Lack Of Health Literacy In Patients Essay Example For College


Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to obtain, understand, and use health information to make informed decisions about their health. It involves not only the ability to read and comprehend health-related materials but also the ability to communicate effectively with healthcare providers and navigate healthcare systems. The problem of concern in this paper is patients’ lack of health literacy. Lack of health literacy is a person’s inability to obtain, comprehend, and utilize health knowledge successfully to make informed health choices. Patient lack of health literacy affects healthcare quality, safety, and cost.

My personal experience

I assessed a 33-year-old female diabetic patient. I started the assessment with simple questions on her previous sugar levels, which she could not answer. During the evaluation, I learned that the patent lacks much information on her health condition and its management. She was also ignorant to understand it. To me, she seemed not to care about her health, meaning she did not know the danger should get herself into. Health literacy is essential because it can significantly influence health outcomes. People with poor health literacy may struggle to comprehend medical directions, manage chronic conditions, and make educated health choices. They may also be more likely to be hospitalized and have insufficient general health results.

Comment on the evidence-based practice (EBP) documents or websites you reviewed.

The article “Social Determinants of Health” provides an overview of the various factors that influence health outcomes, including social and economic conditions, as well as individual behaviors and healthcare systems. The article also barely discusses health literacy as an essential health determinant. It emphasizes that people with poor health literacy may have trouble obtaining and comprehending health information, communicating successfully with healthcare providers, and making informed health choices. This can lead to poorer health results and worsen current disparities in health (plan et al., 2022).

The article explains how social determinants such as income, education, employment, housing, and social support can significantly impact an individual’s health and well-being. It also discusses how addressing social determinants of health can help to reduce health inequalities and improve overall population health. While the article does not explicitly address health literacy, it highlights the importance of improving access to healthcare information and services to address social determinants of health. This includes providing information in clear and simple language, addressing language barriers, and promoting health education and awareness.

Share the process and experience of exploring the influence of leadership, collaboration, communication, change management, and policy on the problem.

I encountered no significant barriers during the assessment process because the patient was cooperative. The patient’s family agreed that the patient lacked proper health literacy, which could lead to other health complications. BI employed several leadership and communication strategies during the assessment of the patient. I ensured I had created a rapport with the patient to make her develop confidence. I used simple language, which enabled the patient to understand the questions and respond accordingly. The changes I could have made during the assessment is to educate the family further on the need for health literacy in society. The different thing I would have done is take the patient through the possible complications that she could attract due to lack of health literacy.

Explain how the patient, family, or population problem impacts the quality of care, patient safety, and costs to the system and individual.

People with poor health literacy may struggle to understand and grasp medical directions, fill out health documents, evaluate test findings, and adhere to treatment plans. Patients may be unable to make informed choices about their care if they do not entirely grasp their medical situation, treatment alternatives, or medication directions. This can result in bad health results, extended hospital stays, and increased healthcare expenses. Low health literacy is a major public health issue that can jeopardize patient safety, raise healthcare expenses, and negatively affect people. Patients with low health literacy may have difficulty understanding medical directions and medications, resulting in medication mistakes and adverse drug responses. They may also struggle to communicate their symptoms and medical background, resulting in misdiagnosis and postponed care. Low health literacy can have serious financial consequences and jeopardize patient safety. Patients with poor health literacy are more likely to use emergency services, be hospitalized, and remain in the hospital for extended periods. These factors all increase healthcare expenses for individuals and the overall healthcare system.

Explain how state board nursing practice standards and/or organizational or governmental policies can affect the problem’s impact on the quality of care, patient safety, and costs to the system and individual.

State board nursing practice standards and organizational and governmental policies are critical in tackling the effect of poor health literacy on healthcare quality, patient safety, and expenses because state board nursing practice guidelines advise nurses on their practice area, ethical duties, and care standards. Nurses conscious of the consequences of low health literacy can help their patients better their health literacy. They can provide plain-language patient education tools, use visual aids to convey health information, and ensure patients can access trustworthy health information resources. Nurses can help patients better comprehend their health conditions, therapy plans, and medication regimens, resulting in better health results and lower healthcare expenses.

