Language And Racism Free Sample


There are many facets to the intricate link between language and racism in contemporary U.S. culture. This essay examines three publications by John McWhorter, Anjali Pattanayak, and Jennifer M. Cunningham to gain insight into this connection. While they take somewhat different tacks, all three authors disagree that there is one best way to speak English or that certain regional varieties are superior to others. By reading these articles, you will better know how language may be used as a tool for empowerment, resistance, and the celebration of linguistic variety, as well as how it can reflect and perpetuate racist and exclusive practices.

John McWhorter, Anjali Pattanayak, and Jennifer M. Cunningham write on the complex relationship between language and racism in the United States, emphasizing the value of various spoken varieties. While the authors write the three essays with various perspectives, they all challenge the notion that there is one “correct” way to speak English and that certain regional varieties or linguistic traditions are superior. McWhorter’s article, “Blackness and Standard English Can Coexist. Professors, Take Note,” makes the argument that Blackness and Standard English are not mutually exclusive and that Black students should indeed be encouraged to master Standard English as a way to gain access to economic and social opportunities (McWhorter). McWhorter advocates Standard English in the classroom; he disagrees that doing so is a linguistic injustice and that students of color should be permitted to speak their native dialects in school.

“Anti-racist” writing evaluations, according to Asao B. Inoue and the NCTE panel he cites in his paper (which McWhorter dismisses), should be created to honor the wide range of linguistic backgrounds children bring to the classroom (Poe et al. 25). They claim that evaluating pupils’ writing abilities only in terms of how well they write in Standard English is unfair to those whose first language is not English. Inoue, in particular, has been a strong opponent of “language standards,” arguing that teachers should evaluate their pupils based on how well they communicate rather than whether or not they use certain English (McWhorter).

When it comes to combating racism, both McWhorter and Inoue agree that language is a vital site of struggle. They have different views on how language should be taught and assessed in the classroom. McWhorter argues that teaching Black students Standard English is crucial because it will help them advance in society. In contrast, Inoue argues that the term “Standard English” is racist and that teachers should instead evaluate students based on their rhetorical strategies rather than their specific dialect or style.

Pattanayak’s article, “There is One Correct Way of Writing and Speaking,” takes a different approach to language and racism. She shares McWhorter’s view that children who can communicate fluently in Standard English will have more options in life. However, she also contends that there is no “right” manner of speaking or writing and that we should embrace rather than punish the wide variety of languages today. Pattanayak is especially skeptical that one “standard” variety of English is appropriate for scholarly and professional contexts (Pattanayak). She claims this norm disregards the linguistic richness and variety of the English-speaking globe because it is founded on an exclusive, insular conception of what makes “excellent” English. She adds that persons who speak non-standard dialects or languages are frequently stigmatized and barred from positions of power and influence because of the concept of a “proper” style of speaking or writing (Pattanayak).

Unlike McWhorter, who views language as a route to upward mobility, Pattanayak sees it as an instrument of empowerment and resistance. She says that instead of forcing children to adhere to a limited, exclusive concept of “proper” English, schools should celebrate the linguistic variety of American culture and encourage them to discover and embrace their linguistic traditions (Pattanayak).

Perhaps the most immediately confrontational argument is found in “African American Language Is Not Good English,” an essay by Cunningham. The concept that African American Language (AAL) is or should be regarded as a “good” version of English is something that Cunningham strongly disagrees with. He says that AAL is fundamentally distinct from Standard English and should be recognized as such. Cunningham explains that AAL is a language with its history, culture, and language, complete with its grammar, syntax, and vocabulary (Cunningham). She claims that efforts to mainstream AAL into the rest of the English language are foolish because they ignore the richness and complexity of the AAL language.

Moreover, Cunningham disagrees with the assumption that having AAL is a “deficiency” or an indication of inferiority. She points out that AAL has its internal logic and coherence and is a highly expressive dialect influenced by centuries of African American history and culture. According to her, the efforts to marginalize and silence AAL continue a centuries-long pattern of racism and cultural erasure aimed at African Americans (Cunningham). Nevertheless, Cunningham differs from McWhorter and Pattanayak in that he is less preoccupied with issues of the linguistic variety and the link between language and social mobility. Instead, she is committed to safeguarding AAL’s status as a unique and significant mode of expression. She considers AAL fundamental to African American identity and culture and contends that it should be recognized and embraced rather than vilified and eradicated.

