Leadership And Organizational Behavior Free Sample

Every organization has a need to formally coordinate the pattern of interaction between the organizational members. Thus organizational structure can be defined as the process of allocating tasks, coordinating between organizational members, and formalizing the ‘who reports to whom’ concept. Strategy is the long term goal and the objectives of the company which helps in allocation of resources, and corporate positioning.

Many organizational studies have established a link between organizational strategy and structure (Chandler, 1962; Miles & Snow, 1978; Potter, 1980; Mintzberg, 1994). This paper assumes this connection to be true, tries to develop two viable structures for a given organization. The organization we intend to study is Procter and Gamble (P&G).

To provide an overview about the company, P&G, established in 1837, are the providers of branded fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and services. The main aim of the company is to provide innovative product to the consumer.

The corporate strategy of P&G is to “delight the consumer with sustainable innovations that improve the environmental profile of our products” and “improve the environmental profile of P&G’s own operations” (P&G, 2008).

Innovation and operational excellence being the main potent of the corporate strategy, the company aims to strive for continues and fast innovation which helps them to sustain in a highly competitive market.

Given this strategy of the company, we will try to demonstrate two viable strategies for the company. Here we will recommend two structures with discussion on basic form/design, considerations for centralization and show why this is a fit with the organization.

The first structure that we recommend for P&G is a category matrix structure (figure 1). A matrix structure is a structural design that arranges specialist functionalities or departments into one or more teams, which are led by project leaders. In a category matrix structure, we recommend that P&G use a category matrix structure.

This structure is based into groups of categories which are led by category managers who directly report to the country heads. As P&G’s operations are widely dispersed into different countries, it is important to have a country based operations.

The product development must be handled at one place to ensure uniformity of product offering at all geographic locations. The product development department is formed in a matrix structure to ensure productivity and innovation in each segment. Here the stress is on innovation wherein the nature of centralization lessens. This is to ensure a complete environment for innovation.

The product development Head reports to the company head. The categories are managed by a category manger who report to the product development head. The other important part P&G is marketing of the consumer products. This will be done through a marketing and promotion team which is again arranged in the same way as the R&D team.

This is to ensure that the message that goes out to the whole expanse of the company is one. All the countries where P&G operates should get the same message. This is ensured through the marketing and promotion team, which is again arranged in a matrix structure. The product development and Marketing team operate in close coordination.

The third important segment for P&G is the country operations. Since P&G has its operations, spread are many countries, it is important to have country based operations to increase its operational efficiency. Here only the category based sales departments are present who ensure efficient distribution of the products to the distributors.

The regional offices are headed by the Country Head who directly reports to the company head. This matrix form of structure arrangement minimizes hierarchy of command, and ensures that the marketing and the product development team work in close coordination to deliver what the customer actually need and want.

It also decreases formalization in the product development and marketing team as the strategies are drawn together. This process also increases the company’s sensitivity to the changing market demands and structure. This increases specialization of the categories. This helps to organize a flatter organization and ensures a more participative management.

category matric structure
Figure 1: category Matric Structure

The second structure that we recommend is a functional structure. Here the segregation is in the main functions of the company. Now it is important to understand which the broad functional necessities of P&G are. First is product development as innovation in the product is the main goal of the company. Second are global operations which have to be efficient.

Third, is the corporate functions like finance and accounts, HR, etc. and the fourth is the services section of the company which it has to provide to its customers. This structure increases the centralization of control, as the whole operations are less than one manager but also increases the specialization of the departments. This increases the span of control as the managers.

The structures in the functional departments are divided into geographic divisions. The functional departments work independently and concentrate in their own functionalities. This will increase the specialization of the department and hence its efficiency. The span of control is high for department heads as they have many managers reporting to them.

The degree of centralization is high as all the geographic operations are controlled from the main office. But with regional offices working closely with the head offices also ensure in providing insight into the local markets for developing product development and operational strategies. The importance of this structure lies in its degree of control with the head office and specialization.

As P&G is a big company with operations spread across the global and with their present aim to expand further, it is important to keep in mind that the corporate control over all the geographic units is important. This structure provides increased centralizations. The degree of formalization is high too. Further, this structure helps the MNC to be more ‘glocal’ applying its global goals in a local market.

Further, this structure helps the company to increase its efficiency and practice the old concept of division of labor to its optimum. With two separate departments of product development and marketing, the company can concentrate solely into the two functions. This increases specialization.

Further, due to its department orientation it reduces the vertical differentiation in the structure which reduces the layer of hierarchies as compared to a bureaucratic structure. Further, this structure increases the special differentiation.

This implies that the company can practice the same level of operations in multiple locations. The hierarchical levels are same. This structure increases formalization as the departments are segregated on the line of functionalities. So this structure is workable for a company which I s of a big size and operation as P&G.

Functional structure
Figure 2: Functional Structure


Chandler, A. D. (1962). Startegy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York: MacGraw Hill.

Mintzberg, H. (1994). Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. New York: Free Press.

P&G. (2008). Sustainability Startegies and Goals for 2012.

Potter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy:Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.

Nursing Communication Process

This paper is focused on verbal and nonverbal elements of communication in nursing profession. It also assesses the importance of effective nursing communication process with patients in healthcare.

