Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory In Regard To Military Veterans With PTSD University Essay Example

To prove the application’s effectiveness, it is necessary to conduct a survey among those who attempted to utilize it. The process might take a while, as people with cognitive disorders tend to perceive information more slowly (Cooper, Andrew, & Fossey, 2016). Once the app is created, a nurse practitioner should invite each veteran separately to her office for the app presentation. This demonstration aims to describe the purpose of the program, features, information that should be filled in, and in what cases it can be used. Then the nurse should show a tutorial on how to navigate it (Navabi, Ghaffari, & Jannat-Alipoor, 2016). Furthermore, it is necessary to advise how to fill in the checklist with the built-in symptoms and the recommendations and decide whether they can cope with discomfort on their own or need urgent help. Lastly, a nurse must ensure the patient is able to show a response demonstration on how to use the app and if they can enter each section.

Once the tutorial is completed and each veteran received access to the app, nurses need to conduct a survey identifying if they absorbed the knowledge. The study suggested will include two parts: theoretical and practical. The first one will consist of general questions concerning the purpose of the app, its features, and how helpful they expect it to be. Meanwhile, the practice section will be represented in screenshots from the app with the gaps to fill in and open-ended questions on how to access the required area.

The results of the two-part survey will provide information in regard to the number of patients who can successfully use the application. If more than 50% of veterans with PTSD pass reports having no implications employing the app, it will guarantee that the program has reached its objectives. Moreover, it is expected to continue educating the population suffering from PTDS or other cognitive how to use such applications and making them available to the public.

The reliability of the survey can be obtained by implementing the test-retest model. Reliability refers to the consistent measurements of the same aspects. This tool involves performing the same procedure over a specific amount of time (Rose & Johnson, 2020). Thus, veterans with PTSD subjected to a reduced display of their abilities should repeat the questionnaire about the app after a week, month, and year to demonstrate how well they remember its features. This intervention will be useful for proving the reliability of the program.

Validity will be harder to access; however, it is more vital in research. It stands for the accurate measurement of the aspect that is intended to assess (Rose & Johnson, 2020). To measure the validity of the application for veterans, it is essential to use the criterion method, which implies a correspondence between two valid measures. In our case, these measures are the presumes outcomes and patients’ responses. The survey conducted will measure veterans’ abilities to use the app appropriately. If the results demonstrate the predicted effects, the app will have a high degree of validity; thus, it will achieve the program’s goals and prove its efficacy.

To sum up, if the experiment proves reliable and valid, the application for those who have PTSD may be improved or facilitated for everyday use. Moreover, the app is expected to increase life quality by providing instant access to the recommendation and medical help. It is anticipated that veterans demonstrate a high level of comprehension and use the app when they need healthcare assistance.


Cooper, L., Andrew, S., & Fossey, M. (2016). Educating nurses to care for military veterans in civilian hospitals: An integrated literature review. Nurse Education Today, 47, 68-73. Web.

Navabi, N., Ghaffari, F., & Jannat-Alipoor, Z. (2016). Older adults’ attitudes and barriers toward the use of mobile phones. Clinical interventions in aging, 11, 1371–1378. Web.

Rose, J., & Johnson, C. (2020). Contextualizing reliability and validity in qualitative research: toward more rigorous and trustworthy qualitative social science in leisure research. Journal of Leisure Research, 51(4), 432-451. Web.

Nursing: Interdisciplinary Issue Identification


The interviewee, in this case, was the Director of Nursing in an independently licensed free-standing ambulatory surgery center (ASC). The organization has 25 employees including full-time, part-time, and casual workers. The ASC performs a variety of same-day surgeries including but not limited to orthopedic/sports medicine, ENT, ophthalmology, GI, breast surgery, and podiatry. The interviewee’s primary duties in the organization include overseeing the everyday workflow, staffing patterns, and scheduling at the ASC. He is responsible for the hiring of staff, their schedule, and timekeeping, and the structure and organization of the surgical schedule. He is also expected to recruit and maintain open communication and relationship with surgeons and their office teams. He reports through surgical services leadership at a hospital within the organization.

Since its opening on December 1, 2020, the ASC has been facing the problem of establishing consistent volumes of cases and ensuring that the involved teams are working their hours. To address this issue, the interviewee has to spend time recruiting new surgeons by contacting them, providing tours, and learning their needs and wants. Additionally, he has to become creative with staffing patterns and look for other options for the team members if he cannot provide them with their hours. The interviewee noted that these issues are being addressed continuously whereby meetings with the ASC’s leadership team are held biweekly coupled with maintaining a consistent agenda by utilizing a working document with all of the team’s communication with the various surgeons.

The interviewee added that interdisciplinary collaboration is essential in the organization. Together with his team, they collaborate daily with many other departments on and off-site to ensure that daily workflow runs smoothly. According to the interviewee, he has been working as part of interdisciplinary teams in all aspects of his career and the experience is rewarding as he learns how the other departments work, builds relationships, and fosters teamwork. He has also managed to build communication and trust between team members of all the departments that he works with.

