Karen Ann Quinlan In The “Right To Die” Controversy Sample Assignment

Introduction

Karen Ann Quinlan is a prominent figure in the “right to die” controversy under United States jurisprudence.  The main issue in her case arose when her family sought the court’s order that she be allowed to die by removing any life support connected to her.  This request received opposition from the hospital who took care of Ms. Quinlan.

Ms. Quinlan was diagnosed as being in a permanent coma after she collapsed at a party where she consumed alcohol and drugs.  She was kept alive on a ventilator.  Her feeding also required a nasogastric tube.  On account of her persistent vegetative state, Ms. Quinlan’s father went to court seeking authority to remove her respirator.  The hospital heavily opposed this move.

Her case is a very highly publicized controversy.  It continues to uproot the moral question relating to the preservation of life and euthanasia.  Her case also brought about the formation of formal ethics committees in hospitals and the development of advance health directives.

Karen Ann Quinlan

Right after she just turned 21 in April 1975, Ms. Quinlan moved out of her parents’ home and into a new house a few miles away.  She lived there with two roommates.  According to Spiritus-Temporis.Com, she was obsessed about her weight that she went on a radical diet.  Her idea was to starve herself so that she would fit into her newly-bought dress. (http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/karen-ann-quinlan/)

On April 15, 1975, Ms. Quinlan went to a friend’s party at a local bar.  It was reported that she did not eat for two days already pursuant to her radical diet.  At the party, she had consumed large quantities of drugs and alcohol.  She was seen consuming gin and tonics.  It was also reported that she took a tranquilizer, which she thereafter suddenly felt faint.  Then she passed out.

Her friends took her home and placed her in bed.  When they checked back on her, they found her looking pale and no longer breathing.  Her friends called the police of Sussex County, New Jersey.  (http://www.ou.edu/englhale/quinlan.html)

According to reports, she had ceased breathing for at least two instances at 15-minute periods.  Her friends attempted to resuscitate her.  When the police arrived, they applied a respirator on her.  They loaded her on an ambulance and then took her to the hospital.

Ms. Quinlan was diagnosed as being in a coma when she was admitted to Newton Memorial Hospital in New Jersey.  She stayed there for nine days in an unresponsive state until she was transferred to St. Clare’s Hospital.  The doctors described her condition as decorticate; a condition in which the brain cortex does not share in the bodily functions.

According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, a decorticate posture denotes a damage to the corticospinal tract, thus signifying a severe damage to the brain.  In such a condition, “the upper arms are drawn into the side of the body. The forearms are drawn in against the chest with the hands generally at right angles to the forearms, pointing towards the waist. The legs are drawn up against the body, knees are up, and feet are in near the buttocks and extended in a ballet-type pose.”  (http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/003300.htm)

Persistent Vegetative State

When Ms. Quinlan was admitted in the hospital, her doctors found out that she had suffered irreversible brain damage after she experienced an extended period of respiratory failure of at least 15 minutes.  The doctors could not pinpoint the precise cause of her respiratory failure.  They could only speculate that it was caused when she passed out and aspirated on her own vomit.

After a careful study of her brain, the doctors found scarring in her cerebral cortex.  Her thalamus, however, was severely damaged, which explains why she was in a coma.  Her brain stem, on the other hand, was undamaged.

Medical reports also stated that her eyes were no longer moving in the same direction together.  It also disclosed that although Ms. Quinlan did not have a flat electroencephalograph, it showed abnormal slow-wave activity.  Nonetheless, this is proof that she was “not brain dead.”

            Due to the constant threat of infection, Ms. Quinlan was regularly given antibiotics.  She was sweating almost every time.  In addition, she had lost her ability to maintain necessary bodily functions like breathing or urinating, unless assisted by medical instruments.

Medical attention was always on the clock.   Nurses were constantly moving here in order to avoid edema.  Despite the number of tests carried out, the doctors could not discover the cause of the coma.  However, they believed her previous respiratory failures for about 15 minutes in each instance contributed to the damage to her brain.

Over seven months have passed since her confinement yet there were no signs of improvement.  According to Ascencion Health, the doctors have surmised that she is under the condition commonly known in current terminology as “persistent vegetative state.” (http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/cases/case21.asp)

During her years of vegetative state, she was fed through a nasogastric tube in which her nutrition and hydration passes.  She was also assisted by a respirator since she had difficulty breathing on her own.

