Land Surveying Crews – Training Promotions Essay Example For College

As the Field Supervisor of the companies land surveying crews I have arranged for training for all of our surveying crews.  The training will be three days long and will be a paid training session held at the banquet room of our main office.  A total 6 surveying crews (74 employees) will attend the training.

  Some of the aspects we wish to emphasize are orientation, on the job training, job rotation activities, promotion opportunities. Our employees need achievable objectives.   Motivation is key to a well run organization and it is said that” master motivators take time to make sure their employees understand exactly what is expected of them.They also make sure that, through orientation and training, each employee knows how to perform all the aspects of the job, and that each worker has the right tools to do the job well” (Cottringer & Kirby, 2005).

  Our employee satisfaction scale is based on  research completed by Gallup Research which says “ employees are “engaged” (in their positions) when: They know what is expected of them;  They have the right materials and equipment to do their work correctly; They have the opportunity to do what they do best every day; In the past seven days, they have received recognition or praise for doing good work; Their supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about them as a person;  There is someone at work who encourages their development; their opinions seem to count; The mission of the company makes them feel like their work is important;  Their co-workers are committed to doing quality work; They have a best friend at work–someone to unconditionally rely upon; In the past six months, they have talked with someone about their progress; and They have opportunities to learn and grow”(Kimball & Nink, 2006).  Our company has incorporated all of these points into our training program.Orientation will emphasize the key elements of our company.  “Typically, employee orientation programs focus too much on the specifics of policies, rules, and benefit-related topics and too little on equally important topics such as learning the organization’s values and individual job skills”(http://www.

  Our orientation will consist of a review of rules and policies but will actually emphasize the individual job skills our employees are in desperate need of. In addition our three day orientation for our surveying crews will review policies clearly stated in our new employee handbook such as benefits, sexual harassment, and employee conduct.Our company has withheld a great reputation throughout the years and as the On the job training is an essential part of our company’s philosophy. “Training is much more complicated than simply telling or showing someone how to perform a task.

Training is an attempt to transfer skills and knowledge to trainees in such a way that the trainees accept and use those skills in the performance of their jobs”(Scannell ; Donaldson, 2000, p. 15).head field supervisor I wish to build on our already solid foundation.  The training that is planned is intense and work heavy.

  Employees will watch presentation, participate in role plays, and make presentations, study new systems, show complete understanding of these systems, and finally employees will show their learned skills through a written test.    The test will determine who will be eligible for a supervisor course.  All employees are eligible to take advantage of the education opportunities our company provides and pays for.  In case employees are not away of our reimbursement policy we will reiterate this during the training.

  Team work is a trendy concept that is very important in company.“Team building is the cooperative process that individuals in groups use to solve physical and mental challenges.  While using this process and solving the challenges, group members learn how to share ideas, praise and encourage one another, and support one another physically and emotionally”(Glover and Midura, p. 7).

Team building is an essential part of our company’s success and we will have a three hour team building session scheduled into the training.  Our overall training will not only consist of these three structured days but will continue afterwards with each field crew.Job rotation is another important concept in our company.  Although it is not necessary to have the knowledge and skills to complete a job in another section of the company it is vital that each employee understands the jobs that are done within the company.

“Job rotation, sometimes called cross training, is one of the many forms of on-the-job training and a formal effort at executive development Job rotation can be defined as lateral transfer of employees among a number of different positions and tasks within jobs where each requires different skills and responsibilities. Individuals learn several different skills and perform each task for a specified time period. Rotating job tasks helps worker understand the different steps that go into creating a product and/or service delivery, how their own effort affects the quality and efficiency of production and customer service, and how each member of the team contributes to the process. Hence, job rotation permits individuals to gain experience in various phases of the business and, thus, broaden their perspective” (Hung, 1999, p.

75).Broadening employees perspectives in part of our philosophy and will be always be incorporated in our training programs.  It is also essential for employees to be gracious with each other and rely on one another’s knowledge and expertise.  If they do not understand the tasks that other employees complete on a daily basis then there is room for arguments, disagreements, and complaints.

  We will minimize this by educating all staff in all areas of field surveying operation.As a company we have high standards and need to keep up to par with the competitors.  We will facilitate this objective by; offering staff a highly intensive training course to become fully knowledgeable with our techniques; providing staff the opportunity to experience real life situations and receive support; staff also need to be fully equipped and ready to use our new computer for resource information, all staff will be given an email account at this time to check updates, promotion, and education opportunities that are available to them..

