Landline Service Taxes And Impact On Markets Essay Example

A landline usually transmits data through a metallic wire or optic fiber telephone line instead of a mobile cellular network, which transmits data using radio waves. Landlines are usually fixed at some points where people operate them from. For instance, they can be fixed in homes, streets, jails, and big institutions. Customers who use landline services have been complaining about the amount of money they are charged. The owners of the landlines are also complaining about the high taxing rates by the government. Governments have imposed high tax rates on landline usage, which is a major barrier to business. Telecommunication companies are regarded as good payers of taxes in most countries. However, heavy taxes are employed on them due to paying off the licenses and the spectrum fee, which usually has its percentage in the GDP. The essay below discusses why landlines are heavily taxed and their impact on the markets.

Every phone service has a federal tax paid for, which is the cause of the alarming rise in the cost of using cell services. Different countries have different rates at which cell phone tax rates are applied (Obermier & Hollman, 2020). The federal tax changed by the government might be used to fund the locals, the state, districts, or emergency services. The listing of the wireless taxes is done at the end of a long cell phone bill. Most consumers do not realize this, which becomes an easy way for the government to collect revenues from landlines (Willys, 2018). The people paying for the landline services cannot know whether they are being taxed or not, and this is the technique the government uses to collect taxes without any notice. No regulations limit how much the taxes can skyrocket so that the taxes can shoot high. No government has passed an act to prevent raising the taxes on landline services. An act will not lower the taxes but will help prevent them from shooting too high.

The entrance of cell phones into financial ecosystems has substantially aided the development of financial inclusion in most nations. Sellers and buyers communicate through phones before they meet up for the actual buying of a commodity (Hay, 2018). High taxes on cell phones raise the cost of communicating with each other. For example, a 10% increase in mobile phone adoption in London increases a country’s yearly economic growth rate by 6%. It is expensive for a seller and a buyer to negotiate a final agreement on a phone call. Much airtime is consumed for such activity due to the government’s high taxes imposed on telecommunication companies (Ndung’u, 2019). For instance, a landline in the United States of America costs forty-two dollars a month. It is very expensive for small-scale traders who need to communicate with their customers for product agreements (Schoechle & Wires, 2018). It may consume most of their profit, thus reducing their working capital. When the tax employed in the phone services is too high, the cost is expected to shoot up, affecting the buyers and sellers.

Phone service taxes should be decreased because people have different living standards. Not all people will afford to buy airtime to communicate with their loves to satisfaction. The government should consider lowering the rate of taxes on cell services to make them convenient and affordable to buyers and sellers. When the sellers and buyers can communicate through phones to a final agreement, this will ensure that the economy is favorable to everyone and that excellent living standards are practiced everywhere.


Hay, R. (2018). BIRRR landline and connectivity survey 2018 report. James Cook University. Web.

Ndung’u, N. S. (2019). Taxing mobile phone transactions in Africa: Lessons from Kenya. Web.

Obermier, T., & Hollman, A. K. (2020). Monetary impact of national exchange carrier association tariffs on internet access cost in rural areas. Mountain Plains Journal of Business and Technology, 21(2), 4. Web.

Schoechle, T., & Wires, R. I. (2018). The future of landlines and networks. National Institute for Science, Law & Public Policy, Washington, DC, 69. Web.

Willys, N. (2018). Customer satisfaction, switching costs and customer loyalty: An empirical study on the mobile telecommunication service. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 8(04), 1022. Web.

Laws And Their Main Functions In Society

Law could be considered as a prism through which people perceive commonly accepted social customs. It is both a guideline and a deterrence that restricts unfathomable acts against individuals. In general, people interpret the definition of law in accordance with the environment where they live or grow up. This way, for people who live within a harsh criminal environment, the law might be a negligible set of poorly enforced rules. In contrast, others may believe in the institutional value of law and perceive it as a means of security and order. Consequently, there are fluctuating opinions about the law and its value in human life.

However, some may recognize the natural law as the existence of inherent human rights that are conferred by a higher order of reality, that is to say, “God, nature, or reason.” There are many interpretations of what constitutes natural law. Aristotle believed that natural law encompasses the moral view which is natural for every human. According to Hobbes, natural law stems from reason and prohibits the destruction of life. St. Thomas Aquinas regarded natural law as part of the divine “eternal” law, a natural reality that maintains a rational order. Aquinas requited that, in essence, the basic principle is to conduct good deeds and avoid evil. Consequently, the universality of law and order remains a philosophical question but sheds light on some prospects of the law’s role in modern human lives.