Issue Identification

The main problem facing the ASC organization is that of low case volumes. In other words, the hospital lacks enough clients to sustain its operations and ensure that all workers get enough hours according to their terms of engagement. Therefore, there is an urgent need to come up with a strategy to address this problem. One of the ways that the ASC could use to ensure increased case volumes is by improving the quality and efficiency of care services offered. This way, patients would be convinced to revisit as repeat clients and refer their friends and relatives to the healthcare facility. This assertion underscores the need for the implementation of a change process, which requires the direct input of the various interdisciplinary teams working in the organization. According to Rosen et al. (2018), “The coordination and delivery of safe, high-quality care demand reliable teamwork and collaboration within, as well as across, organizational, disciplinary, technical, and cultural boundaries” (p. 433). This observation is one specific reason why an interdisciplinary approach would be appropriate for the issue raised in this interview.

Change Theories that Could Lead to an Interdisciplinary Solution

For a successful change to be implemented, a theoretical basis of a certain model of change is needed to offer step-by-step guidelines on how the various stages of change should be executed. In this case, Kurt Lewin’s change model or theory could be employed at the ASC to improve the quality and efficiency of services offered. According to Hussain et al. (2018), Kurt Lewin’s change model has three steps – unfreezing, changing, and freezing, which is a simple and practical model for understanding and implementing any change process. This model is appropriate for the creation of an interdisciplinary solution as it involves all the stakeholders.

For instance, in the issue of improving volume cases at the ASC organization, the interviewee could use the unfreezing phase to create awareness about the underlying problem and how the current way of operations is hindering progress towards finding a solution. During the changing phase, the real transition takes place whereby the set change goals to improve the quality and efficiency of care services are implemented. In the last phase, refreezing, the interviewee would reinforce, stabilize, and solidify the new state after implementing the change. Therefore, this theory of change is relevant to the issue of improving quality and efficiency at ASC as part of increasing case volumes as it involves all the stakeholders needed for the change process to be successful. The reference by Hussain et al. (2018) is credible for it is a peer-reviewed journal article and relevant as it discusses a change theory that could be applied in managing interdisciplinary teams.

Leadership Strategies that Could Lead to an Interdisciplinary Solution

Transformational leadership is the best strategy that could be used to lead to an interdisciplinary solution. According to Krepia et al. (2018), transformational leadership “is a leadership style based on the trust and respect that employees feel about their leader” (p. 190). As such, employees are motivated and inspired to exceed what is typically expected from them in the quest to achieve the set organizational goals. Therefore, when every member of the various teams is working towards the achievement of a common goal, it becomes easy to achieve an interdisciplinary solution.

For instance, in the ASC case above, the various teams and individuals including surgeons, nurses, administrators, and all other stakeholders would work in concert under the leadership of the interviewee to ensure that the goal of improving the quality and efficiency of care is achieved. Consequently, patients would enjoy the quality and timely care services and in return come back as repeat clients or refer their friends and relatives. Ultimately, the organization would have increased case volumes and all teams will have enough work for their allocated hours. The reference source used here is credible as it is a peer-reviewed journal article and relevant because it addresses the issue of leadership strategies associated with interdisciplinary solutions.

Collaboration Approaches for Interdisciplinary Teams

For interdisciplinary teams to work together successfully, the best collaboration practices should be employed. Rosen et al. (2018) argue that positive leadership, effective communication strategies, training and development of workers, appropriate skill mix, teamwork, clarity of vision, and understanding and respecting roles are some of the best approaches that could be applied in an interdisciplinary workplace. The interviewee noted that interdisciplinary collaboration plays a central part in the organization. For instance, the ASC’s leadership team meets biweekly to evaluate the progress and strategize on the way forward. Therefore, the leadership could improve on these collaboration efforts by ensuring that goals are clearly stated with all members or teams knowing their specific roles towards the achievement of the common objectives. Additionally, the interviewee should ensure that he gets the right skill mix for the professional execution of duties. The reference source by Rosen et al. (2018) is credible having been published in a reputable peer-review journal.


Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), 123-127. Web.

Krepia, V., Katsaragakis, S., Kaitelidou, D., & Prezerakos, P. (2018). Transformational leadership and its evolution in nursing. Progress in Health Sciences, 8(1), 189-194. Web.

Rosen, M. A., DiazGranados, D., Dietz, A. S., Benishek, L. E., Thompson, D., Pronovost, P. J., & Weaver, S. J. (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: Key discoveries enabling safer, high-quality care. The American Psychologist, 73(4), 433-450. Web.

Colonialism And Ethnic And Racial Divisions In UK


The British Empire was one of the largest empires of all the times. Its power, culture, and traditions stretched all over the world with unbelievable speed. It comprised lots of colonies, dominions, and other territories, which were ruled by the United Kingdom. The end of 1900s was the end of the British Empire. To be more exact, the handover ceremony of 1997 was marked as the end of the British Empire. Nowadays, the United Kingdom is the combination of four great countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The population of this kingdom is quite various.