Together, these three pieces provide a nuanced and nuanced picture of the tangled web that is the link between language and racism in contemporary America. While McWhorter, Pattanayak, and Cunningham all approach this issue from somewhat different perspectives, they are united in their determination to question the notion that there is one “perfect” form of English and that certain varieties or modes of expression are superior to others. An essential reminder that language is not a zero-sum game, McWhorter claims that Blackness and Standard English coexist, and children should be taught to explore and embrace diverse expression. Pattanayak’s claim that there is no one “right” manner of communication brings attention to the value of linguistic variety and cultural richness while challenging the concept that there is a single, perfect mode of expression. Lastly, Cunningham’s argument that AAL is a significant and meaningful mode of expression challenges the concept that non-standard dialects are intrinsically inadequate or inferior and affirms the significance of cultural and linguistic history (Cunningham).


These three articles provide a scathing assessment of how language has been used to sustain racism and cultural dominance in contemporary American life. They serve as a timely reminder to be aware of the power dynamics at play while assessing and using various kinds of expression and to remember that language is more than simply a means of communication.

Works Cited

Cunningham, Jennifer. “African American Language Is Not Good English.” Humanities LibreTexts, 1 May 2021, /02_Bad_Ideas_About_Who_Good_Writers_are_…/2.07_African_American_Language_is_not_Good_English.

McWhorter, John. “Blackness and Standard English Can Coexist. Professors, Take Note.” The New York Times, 17 May 2022,

Pattanayak, Anjali. There is One Correct Way of Writing and Speaking. Bad Ideas,

Poe, Mya, Asao B. Inoue, and Norbert Elliot. “The end of isolation.” Writing assessment, social justice, and the advancement of opportunity (2018): 3-38.

Case Study – Mr. Evans Free Writing Sample

At 45, Mr. Evans was injured in an accident with a farm tractor. Following the tragic incident, he hastened to the emergency room of the closest hospital. When farm machinery wasn’t serviced regularly, an accident happened. Faulty farm equipment undoubtedly led to the tree’s sad demise. Because of the acute dehydration that Mr. Evans brought on himself by ignoring his health, his condition quickly deteriorated. The man was seriously hurt when a tractor ran him over. Neither the intravenous fluids nor the bandages alleviated his excruciating pain. Cleansing, bandaging, and intravenous fluids were administered to the incision, but never healed. To add insult to injury, he complained about how heavy his head felt. It occurred while he was in the hospital, that much he knows for sure. But the main point is that it wasn’t a huge problem. After dressing the wound, the patient was given intravenous fluids to replace those he had lost due to the treatment. The patient was given 5 mg of intravenous metoclopramide for the vomiting and 1 g of oral paracetamol for the discomfort before being released from the hospital (Kocatürk, n.d). Before providing these meds, we ensured all necessary prescriptions had been filled. The wandering physician treated patients whenever they came across him. These medications have been prescribed to you by your primary care physician, who has stressed the significance of taking them exactly as prescribed and at the appropriate times. Before being released from the hospital, a patient must complete all their treatments. Our wait was caused by Lorna’s extended shift in the emergency room. She has been of great help for the past four decades. The charity’s finances are quite unstable now, and they are only likely to worsen. On his way back to his house, Mr. Evans encountered her and politely inquired if she knew where he could find a pharmacy. Mr. Evans might try to touch her at any moment. She decided to resign from her work at the company after arguing with Mr. Evans.

