the health of humankind and other organisms. Noise pollution too results from sugar factories as they undertake their operations.

To the consumers, over-consumption of sugar increases the chances of diseases such as diabetes, anemia, arthritis, and allergies (Mars, 2000).

Conclusion

Sugar is a commodity whose production starts right from the farm when sugarcane cuttings are propagated. The processes of growing sugarcane and processing sugar are labor-intensive in most countries of the world. Processing is also a long process that requires a lot of attention. Consumption of sugar is almost ubiquitous, and this necessitates fast distribution. Many concerns are associated with the production of sugar, notably labor-intensive procedures and pollution as a result of processing. Over-consumption of sugar is also linked to various disorders in the health of human beings.

References

Carter, W. Hodding. Stolen Water: Saving the Everglades from Its Friends, Foes, and Florida. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

Davis, David Brion.Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford: Oxford University Press US, 2006.

Galloway J. H. The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from Its Origins to 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Hutchinson, Harry William. Village and plantation life in Northeastern Brazil. Washington: University of Washington press, 1957.

Mars, Brigitte. Addiction-Free Naturally: Liberating Yourself from Sugar, Caffeine, Food Addictions, Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Drugs. New York: Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, 2000.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program). Ecosystems and Human Well-being. New York: Island Press, 2005.

Raphael, Kaplinsky. Sugar Processing: The Development of a Third World Technology. London: Africa Book Services, 1983.

Sachs, Jeffrey and Collins, Susan M. Developing Country Debt and Economic Performance: Country Studies-Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Turkey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Sherida, Sheridan, Richard B. Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775. New York: Canoe Press, 2000.

Williams, Ian. Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776. London: Nation Books, 2006.

Self-Concept Model: Brief Description

Psychology is a rather difficult topic to write about because it involves lots of personal attitudes and opinions, and what is right for one person can turn out to be absolutely wrong for another. But, at the same time, this is quite an interesting topic because of several reasons. Firstly, psychological phenomena are typical of all people and it is exciting to learn the reasons or motivations according to which a person acts or thinks. Secondly, psychology is such a branch of science that helps a person to control his life by means of regulating his emotions and attitude towards different phenomena of the objective reality. Thirdly, and finally, knowledge in psychological processes provides you with the power of influencing people which is significant for any profession demanding certain leadership skills from the workers.

The notion of self-concept constitutes a sufficient part of human psychology because it is from what the personality begins. Self-concept is viewed as an organized, complex system of attitudes, beliefs, and opinions which a person learned during his or her life, and now considers to be true facts about his/her personal existence. Self-concept differs from self-esteem which is defined as feelings of personality’s worth and level of satisfaction concerning one’s self, or self-report which is usually looked at as what a person is eager and able to reveal (Adler, 2006).

The self-concept of every single person has certain features that are typical for self-concepts in general. They are the facts that self-concept is not given to a person at birth, it is developing in every personality during the early years of life and is constantly changing through his/her life according to the attitudes a person forms based on his/her experiences, feelings and emotions from perceiving the objective reality. The second point is that self-concept is always organized and tends to be more or less stable in the course of life. If not, then scientists say that this person lacks personality and is subject to all possible influences from the outer world. The third point concerns the dynamical character of self-concept, meaning that person’s self-identity changes according to the processes of the objective reality this person undergoes (Adler, 2006).

Speaking of my personality, I think that my self-concept is at a rather high level which helps me to easily communicate with people and make new acquaintances and friends with little effort. I usually perceive and process the information that I get from communication as one that can not harm me and my interests and a friendly-directed message. Some people are hostile to the surrounding world and it does not let them have successful communication with others because they look at them as rivals. This is the issue of having not enough confidence and a low self-concept level. Concerning the points that need to be improved regarding my self-concept, I would distinguish the following according to the above-mentioned theories: the organization of the self-concept can be better, as sometimes it happens that I am influenced by some people’s attitudes that I do not consider to be right but because of the lack of self-concept organization I hesitate about the correctness of my views and it influences badly my communication skills. My low level of self-esteem of mine affects negatively the communication skills I possess, so I am working hard on gaining more confidence and getting rid of shyness, which must allow me to reach success in interpersonal communication. What is also considered to be important is your behavior during the communication act, so I try to be a pleasant person to talk to, to be a careful listener, and to take part in the communication process.

Works Cited

Adler R. & Rosenberg L. (2006). Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication, 10th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

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