The course will be run on a very tight schedule as there is a lot of material to cover in a very short time.  The first day of training will consist of an introduction to the training course.  Each employee will receive a copy of the itinerary as well as the mission statement.  Of course we will begin with a welcome and review the mission statement.

The next step will be to take a tour of our warehouse.  It is necessary each employee is aware of our equipment and have a fully functioning knowledge of where each device is stored.  The tour will begin as a virtual tour as manufactures introduce and review the components of the equipment.   The virtual tour has been done very well and the employees should find it quite enjoyable.

  After the virtual tour there is a written exam to help us understand our employees’ knowledge or our equipment.  We will continue to a warehouse tour so each staff member becomes aware and understands what happens back at the barn so to say.  This is an important step as the company moves forward we need to remember that we are a team.We will continue our training by having the staff watch our brand new Field Surveying Techniques Video.

 During the video presentation staff will be instructed to take detailed notes as practical and written exams will follow the video.  Facilitation of new equipment usage will be our next step.  We will split the surveying crews into twelve separate groups and equipment specialists will guide them  as they learn to use the new equipment.After a one hour banquet style lunch we will  move right along to the Staff Manual.

  The staff read the first 15 pages of the NEW STAFF MANUAL, which was personally completed by yours truly just last week.  This manual incorporates all the company’s thoughts and philosophies.  It also incorporates the new computer system and covers scenarios for every possible field surveying situation documented in the company over the last ten years. We will then role play some detailed scenarios.

   After this we all staff will participate in a course to renew first aid and CPR certifications.  After the first aid course employees will review our standards for benefits, codes of conduct, and policies.  Last but now least we will have a “quiz” to review the day’s training session.  This will ensure each employee retains the information.

The second day of training will by far be the longest and most tedious work day.  We will begin by introducing the new computer system via power point presentation.  Staff will then work in small groups and go through the computer system tutorial to make sure they fully understand the program.  Understanding this program is essential for the learning the next step which is to understand the computerized surveying equipment.

  After working together staff takes a written test to test their knowledge and understanding of the system.  If they receive an 85% or above they receive will be released from class early for an extended lunch break.  If the staff scores lower than 85% then they will continue the second part of the tutorial before being released for lunch.After lunch staff is put into assigned groups to review the new equipment.

It has been my experience that allowing staff to choose their own groups prolongs the process and causes confusion and horse play.  Each group will have 45 minutes today to prepare a detailed presentation of the piece of equipment assigned to the training class.  The presentation will include a work role play situation.  The situation must include a potential problem and must somehow incorporate the new computer system in rectifying the problem.

  Staff will be referred to the handbook to help with this presentation.  Each group will begin their 10 minute presentation.  To encourage staff to pay attention during the presentations of their peers they will be randomly called on to share their views, ideas, or concerns about the presentation.  Once each group has completed their presentationA tour of the staff handbook tour will start off day three.

  During this tour employees will read and understand the responsibilities of each and every department that works in coordination with the surveying crews.  After each description is clearly understood there will be a tour of each and every department.  Upon return to the banquet room our Executive Director will present the employees with information and educational requirements for promotion opportunities.  This is a company which has a lot of room for growth and employees need to be aware and take advantage of this.

“When the right employees are matched to the right job, productivity and employee happiness increase.” (Cottringer & Kirby, 2005). After this employees will have an hour long question and answer session with the executive director. “Good motivation is a difficult balancing act between emphasizing consistency for the good of the facility and listening to and acting on the unique concerns of individual employees.

Basic human nature involves the opposing needs of wanting to be respected for our individuality and at the same time wanting to be treated fairly and equally, just like everyone else. Communicating effectively helps everyone feel that both of these concerns are being addressed”(Cottringer & Kirby, 2005).  There will also be a suggestion box in the back of the room for points employees may not want to bring up in front of others.  All employees will be informed at this time that beginning the following week all employees will meet with their supervisors for written evaluations.

  At this time the employee may confidentially give input and feedback about their employment and other employees.Staff will be instructed  that after lunch they are to meet at the fountain at the park across the street for the rest of the day’s activities. “Knowing how to motivate employees is an important part of any manager’s toolbox. Managers who master the art of lighting their employees’ fires create a productive environment that is a positive force for the company” (Cottringer & Kirby, 2005).

  A little fun on the job is a necessary component to being happy employees.After lunch five hired team building facilitators will guide the staff through a three hours teambuilding workshop.  They will begin with 45 minutes of large group activities before being split into groups of 15 for a more personal interaction with one another.   Team building is meant to emphasize the importance of working together as well as be fun activity for the staff to enjoy.