Organizational policies can also help resolve poor health literacy as healthcare organizations can enact policies requiring staff to convey health information in straightforward English, provide patient education tools in multiple languages, and ensure patients can access trustworthy health information resources. Organizations can also educate employees on effective health communication strategies and provide continuing support to assist employees in meeting the health literacy requirements of their patients. Government policies can also play an essential role in addressing poor health literacy. For example, the Affordable Care Act mandates healthcare providers to provide plain-language patient instruction documents and interpreter services to patients with limited English ability. In addition, Medicare and Medicaid have rules in place to encourage the use of plain English in health dialogue and to increase health literacy among their beneficiaries. The government is trying to better health outcomes, lower healthcare expenses, and support health equity by enacting these policies.

Describe research that has tested the effectiveness of these standards and/or policies in addressing care quality, patient safety, and costs to the system and individual.

According to the authors, engaging patients and the general public in healthcare decision-making can have various advantages, including better treatment quality, patient safety, and cost savings. However, they identify several obstacles to the patient and public participation, such as power inequalities, a lack of confidence, and insufficient resources. The authors say that government and organizational policies can play a crucial role in removing these barriers and allowing the patient and public participation. For example, policies that require or encourage patient and public involvement in healthcare decision-making processes can increase responsibility and foster a culture of patient-centered care. Policies that provide resources, such as money for the patient and public involvement activities or instruction for healthcare workers and patients, can also improve patient and public involvement efforts (Ocloo et al., 2021).

Explain how these standards and/or policies will guide your actions in addressing care quality, patient safety, and costs to the system and individual.

Organizational and governmental policies guide and lead nurses in tackling treatment quality, patient safety, and system and personal expenses. These policies define the standards, laws, and expectations that healthcare companies and their employees must adhere to provide secure, effective, and efficient treatment. Prescription safety policies, for example, may require nurses to follow specific procedures when giving medicines, such as double-checking the prescription and dose before delivery. Infection control policies may require nurses to adhere to particular hand cleanliness and personal protective equipment procedures to prevent the spread of diseases. Furthermore, patient-centered care policies may require nurses to engage patients and their families in care decision-making processes, honor their cultural beliefs and desires, and provide education and tools to support their involvement in care. Overall, organizational and governmental policies provide a framework for nurses to direct their actions and ensure that they deliver safe, effective, and efficient care that tackles care quality, patient safety, and system and individual expenses. Nurses can support good patient outcomes, lower the chance of harm, and optimize resource use by adhering to these rules.

Describe the effects of local, state, and federal policies or legislation on your nursing scope of practice within the context of care quality, patient safety, and cost to the system and individual.

Every state has a Nurse Practice Act that governs nurses’ activity areas with rules that outline the legal parameters of nursing practice. They can affect the type of care nurses can provide and their autonomy and accountability for patient outcomes. The Medicare and Medicaid programs, which are significant providers of healthcare services, are regulated by the federal government. These programs have specific rules that govern the kinds of services that nurses can provide and the rates at which those services are reimbursed. Nurses who work in healthcare organizations that engage in these initiatives must be familiar with these rules. State governments can license and certify nurses to work in their states. These procedures ensure that nurses have completed the necessary educational and training standards and can show proficiency in their practice fields. They also aid in ensuring that nurses provide safe and efficient treatment.

Propose strategies to improve the quality of care, enhance patient safety, and reduce costs to the system and individuals.

Improving access to health information, improving dialogue between patients and providers, and enabling patients to participate actively in their health management are all critical strategies for improving treatment quality, increasing patient safety, and lowering system and individual costs. Patients are better prepared to make health-related choices with access to precise and reliable health information. Improving patient-provider communication can decrease the chance of medical mistakes and enhance health results. Empowering people to take an active part in their health management can improve health and lower healthcare expenses. Patients who understand their health conditions are more likely to stick to treatment plans and make lifestyle changes that can improve their health, lowering the risk of hospitalizations and emergency room visits and, as a result, lowering costs for both the individual and the healthcare system.

Discuss research on the effectiveness of these strategies in addressing care quality, patient safety, and costs to the system and individuals.