The doctors, however, observed that Ms. Quinlan was capable of breathing on her own but only for short periods.  Muscle activity was also shown, which some doctors opined that it was voluntary.

During the next few months, Ms. Quinlan’s lost weight that she even reached her lightest at 36 kilograms.  Basically, her condition gradually worsened.  It was told that only her nasogastric feeding tube and her ventilator had kept her alive for the most part of her life in the hospital.

After a tedious legal battle whether to keep her life support system continued, her respirator was ordered by the New Jersey Supreme Court to be disconnected.  Despite the disconnection, she was able to breathe on her own.  When asked if the nasogastric tube would also be removed, his father opted that it stays there saying God would determine when her daughter would die.

Ms. Quinlan lived for the next nine years.  She died on June 11, 1985 in a New Jersey nursing home.  Her death was due to complications from her pneumonia.

Legal Battle

Ms. Quinlan’s family had lost all hope for her.  They can no longer bear to see her like this.  In view of her deteriorating condition, her father, Joseph T. Quinlan, decided that it was time for the doctors to remove the ventilator.  Accordingly, Joseph instructed the doctors at St. Clare’s Hospital to disconnect her life support, thus allowing her to die.

Hospital officials opposed.  They said that removing the system was tantamount to killing Ms. Quinlan.  This opposition was supported by the local prosecutor and the state attorney general.

According to the website Judgegeorgegreer.com, the doctors asserted that Ms. Quinlan is very much alive, both legally and medically.  They added that the act of disconnecting the life support is an act of mercy killing and homicide.  The doctors’ stance was that the matter involved a medical decision; hence, they should be the one to decide whether or not to pull the plug on Ms. Quinlan. (http://judgegeorgegreer.com/images/quinlan.htm)

As the attending physicians, they averred that they must do everything in their ability to sustain Ms. Quinlan’s as it is their moral duty and professional obligation to do so.   They added that they never said that there was no hope for recovery.  What they said was that the chances were slim.

Her father sought the lower court’s order appointing him to be the guardian of his 21 year-old daughter.  He also asked for the court’s order authorizing the discontinuance of all extraordinary medical procedures as well as life support systems attached to Ms. Quinlan.

The lower court denied her father’s requests.  The judge decided that the authorization sought by her Ms. Quinlan’s father was to permit her to die, which is something adverse to her best interests.  The court also added that the matter would be best left for the doctors to decide since it involved a medical decision, thus, Ms. Quinlan’s life support stayed.

Accordingly, the Quinlan family brought the case up to the New Jersey Supreme Court.  They argued that under legal and medical definitions recognized under New Jersey laws, Ms. Quinlan is dead on account of her condition.  They asserted that there was no hope of her “eventual recovery” in relation to her “alleged irreversible coma and physical debility.”

The High Court reversed the lower court’s order.  Ms. Quinlan’s father was appointed as the guardian of her daughter.

The Supreme Court also redefined the concept of the right to privacy in this case.  In the lower court, the judge rationalized that the preservation of life necessarily prevails over the parents’ assertions of Ms. Quinlan’s right to privacy.  The concept of right of privacy, as used in this case, meant that the doctors could administer various medical treatments as may be necessary for the patient’s recovery despite the latter’s objections grounded on the latter’s right to privacy.

With regards to the question on right to privacy, the High Court overturned the decision of the lower court, thus permitting Ms. Quinlan’s father to disconnect the life support from her daughter.

The respirator was disconnected yet Ms. Quinlan still kept on breathing.  When asked if the nasogastric tube would also be removed, his father opted that it stay there saying God would determine when her daughter would die.

The High Court enunciated that the State cannot compel Ms. Quinlan to suffer the agonizing invasion of her body with various medical devices and contraptions with no realistic chance of her recovery.  In this case, Ms. Quinlan’s right to privacy prevailed over the doctors’ rights to administer medical treatment according to their best judgment and discretion.

Moreover, the decision even raises the Ms. Quinlan’s right to privacy as superior to the State’s compelling interest in preserving life.  As held in this case, “the individual’s right to privacy grows as the degree of bodily invasion increases and the prognosis dims.”

Thus, the lesser chance a patient has in his recovery to conscious life, the less right the state has to compel medical treatment upon him.