  Finally we will end with a surprise PIZZA PARTY at the park to thank staff as well as boost morale after an intense training session.  Recently it was brought to our attention that “Executives, managers, employers and others who have people working for them should reassess, review, and reevaluate their rewards and recognition schemes, if they have such programs in their companies. If they do not have any rewards and recognition program in their companies, it is time to consider launching one. It is time we treat our employees as people with sensitivities and not as our subordinates.

Let us treat them with care and concern. They are the best assets of companies”(“Export Action Line; Rewards,” 2006, p. NA)”  During the pizza party our executive director will award five outstanding employees with rewards and awards signifying  a job well done.  “In today’s competitive environment, most businesses constantly seek opportunities to develop external visibility and build relationships with the business community.

Instituting a business leadership awards program can help a business (achieve its goals)” (Minter ; Thomas, 1999, p. 25).  We will also have a raffle that all employees will participate in.  The top prize in one week at an exclusive resort in Bozeman, Montana.

  The second prize is a three day/two night stay at the Belligio Hotel in Las Vegas.  Third prize is dinner for two at an exclusive restaurant in the city.  We believe this will increase motivation among other employees.Before the evening is wrapped up we will announce that our employee banquet dinner will be next month for all employees and their families.

  This is a black tie event.  All employees are invited to attend and employee of the year will be announced.The next working day all employees who attended the training will receive an anonymous questionnaire to complete.  Employees will be asked how they feel the training went; what was good; what could have been better; did they feel they learned something; and finally the employee will be free to give feedback and suggestions for the next training course.

The training is sure to be a success as it covers all the necessities including complete and continued orientation with new materials, on the job training, job rotation activities, gives the employees the opportunity to speak with the head of the company, reviews and advises employees to take advantage of job advancement opportunities, and allows the employees to relax with one another.  Our training has been meticulously planned and covers all aspects of field survey crews needs.  It is our belief that happy employees are hardworking and good employees.  Keeping staff educated with our policies and techniques is an important part of being a manager.

  Another vital aspect is showing employees they can have fun and are appreciated for their hard work.  The training program I have designed covers all of these points and will provide the company with long lasting, well trained, happy employees. “People are our most valuable asset is one of the oldest clichés in business today. Yet it is true” (Kimball & Nink, 2006).

  We hope that by adequately training our employees, offering them incentives and fringe benefits, and taking an active role in ensuring their happiness at work we will continue to thrive as a success surveying company.ReferencesAncis, J. R. (Ed.

). (2004). Culturally Responsive Interventions: Innovative Approaches to Working with Diverse Populations. New York: Routledge.

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, & Kirby, J. (2005, June). Light Their Fires: Find out How to Improve Employee Motivation and Increase Overall Company Productivity. Security Management, 49, 90+.

Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: Action Line; Rewards and Recognition in the Workplace.

(2006, November 25). Manila Bulletin, p. NA. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: http://www., B. C.

(1999). Bad Kids: Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: http://www., Donald, and Midura Daniel.  (2005) The Essentials of Team Building; Principles and Practices.

Champlain, Illinois, Human Kinetics.Huang, H. J. (1999).

Job Rotation from the Employees’ Point of View, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 7(1), 75-85. Kimball, L. S., & Nink, C.

E. (2006, June). How to Improve Employee Motivation, Commitment Productivity, Well-Being and Safety. Corrections Today, 68, 66+.

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L., & Thomas, E. G. (1999).

How a Leadership Awards Program Can Build Business Support. Public Relations Quarterly, 44(3), 25. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.

com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001889155Pryor, T., & Wiederman, M. W.

(1998). Personality Features and Expressed Concerns of Adolescents with Eating Disorders. Adolescence, 33(130), 291. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: http://www., E. E.

, & Donaldson, L. (2000). Human Resource Development: The New Trainer’s Guide. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

Retrieved March 20, 2007, from Questia database: 

Sustainable Development: Landfill And Types Of Waste

Landfill ReportIntroduction The world has now woken up to the need of environment protection. Waste management and landfill of waste are being given due consideration to save the environment from further degradation. Good recycling and composting procedure are very essential for the effective waste management.

There are two types of wastes, i.e. organic waste and residual waste. The waste management programmes in countries worldwide focus on the reduction of both types of wastes for sustainable development.