The study “Building health literacy system capacity: A Framework for literate health systems” suggests a framework for developing health-literate systems intended to enhance treatment quality, patient safety and lower expenses for both people and the healthcare system. The framework comprises three primary strategies: improving access to health information, improving dialogue between patients and providers, and enabling patients to participate in their health management actively. According to the authors, several studies have shown that adopting health literacy interventions can enhance treatment quality and patient safety. Patients are better prepared to make educated health choices when access to health information and dialogue between patients and providers is improved, lowering the risk of medical errors and increasing health outcomes. Empowering patients to participate actively in their health management can result in improved health results and lower healthcare expenses. Patients informed about their health problems tend to stick to therapy plans and make healthy living adjustments. This can result in fewer hospitalizations and emergency room visits, lowering expenses for the person and the healthcare system (Sørensen et al., 2021).

The benchmark sources

Forrester, J. D., Maggio, P. M., & Tennakoon, L. (2022). Cost of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Journal of patient safety18(2), e477-e479.

Gupta, M., Pandey, D., & Naagar, S. (2023). Quality Management and Patient Safety in Healthcare Domain. In A Guide to Hospital Administration and Planning (pp. 67–78). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Kepner, S., & Jones, R. (2021). 2020 Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting: An Analysis of Serious Events and Incidents from the Nation’s Largest Event Reporting Database. Patient Safety3(2), 6–21.

Plan, S., Invitations, W. A. F., & Bursary, V. S. R. P. (2022). Social determinants of health. Public Health.


In conclusion, health literacy is an important element that influences healthcare quality, patient safety, and healthcare expenses. Patients with low health literacy may battle to comprehend medical knowledge, interact effectively with healthcare professionals, and make health-related choices. This can result in poor health results, increased readmission rates, and increased healthcare costs. The involvement of state board nursing practice standards, organizational policies, and government policies in tackling the problem of poor health literacy is important. To increase patient health literacy, nurses can use tactics such as straightforward language, visual tools, and reliable health information resources. Organizational and government policies that demand straightforward communication and patient instruction tools can also support health literacy. Improving healthcare results, patient safety, and lowering healthcare expenses requires tackling health literacy.


Forrester, J. D., Maggio, P. M., & Tennakoon, L. (2022). Cost of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Journal of Patient Safety18(2), e477-e479.

Gupta, M., Pandey, D., & Naagar, S. (2023). Quality Management and Patient Safety in Healthcare Domain. In A Guide to Hospital Administration and Planning (pp. 67–78). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Kepner, S., & Jones, R. (2021). 2020 Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting: An Analysis of Serious Events and Incidents from the Nation’s Largest Event Reporting Database. Patient Safety3(2), 6–21.

Ocloo, J., Garfield, S., Franklin, B. D., & Dawson, S. (2021). Exploring the theory, barriers, and enablers for the patient and public involvement across health, social care, and patient safety: A systematic review of reviews. Health Research Policy and Systemspp. 19, 1–21.

Plan, S., Invitations, W. A. F., & Bursary, V. S. R. P. (2022). Social determinants of health. Public Health.

Plan, S., Invitations, W. A. F., & Bursary, V. S. R. P. (2022). Social determinants of health. Public Health.

Sørensen, K., Levin-Zamir, D., Duong, T. V., Okan, O., Brasil, V. V., & Nutbeam, D. (2021). Building health literacy system capacity: A framework for literate health systems. Health Promotion International36(Supplement_1), i13-i23.

Repetitive Patterns In Art Essay Example For College

The effectiveness of any piece of art depends on its ability to appeal to the audience. The artists, therefore, struggle to develop works that appeal to the audience’s emotions and communicate the overall motif. Among the works of art that have effectively used this technique are “Composition VIII” by Wassily Kandinsky, “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough)” by Barbara Kruger, and “Marilyn Monroe” by Andy Warhol. The three works have developed a particular trait in common. The artists have been able to use repetitive objects to describe their works and give the audience a hint about what they aimed to achieve. In “Composition VIII,” Kandinsky wanted to communicate his postwar achievement and the aesthetics of the art world. This is why he used so many repetitive forms to emphasize his viewpoint.[1] “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough)” by Barbara Kruger reveals the extent to which one can attain the perfection society idolizes. The art shows the face of a young woman trying to change her appearance to meet societal demands. “Marilyn Monroe” by Andy Warhol repeats the facial painting of a celebrity to emphasize the saint-like nature with which fans approach their celebrities, creating a sense of immortality and holiness. The three works have presented repetition as the greatest tool artists use to appeal to their audience and explain their point of view. The more one contemplates the repetitive nature, the more one identifies unique features which form the basis of the motive behind the work. Studying such patterns, therefore, enables the students to understand the movements in any piece of work and how much movement affects the audience’s psychology. Therefore, this paper explores how repetitive objects in visual media have a strong psychological influence on viewers and consumers, influencing their perception, behavior, and decision-making, making them a powerful tool for artists to transmit meaning, inspire emotion, and accomplish their objectives.