Impact of the Quinlan Case on the Medical Community

The Quinlan case has left a profound influence in the medical, as well as legal community.  One of these impacts includes the development of formal ethics committees in hospitals, nursing homes and in other similar institutions.

During the time of the Quinlan case, ethics committees were unheard of.  Doctors were confronted with the predicament concerning the use of their independent medical judgment relating to the disposition of their dying patients.  Some doctors admitted that they are ill-equipped to make a sound judgment.

Ms. Quinlan’s case opened up doors for the establishment of these ethics committees in hospitals.  These committees are composed of physicians, social workers, lawyers and theologians.  Their tasks tackle the ethical aspect in the hospital setting.  They review individual circumstances affecting moral questions relating to the preservation of life.  In addition, they also provide advice and assistance for patients and their medical caretakers.

Moreover, the Karen Ann Quinlan Memorial Foundation adds the High Court’s ruling paved the way for patients and their families the “right to live each stage of life with dignity and respect.” (http://www.karenannquinlanhospice.org/History.htm)

Judgegeorgegreer.com adds that the case also conceptualized a new definition of death in some states, and even prompted the adoption of laws recognizing the right to die.  Accordingly, a patient may outline his preference over the use of extraordinary means to maintain life.  In addition, a guardian may, on the patient’s behalf, make health care decisions.  Thus, artificial feeding could be withheld from terminally ill patients if it can be shown that it is in accord with the latter’s wishes.  (http://judgegeorgegreer.com/images/quinlan.htm)

The Quinlan case also gave birth to the right to die movement.  Prior to this case, the State may compel a patient to undergo medical treatment despite the latter’s objection on account of his right to privacy.  This would mean that the doctors have the right to administer medical treatment to a patient notwithstanding his protest.  With the Quinlan case, this was reversed.

This case has been very significant.  It marked a new era as the Supreme Court ordered that an individual’s right to privacy prevails over the State’s interest regarding the preservation of life.

Another important milestone set by the Quinlan case was that it influenced the medical community as it redefined the meaning of death.  In the past, death was limited to the cessation of heart and blood circulation.  However, in view of modern medical instruments and measures, an individual could still have a heart beat and be kept alive through respiratory ventilators, and yet lack any brain activity.

With the advent of the Quinlan case, the concept of death was expanded to include “brain death,” wherein there is an absence of response to pain or other stimuli, papillary reflexes, blood pressure, flat respiration and flat electroencephalograms.

The brain has basically two categories: (i) vegetative, and (ii) cognitive.  The vegetative aspect controls our basic bodily functions like breathing, sleeping, blood pressure, heart rate, etc.  On the other hand, the cognitive functions relate to our interactions with the outside world by talking, smelling, hearing, seeing, and thinking, among others.  The presence of any of these functions would mean that the brain is not biologically dead.

Conclusion

The Quinlan case is a matter of transcendental significance.  This landmark case was the first to tackle the question of withdrawing the life support system from a person under a permanent vegetative state.

As held in the case, the patient has the right to refuse medical treatment as his right to privacy from the agonizing intrusion of medical instruments prevail over the State’s interest over the preservation of life.  Accordingly, the doctors cannot assert their right to administer medical treatment on a patient over the latter’s objection.

The case acknowledged the patient’s right to die.  This moral and ethical question has long been evaded due to the conflict resulting from the professional obligation of the doctors, on one hand, and, on the other, the emotional distress suffered by the patient’s loved ones seeing him there suffering.  Naturally, the issue would boiled down to the issue of euthanasia.

The case also redefined the concept of death.  It appropriately conceptualized the new meaning of death in view of the rapid advancement of medical technology since one can prolong its life through artificial means.

The long-standing definition of death as the cessation of vital bodily functions have become obsolete since a person may still be able to breathe through ventilators or respiraors yet lacking any brain activity.  Accordingly, the scope of death was rightfully expanded to include “brain death.”