Efforts have been made in the United States, the United Kingdom and in other parts of the world to manage the wastes. New policies and regulations have been introduced to address this issue. In this context, the European Union Directive holds the key for influencing waste management policies in the European countries including the UK. The EU’s Landfill Directive (99/31/EC) “The European Union formulated a strategy on waste management for the first time in 1989.

The strategy set out waste management guidelines for the member countries. That included prevention of municipal waste by technologies, recycling and optimisation of disposal and regulation of transport used for landfill. The initiative made by the EU has evolved for years and finally a Landfill Directive was agreed in Europe on 26 April 1999” (POST, 2000). The Landfill Directive (99/31/EC) has the following characteristics: “The quantity of biodegradable solid waste disposed of to landfill must be reduced by 50% by 2009.

Explosive, flammable wastes, clinical wastes, tyres and liquid wastes would be banned from landfill.There will be three types of landfill facility: Hazardous waste facility, Non-hazardous waste facility and inert waste facility.The mixing of municipal solid waste and hazardous wastes within a landfill site would be banned.A conditioning plan will be prepared that will demonstrate how the site will meet the standards required by the directive within five years” (Allsopp et al, 2001).

People who live near the landfill sites bear with bad odours, greenhouse gases and contaminated water problems. These problems are associated with non-inert landfill sites as they are filled with food waste and other organic materials. In addition, the toxic materials such as used batteries cause problems in the landfill sites. The EU Landfill Directive has been adopted keeping the health hazards and environmental disasters in mind.

The UK Government’s Waste Management Policy & the EU’s Landfill Directive The UK government has always shown commitment to sustainable development. The government’s waste strategy aims to change the way of waste management. Waste decision-making is based on the principles of active participation by the individuals, communities and organisations to work together. It is very necessary to engage the local community in the decision making process.

The government has acknowledged the fact that the ultimate goal of waste reduction is to be achieved without any further delay from the health and environment perspective.  The UK government is bound by the EC Landfill Directive (99/31/EC). The directive makes it mandatory to reduce the biodegradable municipal wastes sent to landfill. To meet the requirements of the directive, the government has set national targets for recovery of municipal waste and recycling the household waste.

“The targets set for local authorities require them to reduce the recycling and composting rates by 30% by 2010 and 33% by 2015. These targets were prescribed in the Guidance on Municipal Waste Management Strategies in 2001. The Landfill Directive also states that all wastes going to landfill must be checked before disposal. Local authorities.

Anyone, who fails to comply with the guidelines, will be penalised” (Allsopp et al, 2001).             The UK is firm on adopting a strong posture on the issue of waste management. It targets to go beyond the European Commission Directive in tackling the biodegradable waste. Waste disposal authorities have also been allocated allowances under the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme.

To divert waste from landfill, the government committed itself to increasing the Landfill Tax rate for active waste.  “The first priority of the government is to manage the organic waste, which is 30 to 60% of household waste. The EU Landfill Directive provides residents easy way of dealing with the food waste. Organic waste is collected on a regular basis.

Then it is taken to the sealed industrial composting facilities. Residual waste is collected and taken to the pre-treatment facilities. Pre-treatment facilities allow mechanical biological treatment of the waste. The amount of material that comes out of the mechanical shredding process is reduced and sent to landfill” (Allsopp et al, 2001).

Strategic planning is very important in meeting the objectives of waste management. Proper route-map, regular updating and continuous review process are always required for the management of waste. The strategy sets out objectives of achieving the target of waste reduction. All the regional and local priorities must be listed before the implementation of the action plan.

The strategy process is based on the analysis of the reliable sources of data. Concerned authorities need to assess the risk factors associated with the use of particular data. The strategy provides a critical evaluation of options available for waste management. Environmental outcomes decide the plans to meet the objectives set in the EU Landfill Directive.

Development of the plans is balanced against local, national and regional factors.                Impact of the Landfill Directive on the Government’s Policy The UK always has been dependant on landfill. About 80 per cent of total municipal waste in the UK is sent to landfill. The EC Landfill Directive has begun to change the government’s waste management and landfill policy to a great extent.

The directive came into force in the UK in 2002 in the form of the Landfill (England and Wales) Regulations 2002 (  The new regulations required all landfill operators to submit a conditioning plan that reclassified the site as hazardous, non-hazardous or inert. It has a significant impact on the UK’s waste management policy.

Previously, landfills in the UK had been inert. After the new regulations came into force, non-hazardous sites can accept only non-hazardous waste. Co-disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials was practiced in the UK. Now, co-disposal has been completely banned (LetsRecycle.

com).;;The Landfill Directive also bans liquids and certain waste materials from being sent to landfill. It also tightens site monitoring and engineering standards. Compared to industrial and commercial waste, the amount of municipal waste is relatively small.