Several types of repetitional patterns in art stir the psychology of the audience. Among the notable forms is the geometric pattern in which several repeated or altered shapes are brought together to create a meaningful design. A good example of such a pattern is “Composition VIII,” where symbols such as circles have been repeated severally in creating a unique composition. This composition has gone for irregular pattern creation, which is a little unpredictable but, in the end, has resulted in cohesion.[2]. On the other hand, organic patterns are the opposite of geometric patterns because they emphasize the use of irregularly shaped patterns to create a certain piece. This style avoids using predictable objects such as straight lines. “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough)” by Barbara Kruger contains both geometrical and organic repetition in a bid to compare and merge the perfections and imperfections that people chase after in society.[3] Another pattern is the abstract one, which is a form of art where colors are used to represent an idea that might not exist in the real world[4]. An example is “Marilyn Monroe” by Andy Warhol, where Monroe’s face is depicted using different colors to manifest saint-like features. This is just an idea because Monroe was an ordinary human being who became famous thanks to her stunning acting career.

Additionally, repetitive patterns in any work of art are created by the strategic use of lines and shapes. A clearly defined line gives form to certain shapes and reveals their end and the beginning of a new one. Furthermore, the lines facilitate the act of repetition in the work because they reveal the end of a certain pattern and the beginning of its duplicate.[5]. For example, in “Composition VIII,” several lines crisscross, creating a sense of repetition and giving shape to several aspects of the work. Another is a narrative pattern that tells a story through a work of art. This story might be at the moment or something that has been going on for a long. A good example is “Marilyn Monroe,” which repeatedly used the facial image of the iconic actress to recreate a narrative. The various faces represent the idea of immortality and holiness, which the fans have held for a long time.[6] Also, repetition is aided by using color, which creates texture. Colors are aimed at evoking emotions and giving meaning to certain works. All three works of art above have used colors to attract the audience’s attention. The moderate use of colors gives the work a smooth texture, while excessive use of color generates roughness, which has a hidden meaning.

Repetition in art creates symbolism representing a general idea through certain artwork features. Among the leading forms of symbolism from repetition is religious symbolism. For a long time, artists have diverted to using their skills to create a relationship between human beings and the divine world. Religion also covers the desires of human beings, as well as trying to comprehend the aspects of occurrences such as deaths and the afterlife. A good example of how such symbolism has been achieved is the painting “Marilyn Monroe” by Andy Warhol. The artist borrows the aspect of religion by exploring death and immortality, digging deep into the audience’s desires. The silkscreen painting of Monroe’s face is a dig into the immortalization of her role, especially years after her death. By repeating her image, the artist continues to immortalize the celebrity. This is because all the repeated faces have been portrayed under various colors, which cannot be used to point out a specific trait of hers. By revealing a similar face but under different colors, the artist is trying to prove that Monroe was more than an ordinary human being and her legacy is not set to die any time soon. The question of religion in art is propelled by human desires to explain the most mysterious events, such as the afterlife. This includes the urge to prove that human beings can achieve deity-like status.