Sources

Biography of Karen Ann Quinlan

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/karen-ann-quinlan/

THE MATTER OF KAREN QUINLAN

http://www.ou.edu/englhale/quinlan.html

Overview on Decorticate posture — University of Maryland Medical Centre

http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/003300.htm

Quinlan, Karen Ann

http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/cases/case21.asp

Karen Ann Quinlan Memorial Foundation

http://www.karenannquinlanhospice.org/History.htm

In The Matter Of Karen Quinlan An Alleged Incompetent

Supreme Court of New Jersey — 70 N.J. 10; 355 A.2d 647; 1976

http://judgegeorgegreer.com/images/quinlan.htm

 

The McJob Concept Is Getting Weaker

         The McJob concept was first coined as early as 1986, and was popularized in 1991 by Douglas Coupland’s in cult novel Generation X which described first as “a low-pay, low-prestige, low-dignity, low benefit, no-future job in the service sector” this term comes from the fast-food giant restaurant McDonald’s, It became a problem facing the HRM especially the hard HRM which mostly seek for the organizational goals not employees’ needs, it’s the job that requires few skills, simple techniques, much working with low pay, and it offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. It applies to any low-status job where little training is required and workers’ activities are tightly regulated by managers. Most perceived McJobs are in the service industry, particularly fast food, copy shops, and retail sales, where the HRM is focusing mainly on the company’s objectives. McJobs are associated with low-trust and cost-cutting work contexts, which results low wages for the heavy effort with little responsibility, therefore many fast-food workers (McDonald’s) who are considered one of the main service sectors reported negative res and conditions while they work according to being them weak roles players, little influence on the company they work in, little attention is presented to them, that led to defaults or lack in their job satisfaction.

         What does empower people to work effectively, efficiently, with their organizations, other words what gives us the ability and spirit to work, As HRM main aspects as motivation is essentially taken in our consideration, motivation affect mainly on productivities and manufacturing in all sectors, Intrinsic and Extrinsic are the two forms of motivation, the intrinsic (self) motivation is one’s internal craving, wish, to be fulfilled, accomplished, being taken to achieve self-satisfaction, appreciation, related to psychological intangible rewards, it’s a kind of sense, the extrinsic motivation comes from outside the performer, environmental motivator, money, threat of punishment, crowd cheering, tangible rewards. Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist (1906-1964), conducted two fundamentally different views of human nature, those who are motivated by themselves called Y workers (Theory Y), employees are working properly with their own desire, enjoy being in this career, carry confidently the responsibility, and those who are motivated by other people called X workers (Theory X), where the employees directed and controlled by managers or supervisors, motivated by money, coercion, and threats of punishment which lead employees to dislike work, avoiding responsibilities if it’s possible, close to McJob concept where the employees need to be pushed to accomplish the organizational goals, at work, (as McJob manager) should consider what mostly offend my employees, their salary, the way they are treated, their ambitions and future, promises, rewards, harmony in work effort and responsibilities, directions, qualified trainers, aims, duties specifications, this how a manager improve his employees, turn to Y workers manager.

         Abraham Maslow an American psychologist (1908-1970), whose motivation model is built upon human needs, consists five level of needs lower and higher needs, predetermined in order of importance, the lower needs usually met before the higher, Physiological and Safety needs are the lower needs, Social, Esteem, and Self-actualisation are the higher needs, usually the lower needs being satisfied externally, and the higher needs being satisfied internally.

              Maslow assumed that it is not necessary to completely satisfy one need before another need emerges, and once the need satisfied can’t be a motivator particularly in higher need otherwise the employees would turn their striving to anything else, probable mental health is a result of meeting these needs, in order to motivate employees (McJob) by Maslow’s motivation theory, take in our consideration what they in need of to be motivated, and at what levels this needs belong, or which level of their needs hierarchy that has lack, and so let the managers work on it and have it met whatever it was physiological like rest, safety like secure environment, social like relations at work, or even lack in advanced area as well as self-esteem like belief of important role player, it’s very rare to find a McJob at self-actualization because it’s the level of fullest the best the person can reach.

              Job design is the process of how a career is defined and created by specifying particular tasks to certain individual or group, and how it’s organized and recognized to satisfy the employees’ needs with achieving organizational objectives, it’s the job title, major organizational processes are related to job design such as recruitment, annual performance appraisal, selection, motivation, dismissal, training and development. Any job should be described by Job design, as the McJob is descried in job design as it’s actually different, other words the McJob is known as low responsibility, low prestige, no future, has no experience, little payment, little ambition, this what people believe away from the real job description, which illustrates that there’s a salary being increased from time to time, respective career, certain tasks are specified, require skills, discipline, standardization and efficiency are required in order to minimize the effort and maximize the productivity, McJob manager should work on many approaches to have their employees well-directed such as increasing the outputs of the one worker, performance appraisals, separating up the tasks into small to be clear and specified sub-tasks, reducing the deliberate logical and understandable responsibilities, establishing authorities hierarchically, harmony environment goes around.