But the reports suggest that it is trailing in terms of recycling. Another major concern is that about 60 percent of municipal household waste is biodegradable. It produces the greenhouse gas methane that is detrimental for the environment. The Landfill Directive focuses on this grey area (POST, 2000).

;;“The Landfill Directive focuses on reducing the impact of municipal waste in the European countries. As the UK is heavily dependant on landfill, the EU had given it an extra four years to meet the European targets” (ETSU, 1999).;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;The government in the UK formulated legislations that focus on recycling. The Packaging Waste Directive has positive impact on the waste reduction policy.

In the April 2005, the government has announced the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS). The scheme is applicable to the English waste disposal authorities ( scheme introduces significant changes in the waste management policy.

The main objective of the scheme is to divert biodegradable waste from landfill. It also intends to provide a cost effective way to the UK for meeting the targets of reducing landfilling of biodegradable municipal waste. Landfill allowances have been given to each waste disposal authority in the UK.;;Environment legislations from the EU and the UK government have directly influenced the waste industry.

The Municipal Waste Recycling Act was enforced in the UK in 2003 ( It has been acknowledged that separation of waste materials forms the basis of proper management of the waste stream. The UK has witnessed a significant development in the history of hazardous waste management.

“The co-disposal of hazardous waste with municipal biodegradable waste in landfill was completely banned. Now the hazardous wastes are being landfilled separately. The landfill sites will require proper license and certification of meeting the EU standards” (Allsopp et al, 2001).;;Under the new EU Landfill Directive, all hazardous wastes will have to be treated.

“The UK had created a Hazardous Waste Forum that set out an action plan to permanently end the landfilling of untreated hazardous waste in a phased manner. A taskforce was formed to monitor the implementation of the action plan and development of the treatment facilities for hazardous waste” (POST, 2000).;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;In 2003, the UK government announced a policy shift on Landfill Tax. It had decided to end the funding of waste management projects through the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme (LTCS) (LetsRecycle.

com). More funds will be spent directly on local authorities. Over the past few years, the government has made significant policy changes to meet the standards prescribed by the EU Landfill Directive. The focus has been shifted to complying with the directives.

All the waste-related policies in the UK are cost-effective.;;Another EU Directive on packaging waste has been implemented perfectly. It favours the light-weighting of packaging. If the reduction in layers of packaging is taken into account, it can be seen as a welcome step.

It has been noticed that the Packaging Directive has encouraged retailers to use lighter-weight materials such as plastic (POST, 2000).;;The UK government has decided to set industry targets for recycling and waste reduction beyond the EU Landfill Directive. Protection of environment is being given top priority through legislations and tax measures. The UK has been late in adopting the EU waste policy.

However, with new measures and legislative mechanisms, it has made significant progress on this front.;Conclusion;There is no denying in the fact that proper waste management holds the key for a better future with healthy environment. This is not possible without stricter guidelines. The European Union realised the environmental problems and the need for a proper solution.

The EU Landfill Directive (99/31/EC) is an effective step on this regard. There was a need for a proper waste management policy in the UK because of huge landfill activities on its soil. The landfill directive came as a blessing in disguise. The impact of the directive on the UK government’s waste management policy is loud and clear.

Now the country can hope for a healthy environment for its next generation.;;;;;;;;;;;;Bibliography:;Allsopp, M., Costner, P. ; Johnston, P.

(2001). Incineration and Human Health: State of Knowledge of the Impacts of Waste Incinerators on Human Health. Greenpeace.;ETSU.

(1999). Household Waste Management in the UK: some examples of current practise.;

(2003, March). Landfill Directive. Retrieved January 03, 2006, from http://www.letsrecycle.

com/legislation/landfill_directive.jsp;The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. (2000). Incineration of Household Waste: POST149.;;;;

The Issue Of Landfill In Natural Environment

INTRODUCTIONEvery nation, every country, and every individual has every future to prepare.

Though present situations are difficult for challenging opportunities, the significance of it lies on the maintenance of the effort and the progression of it towards a sustainable and successful development.The widening destruction of mother earth has brought many to red alert.  Thus, concerned agencies, individuals, government and private offices devised different platforms to counterfeit the continuing global problems regarding the environment.Landfills, which are the most common method of organised waste disposal and had remained in many places around the world, had undergone a protracted drafting phase because of significant differences in landfilling practice across Europe.