Also, repetition plays a big role in art therapy. This is where the artists evoke their emotions on various topics and occurrences through similar patterns in cohesive works.[7] The biggest aim of art therapy is to talk about individuals’ perceptions and feelings on various topics. Repetition helps such artists develop distinction in their works. Excessive use of certain colors, such as black, tends to open up the artist’s mental process by revealing that they are battling with heavy emotions due to certain experiences in their lives. Such experiences might have pushed them into developing a negative [perception of a certain aspect. However, by repeatedly drawing using such elements, they get a feeling of relieving their psychological burden and attracting the world’s attention. This becomes the first step towards the healing journey. Among the repetitive nature adopted by such artists includes collage, where one image is duplicated into many, with each duplication coming with an enhancement. This expresses a similar thought differently, giving the artist a sense of contentment.

However, the greatest impact of repetition in art falls on the audience. The human brain is set to re-experience certain events as per the number of times that it is triggered. Images are among the most effective ways to create a sharp memory. Those familiar with an image can easily remember other details attached to it.[8]. Repeating a pattern in a work of art aids in capturing the attention of the audience. This is because there is a level of appeal created by the image. After all, as it gets repeated, it comes with enhancement, like a change of color. Work like the Silkscreen image of Marilyn Monroe is easier to capture the audience’s attention because it creates a bright contrast from one image to another.[9] Also, the audience’s attention is drawn toward something they can easily figure out. Using repetitive patterns can easily be pointed out, which gives the audience an easy time to create an interpretation. And when taken through so many images of a similar pattern, the mind is likely to capture and retain this. Artists use aspects of repetition combined with techniques such as colors to draw the audience towards a certain aspect of their work.[10] For example, whoever is looking at Marilyn Monroe’s portrait will likely be drawn to her face because it has been colored differently and, in turn, conclude that she had so many identities. Another impact of repetition is triggering an emotional response from the audience. Watching a pattern can easily evoke happiness, sadness, loneliness, bitterness, and other emotions. The ability to send shivers of joy or pain down the audience’s spines automatically creates a response.

Also, the response created further dictates the kind of mood that the audience will develop. Repetition is explained in similar terms to a rhythm. When one gets a pattern they can follow, it dictates the comfort level or discomfort this can create. Therefore a pattern in any work of art creates a certain rhythm in the audience. This rhythm collaborates with the emotional response triggered, thus forming the general mood. The audience is also expected to have an experience with some aspects, such as color. They relate several colors, such as sky blue, to emotions such as calm and composed. They generally convince their minds to calm down whenever they see such a color repeated. Others can relate it to foggy emotions and forgotten memories, brought to the surface as the audience interacts with the repeated pattern. The mood is necessary to understand the message the artist is passing across. One cannot explain an aspect they have not established a relationship with. This points to another important aspect which is perception and interpretation. The audience is known to likely associate the patterns they see in any work of art with their experience. After doing that, they concluded the artist and the message they were trying to convey. Perception is affected by how much the artist has tried to appeal to the sense of the audience.

If the work is lightly developed and does not emphasize any aspect, then the audience might get a very different perception from the intended one. The use of color, contrast, and patterns is aimed at drawing the attention of the audience towards particular aspects in a bid to push them towards interpreting it as per the artist’s intention.[11] The first aspect that repetition achieves in any work of art is creating unity and flow. The stability achieved from this creation enables the audience to concentrate on its relevance to their experience and probably the artist’s experience. A well-developed pattern also arouses the audience’s interest, which is vital when interpreting such works. Also, repetition promotes a positive effect, which moderates the interpretation by the audience. Positive affect refers to the general feeling of being attracted to any work and seeing its beauty. Sometimes, using a single color in a single instance might prompt the audience to interpret the work negatively. But the repeated use of the color and the pattern reduces the negativity and, in turn, makes the audience feel less threatened by the appearance. Also, repetition greatly affects the viewing process.

Artists achieve an aspect of continuity once they incorporate repetition into their work. However, it is not only continuity that is propelled by repetition. Sometimes the artist wants to create stillness by repeating a certain image so that the audience’s mind does not shift to something else.[12] Additionally, there might be an element of confusion advocated to relay the ambiguity of the artist’s expression. There might be parts that the artist is trying to make more visible or less visible. This depends on how they create their patterns. Depending on how frequently the artist repeats some patterns, the viewing process might be complex or simple. The audience has to check what is more important to view than the other, thus creating a visual hierarchy. An example is the Marilyn Monroe repeated portrait, which makes the process complex because of the shift in the use of colors.[13] The audience will be forced to view it repeatedly to understand the hidden concept. Another aspect that the repetition in such work has achieved is creating a narrative structure. The structure here focuses on the face of Monroe and the immortalization by her fans. Combining the hierarchy, narrative, flow, and movement creates the meaning of the work of art.