The Caucasian population of the United Kingdom is combined with different races coming from Asia’s nations particularly from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines, and many others, which incline with the Buddhists, Catholic and Muslim religion. There also is a large percentage of Africans and American races that visually posses black and white skin colour with their rituals of cultural beliefs, some Europeans, and finally the local British English people that shadow the historical, cultural and ethnical perspectives of the four nations of the kingdom. The colonization that took place during the times of the British Empire has a very significant impact on ethnical and racial division in the United Kingdom.


Immigration is one of the most significant parts in the whole history of the United Kingdom. It is not that easy to trace English roots, as all origins are hidden in a tangled web. It is necessary to underline that immigration happened not only from the British Empire, but also from other European countries. For example, the research of Mason shows that in 1857, there were 27,000 Irish immigrants, 3% of the population (7% in Scotland). (2000, pp. 20). Nowadays, more than 10% of Irish people still leave the country. (2000, pp. 21)

During the times of British Empire colonization, people suffered from ethnic and racial divisions. Such divisions played a very important role on self-identity and cultural connection between nations and separate people. Victimization also influenced considerably the development of relations between countries. So, victimization, racism, and ethnicity are the brightest symptoms of impact of colonization.

It is necessary to admit that during any period of colonization by any empire, those people who invaded usually find enough reasons to justify their actions and call such steps as the necessary ones. They can easily interfere in the lives of other people and change them forever. The British Empire was not an exception. The steps taken by the British Empire could be easily justified, however, the consequences of that colonization can hardly justified nowadays. To explain clearly what the impact of colonization on ethnic and racial division in the United Kingdom was, first, it is necessary to give an explanation to ethnical and racial diversities.

The social construction of ethnicity and races derived from cultural aspects of the nation. In 2002, Eriksen studied the relation between race and ethnicity and offered lots of interesting ideas. He says that “race is a negative term of exclusion, while ethic identity is a term of positive inclusion. However, ethnicity can assume many forms.” (2002, pp. 6) Ethnic classification, either externally imposed or intrinsically engendered, often defines people’s membership to a group. Ethnic uniqueness provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and between the groups. In comparison to racial categorization, ethnic categories often seem varied, though they are fixed and monotonous entities.

Conversely, as ethnicity incorporates ethnical traits, changes in people’s affinity with any of them can occur from time to time. The migration and working force coming from different nation started the exposure of British people to different ethnical and cultural interactions. Black people, who come from Africa and America, have produced a slighted racial conflict issue to the nation and presented an ineluctable product of economic and sexual competition of two mutually exclusive and naturally antagonistic groups of working men as logical scapegoat in the otherwise homogeneous working class and inter racial hostility. (Bloom, 1948)

The issue of identity, the role of language, the colour of skin, and the origins vary the implication of division of colonialism in the United Kingdom. All this influenced considerably human interactions and working capacity together with their working relationship. Mason tries “to describe diversity without acceding to the idea that difference is a problem.” (2000, pp. 3) Numerous misunderstandings affected people’s way of thinking that leads to various issues and concerns, which caused a conflict of social, cultural, and economic interests. (Bhaba, 1994) As Robert Winder says “We do not always think of Britain as a country settles at a deep level by immigrants. We prefer to construct mythologies of national character as something stable, as a still and virtuous point in an often unruly world.” (2004, pp. 3)

Nowadays, there is still a real danger of institutional racism. (Pilkington 2003) It is one more consequence of colonialism in the United Kingdom. People cannot accept the representatives of other races and nations without a certain kind of prejudice and coldness. The issue of ethnicity will always play a significant role, and numerous researches and experiments cannot change a simple truth that a representative of one race will face lots of misunderstandings in another group of people. It is high time for the Government to think over the programs, which will help to extirpate racial and ethnical problems among the society we live in. Only after careful implementation of the programs, it will be possible to say that the impact of colonization in the United Kingdom has only positive feedbacks. Unfortunately, today, this question is under numerous discussions.


The impact of colonialism on ethnic and racial divisions in the United Kingdom is really great. It plays an important role in the present scenario of English society. Because of numerous migrations and discontents, separate groups of people with their own preferences and interests have been created. Nowadays, such groups develop in different ways. Ethnic and racial division cannot be forgotten. An individual is always a part of the group and needs to work as a part of this group.

The role of the group is to identify and understand the factors, which may lead to the conflicts with other groups. The United Kingdom should work as a united nation in order not to be affected with global relations in social and economic consideration. The awareness of people and the concern of the nation as for the development of human relation and interaction of every individual beyond the concept of ethnical and cultural differences is a significant virtue that will improve man’s capacity and strength for proper existences and living.

Reference List

Bhaba H. K., 1994, The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.

Bloom, L., 1994, A Study of Racial Relation in English Society. The Journal of British Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 54-98.

Eriksen, T. H., 2002, Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspective. Pluto Press.

Mason, D., 2000, Race & Ethnicity in Modern Britain, Oxford Univ. Pr.

Pilkington, A., 2003, Racial Disadvantage & Ethnic Diversity in Britain. Palgrave.

Winder, R., 2004, Bloody Foreigners: The Story of Immigration to Britain. Abacus.

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