An accident involving a farm tractor has put Mr. Evans’ life in danger. He got it taken out, but he never noticed it was gone. Given the current situation, I consider his death a near certainty. This is a very precarious time for Mr. Evans due to recent developments. Mr. Evans’s current struggles may have their origins in the injuries he’s endured. The mishap affirmed that we had made adequate preparations for the trip. Without any form of hydration, he certainly would have perished beneath the sun’s scorching heat. Without all of these, your chances of success will be much lower. All three of these causes worked together to hasten the victim’s dehydration. The medical staff in the emergency room at the local hospital did everything they could to get the man well enough to return to work (Dawson et al., 2019). The intravenous fluids helped reestablish the body’s hydrostatic balance (Malbrain et al., 2020). Get nothing else done till he is healthy again. With the diagnosis in hand, 5 mg of metoclopramide was injected intravenously. It was decided to give the patient a single dose of paracetamol, a strong pain reliever. It was entirely their responsibility to make sure the pills were swallowed. Lorna’s role as a chief nurse has given her a wealth of medical knowledge. She’s been working in her sector for almost 40 years, and only now is she getting the respect due an industry leader.

NMBA’s RN rules were broken when Mr. Evans’ condition wasn’t properly diagnosed, and treatment wasn’t started in a timely fashion. (NMBA) (Anthony Hernandez & Street, n.d). The patient refused any fluids despite the intensified medical care. We were met with apathy when we refused aid out of pride, and now we must bear the full weight of that indifference. Concern should be raised if the nurse’s focus wavers from the patient. The attending physician or nurse committed an obvious error. The shift work pattern made Mr. Evans’ already unpleasant symptoms, such as nausea, considerably worse. Doing so can rule out numerous possible explanations for sentinel events (Madariaga et al., 2020). According to Mr. Evans, the sentinel event nurse has taken far too long to catch up to the NMBA RN standards. This may have had a role in Mr. Evans’ untimely passing. The patient’s condition could have worsened if the necessary conditions weren’t satisfied. The agreement may have been broken, allowing a new pandemic to spread.

If the accountable healthcare organization had paid more attention to two NSHQHS Standards, Mr. Evans wouldn’t be in this pickle right now (Taylor et al., 2020). The consequence of the survey contributed to expanding this knowledge. The data support this conclusion. The hospital failed the first Clinical Governance Standard evaluation because staff members took too long to respond to the patient’s cries for help (Darnton et al., 2022). Because of this, the patient’s risk of becoming dehydrated increased dramatically. In the early stages of this procedure, a major deviation from the regular procedure was implemented. The application process is rather easy up until the final stages. The fact that Mr. Evans complained that his therapy was making him feel nauseous meant that he did not receive care that met the criteria of the Comprehensive Care Standard. Standard 5 of the Comprehensive Care Standard was completely disregarded. There was an issue, and several other untried therapies were being examined as potential fixes. The new Comprehensive Care Standard is drastically different from its predecessor. If the hospital had responded more quickly and efficiently to patients’ requests, mistakes like these might not have happened (Péculo‐Carrasco et al., 2020).

Together with my coworker, we discussed Mr. Evans’s issue and devised three options for fixing it. Everyone in the medical field requires rapid training in how to recognize the symptoms of dehydration in patients. Theoretical understanding of the alternatives available in this subject is helpful, but students would benefit more from hands-on experience with diagnostic and treatment procedures (Perle, 2020). Though theoretical knowledge is helpful, it is in the field that you will find the most success. People needing medical care have access to the same educational and employment possibilities as anybody else (Molloy & Bearman, 2019). Companies should provide their staff with unlimited, opt-in access to any data that may aid their professional development. The leaders of the medical industry would be remiss to ignore this possibility. Second, pay attention to your doctor’s advice. Have no fear; the proper authorities will be notified without delay. The approach revision should detail all promises made since the crisis began (Nimmo et al., 2019). Implementation deadlines are an essential part of every policy. It’s easier to work together and respond more swiftly in a crisis if everyone is familiar with the present plan. We now have more robust protections in place. In a medical emergency, the emergency room nurses should swiftly contact the doctor on call (Weigl et al., 2020). As they have complete access to patient records, you can trust their diagnoses and suggestions. The leaders of the medical industry would be remiss to ignore this possibility.