In conclusion, repetition is essential in a work of art because it triggers the audience’s psychology and makes them attach solid meaning to it. “Composition VIII” by Wassily Kandinsky, “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough)” by Barbara Kruger, and “Marilyn Monroe” by Andy Warhol are examples of works that have used various forms of repetition to pass across their messages. Such forms include geometric, organic, and narrative patterns. Repetition is integral in arresting the audience’s attention, involving their psycho-sensory, and finally pushing them to develop meaning. Repetition determines the mood created, which triggers an emotional response from the audience. Once they have identified with the work, it is easier to explore the pattern and understand the motive behind the creation of the work. Repetition offers the viewer a point of establishing the hierarchy and narrative structure of the work. This paper is a basis for further research on the importance of repetition in art. There are still questions about the relationship between repetition and other aspects, such as style, symmetry, balance, and texture. Also, the paper opens a forum to investigate the interplay between the artists and the aspect of repetition. Whether repetition is just a style or an innate psychological feature among artists should be made clear.


Harris, Clement Antrobus. “The Element of Repetition in Nature and the Arts.” The Musical Quarterly 17, no. 3 (1931): 302-18.

Joseph, Branden W. “The Play of Repetition: Andy Warhol’s ‘Sleep.’” Grey Room, no. 19 (2005): 22-53.

Kandinsky, Wassily. “Composition VIII.” 1923. Oil on canvas, 55.3 x 79.2 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Kass, Jason, Beth Harland, and Nick Donnelly. “Warholian repetition and the viewer’s affective response to artworks from his Death and Disaster Series.” Leonardo 51, no. 2 (2018): 138-142.

Kruger, Barbara. “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough).” Digital prints on vinyl, 3 parts. Sprüth Magers, Los Angeles.

Phillips, David. “Patterns in Pictures for Art and Science.” Leonardo 24, no. 1 (1991): 31-39.

Swan, Liz Stillwaggon. “Deep Naturalism: Patterns in Art and Mind.” The Journal of Mind and Behavior 34, no. 2 (2013): 105-20.

Taflinger, Richard F. “The Persuasive Effects of Repetition in Advertising.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 13, no. 3 (1996): 4-10.

Vogt, Stine, and Svein Magnussen. “Expertise in pictorial perception: Eye-movement patterns and visual memory in artists and laymen.” Perception 36, no. 1 (2007): 91-100.

Warhol, Andy. “Marilyn Monroe.” 1967. Silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on canvas, 36 x 36 in. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Kruger, Barbara. “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough).” Digital prints on vinyl, 3 parts. Sprüth Magers, Los Angeles.

Kruger, Barbara. “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough).” Digital prints on vinyl, 3 parts. Sprüth Magers, Los Angeles.

Kandinsky, Wassily. "Composition VIII." 1923. Oil on canvas, 55.3 x 79.2 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Kandinsky, Wassily. “Composition VIII.” 1923. Oil on canvas, 55.3 x 79.2 cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Warhol, Andy. "Marilyn Monroe." 1967. Silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on canvas, 36 x 36 in. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Warhol, Andy. “Marilyn Monroe.” 1967. Silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on canvas, 36 x 36 in. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

[1] Kandinsky, Wassily. “Composition VIII.”

[2] Harris, Clement Antrobus. “The Element of Repetition in Nature and the Arts.”

[3] Kruger, Barbara. “Untitled (Never Perfect Enough).”

[4] Joseph, Branden W. “The Play of Repetition: Andy Warhol’s ‘Sleep.’”

[5] Phillips, David. “Patterns in Pictures for Art and Science.”

[6] Warhol, Andy. “Marilyn Monroe.”

[7] Swan, Liz Stillwaggon. “Deep Naturalism: Patterns in Art and Mind.”

[8] Taflinger, Richard F. “The Persuasive Effects of Repetition in Advertising.”

[9] Warhol, Andy. “Marilyn Monroe.”