However, differences in technical standards and operating practices between member states have led to numerous incidents of gross land and water pollution.  In response, the European Commission has introduced a number of measures to regulate landfill disposal and to establish a common framework that promotes waste prevention, minimisation, re-use, recycling and recovery as alternatives to landfill disposal.  In the UK, the Landfill Directive was brought into force on June 15, 2002 as the Landfill (England and Wales) Regulations 2002, and since then it has been introduced bit-by-bit to give UK industry time to adopt.Although the Directive will prove far-reaching for many Member States, many of its provisions are already in place in the UK as a consequence of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and its daughter regulations.

Particularly the Special Waste Regulations 1996, the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994, the Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991 and the Controlled Waste Regulations 1992.  Taken together, these encompass the key requirements under the landfill Directive for permitting, operational monitoring and aftercare following closure.  The Special Waste Regulations embody the Hazardous Waste Directive and its principles.The Directive’s overall aim is “to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill”.

In relation to this, the potential of the UK to meet the challenges of the Landfill Directive’s requirements had change the landfilling practices in the UK in recent yearsLANDFILL in the UKTraditionally, the UK has been heavily reliant on landfill: of a total of 28.2 million tonnes of municipal waste produced in 2000/01, 79% – about 23 million tonnes – was landfilled.  Just 12% was recycled or composted and 8% was incinerated with energy recovery.  The waste produced is growing by about 3% every year: this is more than the growth in GDP (2-2.

5%) and one of the fastest European growth rates for waste.  The Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC), which was adopted by the European Union in 1999, is beginning to drastically change the way the UK handles waste.The LANDFILL DIRECTIVE and the UKFor the UK, which currently landfills around 85% of its wastes, the Landfill Directive focuses on reducing the impact of municipal waste because of its dependency on landfill.  It had been allowed an extra four years to meet European targets, leading to the following goals based on the weight of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) landfilled in 1995: Reduce BMW landfilled to 75% of 1995 level by 2010; Reduce BMW landfilled to 50% of 1995 level by 2013; Reduce BMW landfilled to 35% of 1995 level by 2020.

The Directive sets progressive targets for Member States to reduce the amount of their municipal biodegradable waste sent to landfill.  Biodegradable waste was focused upon because it is the biodegradable element of waste which breaks down to produce methane.  The targets are set for an important waste stream – biodegradable municipal waste.  The Directive requires that the strategy for achieving the targets must also address the need to reduce all biodegradable waste going to landfill.

For these reasons, it means that the UK will have to take action on two levels:  (1) Limit the use of landfill to ensure that no more than the allowed amount of biodegradable municipal waste is landfilled by the target dates; and (2) Build up alternatives to landfill to deal with the diverted waste, encourage the diversion of waste away from landfill towards these alternatives, and encourage initiatives which minimise the amount of biodegradable municipal waste produced.The first action is the subject of the consultation document Limiting Landfill: A Consultation paper on limiting landfill to meet the EC Landfill Directive’s targets for the landfill of biodegradable municipal waste. The targets in the Directive are legally binding on the UK and must be met. The Government considers that the scale of the change needed to meet the targets, and the relatively short timetable for bringing about this change, mean that a statutory instrument to limit the use of landfill for biodegradable municipal waste is essential.

The second action is dealt with in the draft waste strategy for England and Wales, a way with waste. The draft strategy has a strong presumption against landfill, and sets out goals for the sustainable management of municipal waste: recycling and composting 30% of household waste by 2010, and recovering 45% of municipal waste by the same date. The draft strategy also states that, by 2015, the Government expects a recovery value from two thirds of household waste, and that at least half of that will need to be through recycling or composting. It also reiterates the Government’s support for the principle of Best Practicable Environmental Option, and the waste hierarchy, within which recycling and composting should be considered before recovery of energy from waste.

Failure to meet the targets in the EC Landfill Directive would mean that the UK could face a non-compliance fine of up to £500,000 per day after the first target date in 2010.  This fine is designed to be sufficiently strident to convince member states that investing in different waste strategies is a more acceptable alternative than being forced to pay the fine.  Missed targets will also lead to greater green house gas emissions and hence potentially greater impacts on global warming.LANDFILL IMPLEMENTATION in the UKThe aim of the Directive is “by way of stringent operational and technical requirements on the waste and landfills, to provide for measures, procedures and guidance.