The majority of people believe that laws are designed to protect their liberty and instill a sense of security in citizens. As it is difficult to distinguish the universal component of order, it is necessary to preserve the sense of security in the complex branching reality of modern society. This act of perseverance is regarded as positive law which obligates specific actions or rights to be enacted with regard to groups or individuals and reflects the guiding nature of the legislation. In the absence of such measures, it is difficult to imagine the state of our society which includes numerous groups of often clashing interests. The clash of interest may result in a conflict to settle in which there is a chance that one group may succumb to violent measures; in Hobbesian terms, that would be the state of nature — a violent world where basic human needs and rights are not addressed. The role of legislation is to prevent the state of nature and accommodate peace. It facilitates peaceful resolutions of conflicts, protects public order, encourages cooperation, prevents the accumulation of power by a single individual, and preserves basic social values of morality and rights.

Today’s justice systems transformed humanity and opened a new page toward an interconnected and globalized society, but some governments fail to recognize their value. There are instances of power abuse, unjust legislative institutions, and corruption on the governmental level. Simultaneously, groups that do not recognize the value of democratic and liberal approaches to legislation also exist. Consequently, the function of law transforms from a security guideline into the object of hate and abuse.

Although international bodies such as United Nations oversee the global situation and try to maintain peace, their potency is limited. Numerous people live a life without realizing that they possess basic human rights to security, liberty, and life — something that many take for granted. The function of law is to protect, liberate, and preserve life. Some even recognize the existence of natural laws that are universal across all of humanity. However, the reality is that humans make laws for humans, and as long as humans disagree with the existence of laws, there are bound to be devastating consequences.

Software Engineering Principles From An Agile Point Of View


Agile methods have emerged due to the vast emphasis on tools and the non-interactive nature of software engineering. Consequently, the agile principles, such as cooperation between stakeholders and sustainable development, paved the way for a large variety of frameworks, including Scrum and Kanban. At present, most IT companies acknowledge the efficiency of the said approaches and utilize them to maximize productivity.


Software engineering is a highly complex process of development associated with a wide array of instruments, documentation, project applications, and engineering principles. Therefore, agile practices – a set of guidelines to prioritize individuals and customers rather than tools and contracts – emerged as a response to the problem [1]. As a result, the agile approach focuses on the human nature of project management, emphasizing social interaction between various stakeholders and a healthy workspace environment [1]. These practices increase the overall productivity of the unit and allow for better communication between customers and employees [1]. Ultimately, the current paper examines the underlying principles of agile development and briefly discusses the advantages and applications of the approach.

Literature Review

Agile development first emerged in the 1990s as a method to mitigate the complexity of the industry and emphasize human efforts [2]. There has been a wide array of development frameworks in the IT sector, including waterfall, project management, and agile methods, which encompass even more detailed approaches [3]. For instance, some of the implementations of agile development include Scrum, Kanban, and DevOps [2]. Furthermore, while these approaches are considered the standard of the industry, a large variety of organizations combine various frameworks to create the most appropriate system for the project [2]. Despite the large variety of approaches, all the said agile methods focus on improving the productivity of the processes while emphasizing the cooperation between the team members and customers [4]. As a result, at present, approximately 97% of IT teams utilize agile methods to some extent, which transparently reflects the efficiency of the approach [2].

Agile & Project Management

In general, agile methods are applied to project management; for instance, the mentioned Scrum and Kanban frameworks are frequently perceived as project management approaches [4]. Nevertheless, there are specific differences between the two archetypes, explicitly concerning their perspectives on change and cooperation [1]. Namely, agile development is beneficial for projects that require flexibility and continuous adjustments [1]. In general, there are twelve agile principles, all of which emphasize the adaptable structure of the processes [1]. Furthermore, agile development emphasizes the communication between the customers and employees, which, in turn, results in continuous changes and adjustments to the project [1]. On the other hand, the project management approach can be referred to as a less flexible system, which focuses on objectives and total control of the processes [5]. Contrary to the agile approach, it generally emphasizes the strict order of processes and operations to minimize the possibility of errors and necessary adjustments [5]. As a result, such frameworks can be useful for critical or contingency projects, which require extensive planning with no room for mistakes.