[10] Swan, Liz Stillwaggon.

[11] Vogt, Stine, and Svein Magnussen. “Expertise in pictorial perception: Eye-movement patterns and visual memory in artists and laymen.”

[12] Kass, Jason, Beth Harland, and Nick Donnelly. “Warholian repetition and the viewer’s affective response to artworks from his Death and Disaster Series.”

[13] Warhol, Andy. “Marilyn Monroe.”

Rising Political Authoritarianism In Asia Sample Essay

More than at any other point in the century, democracy around the world is undergoing crisis and fragility. “How Democracy Is Under Threat Across the Globe,” a recent article published in The New York Times, indicates that the state of democracy has been declining consistently across the century as many democratic governments increasingly mutate into authoritarian and autocratic regimes. This phenomenon is widespread in the larger Asia region, where the number of countries backsliding into political authoritarianism outnumber those adopting democracy, depicting a consistent degradation and decline of political freedoms and liberties (Fisher, 2022). In this region, one-party states, military dictatorships, and illiberal quasi-democracies have extensively disrupted political development, undermined elections, and repressed the institutions and norms meant to bolster political liberties. For instance, countries such as Turkey, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, and South Korea have regressed into outright authoritarianism of various forms, and electoral processes, political representation, accountability, and freedoms are under constant threat, as evidenced by the curtailing of political liberties and centralization of power. From this perspective, it is apparent that while democracy across the world is facing existential threats and progressively being replaced by political authoritarianism, this trend is more widespread in Asia than in any other region in the world.

The Degradation of Democracy and the Growth of Political Authoritarianism in Asia

Although democracy faces degradation and steady decline in many places worldwide, the trend is more prevalent and accelerating in Asia. According to Cooley (2015), Glasius (2018), and Lonnqvist et al. (2021), the levels of democracy globally have regressed significantly as political authoritarianism and autocratization gain momentum. Notably, the rising trend of political authoritarianism is much more pronounced and evident in Asia-Pacific and Central Asia regions, with countries such as Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, North Korea, and India experiencing diverse forms of democratic degradation. For instance, Turkey’s political system has undergone democratic backsliding, polarization, and electoral authoritarianism as the Justice and Development Party under the leadership of President Reccep Tayyip Erdogan seeks to consolidate power, undermine the integrity of elective politics, and curtail political liberties in the country (Castaldo, 2018; Arslantas & Kaiser, 2022; Selcuk & Hekimci, 2020). Indeed, the Turkish regime has seized control of political institutions, utilized state resources to suppress the opposition, and undermined electoral integrity. Notably, a significant proportion of these democratic regressions and erosions have occurred since the early 2000s through such forms of subtle degradation, including uneven political playing field, state-sponsored electoral malpractices, violation of civil liberties, and consolidation of power by eviscerating the judiciary and other institutions. The largely subdued judiciary then facilitates the regime’s assault and suppression of critics and opponents.

Similarly, in countries such as China, Vietnam, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, democratic quality has regressed over the years, with the regimes in different countries exercising varying levels of political autocracy and authoritarianism. For instance, in most of these countries, executive aggrandizement is widespread, and nominally democratic incumbents use their political power and influence to undertake practices that undermine democracy. In these countries, the constitutional checks on the executive powers have been downgraded substantially, civil and political rights and freedoms curtailed, and the independence of the media eroded. This phenomenon is depicted in countries such as Thailand, where Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra managed to progressively erode the checks on executive power, marginalized opposition forces, and manipulated the rules of electoral competition to deepen the incumbency permanency.

Further, such constitutionally anchored freedoms of speech and media are routinely violated by the government with impunity. According to Gamso (2021), authoritarian regimes format and control messages disseminated by the media as one of the strategies through which the population is further dominated and subjugated. For instance, In China, the media is strictly controlled by the ruling Chinese Communist Party, a phenomenon replicated in Singapore, North Korea, Turkey, Malaysia, and Cambodia, where the respective governments have distinctively high control and regulatory effectiveness over the media through repressive security laws, censorships, and influencing of the disseminated messages to ostensibly ensure political legitimacy, vanquish alternative political ideologies, and isolate and silence opposition (Coskun, 2020). Indeed, these suppressive practices intended to curtail the independence of the media, undermine free speech, and extinguish alternative political ideologies are more prevalent in Asia than in any other region of the world due to the rising tide of political authoritarianism and regressing democracy in multiple countries in that region.