Central to the Directive is the requirement (Article 5) that all Member States shall introduce measures to reduce the quantities of biodegradable material going to landfill, to 35% of 1995 levels by 2016.  Up to 4 years’ derogation from this is possible for countries currently landfilling ;80% of wastes, for which the UK is making use of this derogation.Implications.  Major implications relate to what wastes may or may not be disposed of to landfill, and the implications for testing or pretreatment.

The present view is that: (1) The current practice of co-disposal of hazardous wastes with municipal wastes will cease. In future, all hazardous waste will go a designated hazardous waste landfill; (2) Co-disposal of non-hazardous wastes with municipal solid waste (MSW) will still be permitted; (3) Prohibition of several waste types, eg. liquid waste, will impact on disposal options currently available; (4) The biodegradable content of new landfills will drastically reduce. This will require major changes in the minimisation, segregation, and treatment/collection of the biodegradable content of current domestic and commercial wastes.

This will impact strongly on the waste management industry; (5) The requirements for good waste characterisation will have cost and practical implications. In particular, leaching tests are likely to be needed for wastes which may be classed as inert or non-hazardous, if they have not already been assigned to a national or EU list of such wastes.In view of the on-going consultation process, it is inappropriate to speculate too far in terms of the detailed implications. However, the trends that will occur as a result of the Directive, will be: less biodegradable waste going to landfill; more restricted options, and probably cost, for disposal of more hazardous wastes; pressure to use less hazardous raw materials, where possible; and more emphasis on minimising wastes at source, segregating necessary waste streams, and use of recycle/re-use/energy recovery options, ie much greater emphasis on use of the Hierarchy of Waste Management Options first promoted under IPC.

PROGRESSION of the LANDFILL DIRECTIVE in the UKLandfill in the UK is currently recognised as the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) for the disposal of certain waste types. In order to apply the principles of the EC 5th Programme of Policy ; Action in relation to the environment and sustainable development the Government has prepared a waste strategy policy.  This is to promote landfill practices which will achieve stabilisation of landfill sites within one generation. It is to be implemented through guidance set out in a revised series of waste management papers on landfill.

In addition, the UK and many other countries are parties to the 1992 agreement on sustainable development at the Earth Summit. In the field of waste management, the strategy requires that the present generation should deal with the waste it produces and not leave problems to be dealt with by future generations.Sorting of Municipal Waste for Recovery and Recycling.  This position on sorting links to treatment requirements for municipal waste which will affect local authorities.

While the released draft guidance from the Environment Agency, entitled “Requirement for waste destined for disposal in Landfill”, is not being seen as new guidance for local authorities, the wording of the agency document is important to both the waste management industry and local authorities as they adapt to the introduction of Landfill Directive regulations.  In effect, it means that councils who have municipal waste strategies in place to achieve the diversion of waste from landfill will meet landfill treatment requirements through the sorting and recovery of material.Variable Waste Charging (“pay as you throw” or “weigh and pay”.  The scheme would see householders charged based on the amount of non-recyclable waste they put out for collection.

It is being prompted by a “growing sense of urgency and concern” among officers about landfill targets despite some districts and counties now recycling more than half of their waste.Landfill Tax.  The Landfill Tax is a tax on every tonne of waste sent to landfill in the UK.  It is seen as one of the most important measures encouraging the recycling.

According to the Treasury in the Budget report, the increase in the standard rate of Landfill Tax had contributed to the overall quantities of waste recorded at registered landfill sites falling 25% between 1997/98 and 2005/06, from around 96 million tonnes to 72 million tonnes.  As a result, the UK is on track to meet its 2010 targets under the Landfill Directive although subsequent targets in 2013 and 2020 remain challenging.UK and NORTHERN IRELANDHistorically, waste management has been rather an ad hoc industry, with little or no formal strategic development.  However, England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland have launched waste strategies, principally to implement the waste directives emanating from Europe.

The transposition of the directive in Northern Ireland is dependent on other enabling legislation, namely the Waste Management Licensing Regulations. Northern Ireland will be implementing national regulations to ensure that the targets set out in the Regulations can be achieved.As in Ireland and other EU countries, Northern Ireland is adopting increasingly stringent environmental standards that will require significant new spending on environmental infrastructure, including drinking water supplies, waste water treatment facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, coastal protection works and environmental research and development.However, during 2012 thermal treatment is planned to be introduced in Northern Ireland.

This will deliver the maximum amount for the second target year. The Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland wants the maximum amounts for the sixth and seventh years to be specified to take account of this planned infrastructural development. Consequently, the Regulations specify maximum amounts for these years of 469,937 and 465,950 tonnes respectively; these amounts should enable Northern Ireland’s district councils to comply with their requirements without having to divert investment funding from the planned thermal treatment facility.The landfill allowances scheme in Northern Ireland was launched on 1 April 2005.