Agile Structure

Most project management frameworks, including agile methods, have comprehensive planning, designing, and testing structure. These stages of development are essential to the productive flow of work and evaluation of the final results [4]. Furthermore, various agile implementations apply different approaches to the said elements; therefore, it is essential to examine the underlying principles of the agile development structure.


Planning is the initial step of project management and is vital to the success of agile development. The nature of planning significantly varies depending on the approach; however, the underlying principles of the phase include initial exploration, release planning, iterating, tracking, and the estimated results [1]. Ultimately, planning establishes the objectives of the project and determines the flow of the operations; thus, planning is vital to any method of agile development.


While designing is frequently considered a part of planning, agile development has a different approach to this stage. According to agile principles, designing is a continuous process, which is adjusted and perfected upon every planning iteration [1]. Therefore, agile development perceives designing as a flexible variable and ensures that the project can be easily customized if needed [1]. From these considerations, a poor design is a rigid system, which is needlessly complex and cannot evolve over time [1]. Thus, the primary point of agile designing is the flexibility of the system that can be easily adjusted and complemented.


Testing is the ultimate step of project management and operations, which ensures the absence of errors and verifies the validity of the undertaken work. As seen from planning and design principles, testing is also a continuous process, which is required upon every iteration of the project [1]. Thus, an agile team verifies the efficacy of each operation, discusses the results, and adjusts the system if needed. Ultimately, planning, designing, and testing are the necessary stages of most agile frameworks.

Agile Methods

Scrum is an agile framework that splits the operation processes into “sprints” each of which is planned on daily meetings [4]. This approach was first implemented in 1995 during the initial stages of agile development and is considered one of the most well-known frameworks today [4]. Scrum emphasizes the flexible usage of sprint planning, cross-functional distribution of labor, necessary adjustments, and ultimate testing of the implemented processes [4]. This operation is repeated upon every planning iteration until the project is completed. Some of the Scrum disadvantages include the relative uncertainty of planning and the needed high qualification of the team [4]. Nevertheless, Scrum has successfully become one of the most popular and effective methods of agile development.

Kanban and DevOps

Kanban is another agile framework, which emphasizes team cooperation and continuous improvement [4]. It was first implemented by Toyota management and was used to eliminate any possibility of overstocking [4]. This concept paved the way for Just-in-Time (JIT) and Lean manufacturing since the teams are able to freely communicate and ensure the efficiency of operations [4]. The underlying principle of Kanban is continuous improvement, which is central to the project in any industry [4]. At present, Kanban is a prominent agile system, which is spread all over the world and used for any type of project management [4]. Consequently, DevOps is a system that connects the development and operation teams in cross-functional collaboration to achieve maximum results [6]. While this approach is slightly less popular than Scrum and Kanban, a large variety of organizations have successfully implemented DevOps to enhance communication among operation units [6]. Ultimately, there is a large variety of contemporary agile methods, which can be utilized for diverse purposes.


Agile development is an efficient methodology of software engineering that paved the way for more comprehensive approaches, such as Scrum and Kanban. At present, most IT companies utilize agile methods to some extent and will most likely become more prominent with the increasing usage of emerging technologies. Ultimately, agile development is an effective framework to maximize the productivity of the team and shift the focus from inflexible non-interactive methods to human cooperation and adaptability.


R. C. Martin and M. Martin. Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C#. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2006.

R. Hoda, N. Salleh and J. Grundy. “The Rise and Evolution of Agile Software Development.” IEEE Software, vol. 35, pp. 58-63, 2019.

A. M. Dima and M. A. Maassen. “From Waterfall to Agile Software: Development Models in the IT Sector, 2006 to 2018. Impacts on Company Management.” Journal of International Studies, vol. 11, pp. 315-326, 2018.

W. Zayat and O. Senvar. “Framework Study for Agile Software Development via Scrum and Kanban.” International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, vol. 17, pp. 1-24, 2020.

J. R. Cristobal, L. Carral, E. Diaz, J. A. Fraguela and G. Iglesias. “Complexity and Project Management: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Research.” Complexity, vol. 2018, pp. 1-10, 2018.

A. Hemon, B. Lyonnet, F. Rowe and B. Fitzgerald. “From Agile to DevOps: Smart Skills and Collaborations.” Information Systems Frontiers, vol. 22, pp. 927-945, 2020.