              Job characteristics is defined as what obligations and requirements are associated with a specific job, other words it’s the tasks that give a job an identification or where this job belongs to, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model is one famous well-known job characteristics model which is built upon the relationship between employees’ psychological conditions and outcomes rate, Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes, it’s summarized in five core job characteristics; skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feed back from the job, from McJob concept employees believe that they are not skilled enough, weak or neglect profession’s title, belief of no impact on other people inside or outside the organization, few opportunities in being independent, little performance feedback by supervisors or manager, this all have to be taken into action by any McJob manager to avoid this problem and increase the outcomes of the firm.

                 Job satisfaction is one of the major HRM aspects, it’s a one’s emotion regarding to the work either positive or negative about a various aspects of a one job, there’s five certified factors affect on job satisfaction; individual, social, cultural, organizational and environmental, McJob has a lot of defaults related to job satisfaction like being the majority under 21 of age, interactions and relations at work are weak formally and informally, the values are little, usually X managers types, no flexibility at work, hard working conditions, little financial return if it’s compared with effort, so there’s absolutely no job satisfactions in McJob, which may lead to retirement, dismissal, threats of punishment, or hard time, so McJob lacks must be considered by management in order to remediate it by fulfilling the organizational success.

(Word count=1,154)

·        http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/may/24/anewmcdefinition

·        http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article1832122.ece

            Fast-food restaurant chain McDonald’s is offering a new, more positive definition of the term ‘McJob’. Against this, the OED responds that its job is merely to record popular usage; in other words, it is not the job of a dictionary to alter the meanings of words to reflect how certain interested parties would like the world to appear.

         McDonald’s is in danger of creating a wave of new additions to the dictionary to sit alongside the now infamous “McJob”; words such as McPedant, McKilljoy and McSense-of-humour-failure.

            The term McJob has become shorthand for low inspirational jobs in every sector, but the fast food giant’s UK arm is fighting to distance its brand from the image of poorly paid burger flippers. Today McDonald’s will begin a campaign calling for the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and Collins, the publisher, to change their definitions.

            The OED, which has carried the word McJob on its online dictionary since March 2001, said: “We monitor changes in the language and reflect these in our definitions, according to the evidence we find.”

                 McJob concept is getting weaker day after day, the OED definition not any more used officially because of the fights that been taken by McDonalds restaurants, and also several studies have been conducted in order to face this critical significant issue which collapsed a lot of youths’ lives, McJob these days almost vanished.

Ref.

1.     Website (www.spiritus-temporis.com/mcjob)

Accessed on 18 mar, at 11:42 am

2.     Book (An introduction to human resources management in business, 2006, pp10-11-12-21-22-23-24-25-26-)

A Boundary Between Collectivism And Consciousness: The Nature Of The Unnatural Machine

Collectivism and consciousness are separated by a dividing line.

The Unnatural Machine’s Nature

The concept of an inevitable revolution by the Proletariat and its potentialities are intellectually intriguing, but it will not necessarily occur. The German Ideology presents a general consensus that a revolution is necessary to reestablish individuals as productive, fulfilled, and valuable members of society. The Proletariat is adversely affected by being shackled to meaningless labor and exploited solely for their ability to create “things,” which dehumanizes them and preys upon them. The question at hand is whether it is essential for individuals to find fulfillment and break free from the constraints imposed by years of Capitalist expansion. Are they so entrapped in the very objects they create that they become extensions of the machinery itself? Can individuals no longer speak for themselves because they are so mechanized, in a sense? In my opinion, individuals cannot transcend these distractions while deeply immersed in the system of money, commodities, Capitalism, and power. As workers, individuals lack agency and only gain power when they detach themselves from the system and refuse to work in this manner. However, this is an individual action that inevitably isolates them from the collective, alienating themselves instead of uniting with others who may conspire to revolt. Nonetheless, it ultimately leads individuals to confront their own humanity and recognize their inherent solitude in the world.