Moreover, the status of electoral democracy in a significant proportion of Asian countries has worsened over time and fallen below democratic thresholds. Indeed, in most countries, electoral integrity has been supplanted by elective or competitive authoritarianism. Consequently, there is a deceptive outward impression of competitive electoral politics, but in reality, the electoral systems and processes are rigged and abused to confer unfair advantages to pro-regime competitors and political forces instead of excluding the opposition or their voters from the electoral arena. For instance, in countries such as Turkey, China, the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia, the existing democratic institutions are merely imitative and are designed to facilitate the perpetuation of many systemic violations of liberal democratic practices and norms to ensure that the incumbents retain power and their authoritarian rule is legitimized. Parties such as Barisan Nasional in Singapore, the Justice and Development Party in Turkey, the Chinese Communist Party, the United Malays National Organization in Malaysia, PDP–Laban in the Philippines, and the Cambodian People’s Party undertake regular elections in which opposition parties often stand chances of defeating the incumbent, but electoral malpractices, violations of electoral laws, and abuse of the system undercut their ability to effectively challenge the incumbent. To illustrate this view, China, Malaysia, and Singapore have been ruled by the same parties for decades since the electoral environment ensures that these parties are less vulnerable to opposition challenges. According to Coskun (2020), elections in many of these Asian countries are rituals, lack electoral value, and are merely undertaken to legitimize the authoritarian regimes without explicitly rejecting political plurality.

The evisceration of the judiciary and the subsequent erosion of its independence are common occurrences in these countries, and judicial institutions are extensively under the control and influence of ruling parties. For instance, the Turkish and Chinese judiciaries have been criticized for their lack of meaningful independence in their decision-making and the numerous internal mechanisms within the judiciary itself, which limit the independence of individual judicial officers. This evisceration of the judiciary is essential in political authoritarianism since the regimes use the court systems to frustrate their opponents and punish dissent. From this perspective, political authoritarianism has gained momentum over the years and progressively replaced democracy in Asia.


Although democracy is experiencing unprecedented pressure and challenges globally, the pace of political authoritarianism is more pronounced and accelerated in Asia. Countries such as Turkey, Thailand, Singapore, China, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Cambodia have steadily lost their democratic values, particularly fundamental freedoms and rights, liberal norms, and other tenets of democracy. Indeed, the growing tide of political authoritarianism has disrupted political development in these countries and witnessed widespread events of opposition suppression, erosion of media independence, evisceration of the judiciary, loss of electoral integrity, and consolidation of powers by the ruling regime. In this regard, the backsliding of democracy and the rise of political authoritarianism is a prominent feature in the larger Asia region and is fast gaining momentum.


Arslantas, D., & Kaiser, A. (2022). The ‘competitive authoritarian’ turn in Turkey: Bandwagoning versus reality. Third World Quarterly. Advance online publication.

Castaldo, A. (2018). Populism and competitive authoritarianism in Turkey. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 18(4), 467-487.

Cooley, A. (2015). Authoritarianism goes global: Countering democratic norms. Journal of Democracy26(3), 49-63.

Coşkun, G.B. Media capture strategies in new authoritarian states: The case of Turkey. Publizistik,65, 637–654 (2020).

Fisher, M. (2022, August). How democracy is under threat across the globe. The New York Times.

Gamso, J. (2021). Is China exporting media censorship? China’s rise, media freedoms, and democracy. European Journal of International Relations27(3), 858–883.

Glasius, M. (2018). What authoritarianism is … and is not: A practice perspective, International Affairs94(3), 515–533,

Selçuk, O., & Hekimci, D. (2020). The rise of the democracy–authoritarianism cleavage and opposition coordination in Turkey (2014–2019). Democratization27(8), 1496-1514.

Lonnqvist, J., Szabo, Z. P., & Kelemen, L. (2021). “The new state that we are building”: Authoritarianism and system-justification in an illiberal democracy. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.