District Councils will have to make steeper annual reductions to meet the landfill targets, thereby increasing the risk of Northern Ireland failing to meet its targets. Subsequently the UK would face infraction procedures which incur fines and high administration costs, as well as fines imposed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) at a maximum of £500,000 a day for not meeting the Directive target on the second target year date of 16 July 2013. As the country responsible for the breach of the UK targets, these fines would be passed down to Northern Ireland.Reducing landfill allowances more quickly than absolutely required by the Landfill Directive would put Northern Ireland’s district councils at risk of financial penalties, despite the fact that their waste management plans have and are being developed to deliver those targets.

This situation would exacerbate the difficulty of diverting BMW from landfill rather than facilitate this diversion. District councils might be forced to redirect funds from the investments in facilities to pay penalties under the Northern Ireland landfill allowances scheme. This could, in fact, delay the environmental benefits of increased diversion beyond 2013 and put the UK at risk of breaching the Directive and facing EC infraction fines.Limiting the amount of waste sent to landfill will have significant environmental benefits for Northern Ireland – to move towards a more sustainable management of its waste.

CONCLUSIONAlthough it has been appreciated by all that strategic change takes time to implement, the requirements to move away from landfill had been well known within the waste management industry and amongst waste producers.  Government has made clear on its objectives by implementing targets for recycling and re-use of waste both for local authorities and for commercial and industrial waste producers.  Though the Landfill Directive has changed drastically the way the UK handles waste, it did its best to drive the process forward.  It has led and funded much of the modelling work that is informing the criteria, and hosted meetings.

The legislative focus is increasingly targeting such areas as recycling (particularly in relation to household waste), high-technology incineration and landfill management, and producer responsibility.As landfill is the predominant method of disposal in the UK, the changes required by the directive certainly are going to be challenging for waste producers and waste managers alike.  Producer responsibility, which has achieved limited success in the UK with the implementation of the European Community Packaging Directive, is set to increase with the implementation of a number of policy initiatives and directives.Changes to the Special Waste Regulations, increased emission standards for incineration, future targets for battery recycling, and potential policy on the use of polyvinyl chloride will also require dynamic changes in the way that waste is currently managed.

Recognising the challenges these legislative pressures pose to current management practices, the Secretary of State for the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs held the first national Waste Summit in November 2001, providing key stakeholders in waste management with the opportunity to identify barriers and potential solutions to achieving more sustainable management of waste. Despite the diversity of stakeholders present, a consensus was reached in terms of the main barriers to progress.Following the Waste Summit, the Prime Ministers Strategy Unit engaged in a review of waste management, and its report Waste Not, Want Not recently has been published. With waste reduction and recycling at its core, identifying major issues and impediments to meeting national and international obligations, the review has proposed the development of appropriate economic and regulatory frameworks essential for success.

Specific measures include significantly increasing the level of landfill tax, greater regulatory and innovative freedom for local authorities, more voluntary agreements with manufacturers, and financial incentives for green goods.The recommendations in the report are extensive; however, their successful implementation relies on continued political will and adequate resourcing. Funding, fundamental to the delivery of more sustainable management of waste, has yet to be adequately addressed. Householders currently have little understanding of the costs, and the present charges are insufficient to meet the needs for infrastructure development.

The landfill tax is criticised for having minimal impact on disposal costs as a result of the taxation level being set too low. However, the prebudget report for 2003 announced a rise of just £3.00 per tonne per year from 2005, with a long-term aim of the tax level reaching £35.00 per tonne.

Long-term fiscal instruments are not necessarily in tune with short-term targets and will have little impact on bringing about the step changes necessary to progress waste management in the UK.The recommendations in the report are being considered by a ministerial group, set up to develop the public expenditure programme, and necessary framework and final decisions were taken by April 2003. There is still everything to play for in terms of strategy development, and the waste management industry as a whole has to be ready to incorporate the changes and ensure that infrastructure is developed in a timely fashion in line with regulation and guidance. This requires all players to work together and to capitalise on the opportunities, but it is essential that policy-makers provide the lead.

Challenging opportunities are still ahead and UK do have the capability and the expertise which therefore could meet the challenging requirements of the Landfill Directive.;REFERENCES“EPA and Massachusetts Target European Nations for Environmental Technology Exports”. EPA New England Press Release.  Updated 1 March 2006.

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