Men lack collective consciousness of the natural world, which frightens them when they realize their solitude amidst nature’s forces. Consequently, men find themselves ensnared within a self-made machine, an artificial power that either unites or divides them. Upon attaining this newfound awareness, men may recognize the superficiality and self-interest driving their relationships. Their actions and associations in the realm of work lack genuineness. If this foundation crumbles, men will either grow suspicious of their work-related connections or forsake them entirely for simpler bonds with nature. Neither response facilitates a revolution to emancipate them from confusion and Capitalism. This consciousness refuses to reconcile the unnatural concept of work with their innate desires for happiness and humanity. If only men could believe that both work and these natural aspects can coexist harmoniously, perhaps a revolution would be possible. However, history has proven otherwise, making it unlikely to change in the future.

From its inception to its conclusion, consciousness is a social construct. Initially, it only comprehends the immediate sensory environment and the limited connections with others and external entities, while also acknowledging nature’s overpowering and unattainable force. This recognition of nature’s supremacy resembles an animal’s perception, as historical modifications have not yet occurred. It is crucial to note that this perception of nature and the specific relationship between humans and nature are influenced by societal structure, and vice versa. Ultimately, the constrained bond between humans and nature determines their restricted bond with one another, and vice versa (Marx & Engels, 1845, pp.35-37).

When individual consciousness overrides the necessary mechanisms outside man’s machine to initiate self-transformation, the collective consciousness emerges in the future. Initially recognizing that the mechanisms crafted and perpetuated by humans are unnatural, it becomes instinctive to avoid personal accountability for this destructive materialistic design and renounce any potential action to eradicate it. Moreover, the overwhelming forces of the machine hinder a conscious dialogue regarding our ethical responsibility to dismantle this unearthly flaw of suffering and servitude. Building connections with others and instigating a revolution necessitates moral action and responsibility. However, it is simple for individuals to claim “I did not create this,” yet they would be mistaken as it is their continued daily contribution to the Capitalist wheel that sustains it. Even when withdrawing from its influence, individuals inadvertently foster an environment of acquiescence through their inaction. While each person experiences moments of self-awareness, they often feel ashamed and reluctant to accept blame for their creation – even if at a distance.

The conditions for individuals to engage in sexual intercourse with each other are determined by their own individuality rather than external factors. These specific conditions are unique to individuals who are in certain relationships and are essential for them to create their own material life and related aspects through their own actions. Initially, these conditions align with the inherent nature of production until a contradiction arises. At that point, these conditions become an accidental constraint and later individuals recognize them as such. It is believed that individuals from earlier periods were also aware of this constraint (Marx & Engels, 1845, 81).

Man must create a collective, individual consciousness by reflecting on his relationship with industry and others, and sharing his feelings of exploitation and directionless life. However, the circular nature of the Capitalist system confuses this process. Yet, a collective pause and realization of their situation, triggered by a shared catastrophe or extreme event, will prevent action due to shame for allowing exploitation. Man has become so trapped in his circular life that stepping out leads to a spin in self-consciousness. As a group, the shame of creating this cycle out of ignorance will silence dissent. In this panic, man will long for the circularity of either the machine or nature. Ultimately, nothing can be changed.

The constant need to replace slaves resulted in their frequent death, making slavery a fundamental aspect of the productive system. The plebeians, who were neither free nor slave, were unable to elevate themselves beyond being a working class mob. Rome, ultimately, never expanded beyond being a city and its political ties with the provinces were easily disrupted by political upheavals (Marx & Engels, 1845, 84).

The presented negativity is the reality of man, nature, consciousness, and the machine. The Capitalist machine keeps running with many cogs and will continue to do so, even when individuals step into consciousness. They may distance themselves from the machine that binds them to an unnatural life with unnatural needs, but someone else will take their place. This circularity of slavery to commodities is deeply ingrained in daily life, replacing the natural circularity of the earth’s rotation. Capitalism is like the earth, a spinning wheel that constantly encourages work and consumption. Those who reject these premises are completely alone, as nature intended, and cannot connect with others on a different wheel to revolt against a power stronger than the entire universe.

References

In Volume 5 of the Collected Works, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels talk about their book “The German Ideology” along with other writings they produced in April.

The online accessibility of the content extends from 1845 to April 1847.

http://www.ucc.ieacad/archive/cw/library/marx/mia_2/p/socstud/tmp_store/volum/e05/index.htm> was last accessed on 17, November 2008.

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