The medical center needs to discover a mechanism to monitor how each patient responds to intravenous fluids (Wicha et al., 2021). It’s likely that you’ll get wounded or sick and that your plans will fall through. When people experience headaches, they sometimes feel dizzy, nauseous, and possibly puke up. There may be no apparent evidence of an allergy being present (Machias, n.d). It is ludicrous to suppose that something like this won’t happen soon. A patient taking intravenous fluids requires constant monitoring by the attending nurse. A nurse’s first obligation is to alert the patient’s primary care physician whenever she suspects something is amiss (Chen & Lin, 2022). Nurses are more able to accomplish their tasks in a tranquil, distraction-free workplace. The medical industry leaders should pay attention to this possibility (Buntin, 2021). These concepts have a strong chance of becoming normal to practice if they are backed by training, backup protocols, and careful monitoring of the potentially fatal implications of IV fluids. The hospital needs to take all the appropriate measures to protect its patients.


Anthony Hernandez, D. N. P., & Street, L. A. (n.d). Multimedia Educational Module on the Best Practices of Anesthesia Patient Safety for Quantitative Neuromuscular Monitoring.Retrieved from:

Buntin, M. B. (2021). Confronting challenges in the US Health Care System: potential opportunity in a time of crisis. JAMA325(14), 1399-1400. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/zare12/Downloads/jama_buntin_2021_ed_210011_1622833271.01607.pdf

Chen, M. C., & Lin, H. R. (2022). The experiences of family caregivers in response to a dementia diagnosis disclosure. BMC psychiatry22(1), 1-9. Retrieved from:

Darnton, R., Lopez, T., Anil, M., Ferdinand, J., & Jenkins, M. (2021). Medical students consulting from home: a qualitative evaluation of a tool for maintaining student exposure to patients during lockdown. Medical Teacher43(2), 160-167. Retrieved from:

Dawson, A. J., Rossiter, C., Doab, A., Romero, B., Fitzpatrick, L., & Fry, M. (2019). The emergency department response to women experiencing intimate partner violence: insights from interviews with clinicians in Australia. Academic emergency medicine26(9), 1052-1062. Retrieved from:

Kocatürk, Ö. (n.d).The Effect of Paracetamol on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Maxillofacial Surgery Under General Anesthesia. Retrieved from:

Machias, N. Y. (n.d). BUFFALO MEDICAL JOURNAL. Retrieved from:

Madariaga, A., Bowering, V., Ahrari, S., Oza, A. M., & Lheureux, S. (2020). Manage wisely: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) treatment and adverse events. International Journal of Gynecologic Cancer30(7). Retrieved from:

Malbrain, M. L., Langer, T., Annane, D., Gattinoni, L., Elbers, P., Hahn, R. G., … & Van Regenmortel, N. (2020). Intravenous fluid therapy in the perioperative and critical care setting: executive summary of the International Fluid Academy (IFA). Annals of intensive care10, 1-19. Retrieved from:

Molloy, E., & Bearman, M. (2019). Embracing the tension between vulnerability and credibility:‘intellectual candour’in health professions education. Medical Education53(1), 32-41. Retrieved from:

Nimmo, A. F., Absalom, A. R., Bagshaw, O., Biswas, A., Cook, T. M., Costello, A., … & Wiles, M. D. (2019). Guidelines for the safe practice of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) joint guidelines from the association of anaesthetists and the society for intravenous anaesthesia. Anaesthesia74(2), 211-224. Retrieved from:

Péculo‐Carrasco, J. A., De Sola, H., Casal‐Sánchez, M. D. M., Rodríguez‐Bouza, M., Sánchez‐Almagro, C. P., & Failde, I. (2020). Feeling safe or unsafe in prehospital emergency care: A qualitative study of the experiences of patients, carers and healthcare professionals. Journal of clinical nursing29(23-24), 4720-4732. Retrieved from:

Perle, J. G. (2020). Introduction to telehealth for clinical psychologists: a novel course designed to improve general knowledge and hands-on expertise with technology-based modalities. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science5(4), 383-394. Retrieved from:

Taylor, E. V., Lyford, M., Parsons, L., Mason, T., Sabesan, S., & Thompson, S. C. (2020). “We’re very much part of the team here”: A culture of respect for Indigenous health workforce transforms Indigenous health care. PloS one15(9), e0239207. Retrieved from:

Weigl, M., Catchpole, K., Wehler, M., & Schneider, A. (2020). Workflow disruptions and provider situation awareness in acute care: An observational study with emergency department physicians and nurses. Applied Ergonomics88, 103155. Retrieved from:

Wicha, S. G., Märtson, A. G., Nielsen, E. I., Koch, B. C., Friberg, L. E., Alffenaar, J. W., … & International Society of Anti‐Infective Pharmacology (ISAP), the PK/PD study group of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases (EPASG). (2021). From therapeutic drug monitoring to model‐informed precision dosing for antibiotics. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics109(4), 928-941. Retrieved from:

Art History: Mannerism And Reformation Sample Essay

My first selection is Michelangelo’s Tomb of Giuliano de Medici, located in the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy. This piece is a marble sculpture that was created between 1520 and 1534. It is a funerary monument that Lorenzo de Medici commissioned to honor the memory of his brother. The tomb comprises two figures, Giuliano de Medici and his brother Lorenzo, depicted in a reclining pose. The figures are carved in marble and are highly detailed, with realistic and lifelike quality. Various symbols and motifs surround the figures, including a laurel wreath, a lion, and a dove.

The subject matter of the tomb is a tribute to the Medici family and their legacy. The figures represent the two brothers in death, and the symbols and motifs represent their virtues and accomplishments. The figures are also meant to represent the idealized human form, and the tomb is meant to celebrate the Medici family’s legacy.

The style of the sculpture is typical of Michelangelo’s earlier works. He combines classical and Renaissance elements, creating a harmonious balance. The sculpture has a strong sense of movement, with the figure of Giuliano appearing to be in a state of repose. The drapery of his clothing is also rendered realistically, with the folds of the fabric moving with the figure.

The Tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici represents an earlier artistic style, combining classical and Renaissance elements. Michelangelo’s use of realistic drapery and attention to detail is characteristic of his earlier works. The sculpture also reflects the religious and spiritual themes common in Renaissance art. The figure of Giuliano is depicted in a peaceful and contemplative state, suggesting a spiritual connection to the afterlife. This reflects the Renaissance belief in the afterlife’s importance and the soul’s journey. The work is highly detailed and realistic, celebrating the Medici family’s legacy. The work is a testament to the skill and talent of Michelangelo, and it is a reminder of the power and influence of the Medici family.

The Facade of Santa Maria Novella is a Renaissance building designed by the architect Leon Battista Alberti in 1458-1470. It is a public building intended to be seen by the public and to serve as a religious building. The facade comprises a series of arches, pilasters, and niches and is decorated with classical motifs. The Tomb of Giuliano de Medici, on the other hand, is a Mannerist sculpture created by Michelangelo in 1520-1534 as a funerary monument. It is a private work of art intended to be seen only by those who visit the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo in Florence. The tomb comprises two figures, Giuliano and Lorenzo de Medici, and is decorated with various classical motifs.

The painterly style of Leon Battista Alberti’s Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence is characterized by classical motifs, such as columns, arches, and niches. The facade is decorated with various classical motifs, such as acanthus leaves, scrolls, and garlands. The facade is also decorated with various figurative sculptures, such as saints and angels. The painterly style of Michelangelo’s Tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici in the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo in Florence is characterized by the use of more complex, dynamic compositions and more exaggerated and distorted forms. The tomb has various classical motifs, such as garlands, scrolls, and figures. The figures are depicted more exaggeratedly and dynamically than those on the facade of the Santa Maria Novella. The figures are also depicted more dynamically and expressively, with greater attention paid to the details of their facial expressions and body language.

The two works of art represent the Mannerism and Reformation movements differently. Leon Battista Alberti’s facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy, exemplifies Mannerism with its intricate and ornate design, use of classical elements, and focus on beauty and harmony. Michelangelo’s Tomb of Giuliano de Medici, located in the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy, is an example of the Reformation, with its more restrained and sober design, its focus on religious themes, and its use of naturalistic elements. Both works of art demonstrate the influence of the Mannerist and Reformation movements on the art of the time but in different ways.


Campbell, E. J. (2020). Giuliano de’Medici: Machiavelli’s Prince in Life and Art

Pelosi, G., & Selleri, S. (2021, November). Florence and a Leap in Cryptography: The Leon Battista Alberti Cypher Disk. In 2021 7th IEEE History of Electrotechnology Conference (HISTELCON) (pp. 7-11). IEEE