Five Elements of the Communication Process

The five elements of the communication process include the sender, message, receiver, channels, and feedback. Finkleman (2012) reveals that the sender is the person, group, or even an object that starts the communication process by developing a message. The information contained in the sender’s message can either be spoken or non-verbal. Besides, the sender can either be responsive or insensible (Finkleman, 2012).

The receiver refers to the party that the message is ordained. In other cases, the receiver is known as the interpreter. The message implies the content that is conveyed from one party to the other with a view of bringing about a certain meaning and/or instruction.

Finkleman (2012) defines the channel as the medium through which the message is transferred. Popular channels include the radio, television, spoken words, and mobile phones among others. The last component of the communication process is feedback, which is the return message that the receiver refers to the source (Finkleman, 2012).

Effective Communication in Nursing

Effective communication is not only the exchange of information but also the understanding of the sentiments and purposes of the conveyed content (Judd, 2013). Various studies have shown that effective communication is crucial to the delivery of medical services in healthcare institutions.

Judd (2013) posits that good communication between the healthcare professionals and patients is paramount to the accomplishment of medical goals in hospital settings. There is a need for the nurses to understand the patients while exhibiting the required politeness, compassion, and honesty.

Effective communication also requires them to exercise patience, confidentiality, and language. However, Judd (2013) affirms that effective communications relies not only on the physical capabilities of the caregivers but also their levels of training and practice. For this reason, nursing communication calls for a blend of scientific, technical, and intellectual skills to accomplish the objectives of clinical tasks (Judd, 2013).

Improving Communication Process in Nursing

The improvement of communication between medical practitioners and patients is essential in everyday healthcare practice. At first, the process should be improved through the consideration of individual values and views to ensure assertiveness.

The improvement of communication, especially in the healthcare sector, demands the combination of a set of skills that include spoken, written, confidence, and the ability to realize and comprehend individual sentiments and those of the patient (Vardaman et al., 2012).

Communication is also improved by ensuring active listening to get a glimpse of both the information and emotions of the correspondent. The recipient should also pay attention to nonverbal communication such as body language, gestures, and facial expressions (Vardaman et al., 2012).

Why Healthcare Professionals should be concerned about the Communication Process

At the outset, the communication between nurses and patients serves as a therapeutic process (Vardaman et al., 2012). The patients play a vital role in communicating their reservations and distresses to the nurse with a view of initiating a problem-solving process.

On the other hand, the healthcare professional receives, analyzes, and provides feedback to the patient concerning the kind of illness and recommendation on the conceivable treatment plans (Vardaman et al., 2012). Furthermore, vulnerable patients require the effective communications skills of the nurses as they sometimes fail to reveal their reservations.

In this case, effective nursing communication becomes an integral part of the realization, diagnosis, and formulation of a conceivable solution to their medical problems. In addition, healthcare professionals should be concerned about effective communication because it improves patient safety. Finally, communication also helps in the establishment of teamwork with a view of improving patient care and safety.

Reference List

Finkleman, A. (2012). Leadership and Management for Nurses: Core Competence for Quality Care. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Judd, M. (2013). Broken Communication in Nursing can kill: Teaching Communication is Vital. Creative Nursing, 19(2), 101-104.

Vardaman, J., Cornell, P., Gondo, M., Amis, J., Townsend-Gervis, M., & Thetford, C. (2012). Beyond Communication: The Role of Standardized Protocols in a Changing Health Care Environment. Health Care Management Review, 37(1), 88-97.

Essay Voice-over

Nature Of Christianity: Political Resistance Versus Cultural Assimilation

Religion as a phenomenon has a complex social purpose and is typically viewed as a source of spirituality and ethical development of its proponents. However, apart from the chances that religion opens for believers in terms of their personal development, it also provides extensive opportunities for societal progress by building the members of a community closer and encouraging them to develop values such as humility, compassion, supportiveness, etc.

The specified characteristics can be applied to Christianity as one of the most widespread religions in the world. However, when considering the societal foundation of Christianity, one is likely to face the necessity to choose between two options, i.e., political resistance and cultural assimilation.

To be more accurate, the propensity toward developing a Christian worldview and the respective values may be reinforced by the willingness to oppose a political regime that infringes upon the rights of others. Similarly, Christian ideas may also be derived from the necessity to become a part of a community and, therefore, engage in the process of cultural assimilation to build stronger ties with its members.

Although Christianity can be used for both purposes, it seems that, because of the emphasis that the Bible places on compassion and nonviolence, political resistance toward bigotry and hatred in a community seems to be a more profound foundation on which the modern Christianity stands.

The concept of political resistance might seem as a rather vague notion since it implies a range of measures aimed at fighting the existing political regime. However, the general idea of political resistance can be condensed to the process of addressing changes in the society and especially in the social and political justice system by engaging actively in political actions aimed at restoring the idea of justice and preventing the concept of inequality and other destructive ideas to disrupt the relationships between the members of a particular community, be it a local or a global one (“Oration in Praise of Constantine”).

Some people may distort Christian ideas to foist their religious agenda on people (Lind). However, Christianity can also be used for restoring the balance within a community by building political resistance (“To Demetrian” 67). Therefore, a political resistance suggests contributing to a change in a political regime.

Due to the fact that Christianity allows for developing a significant level of resilience toward political regimes that oppose diversity and equality, it seems that political resistance comprises one of the pillars on which Christianity stands in the modern world.

The specified religion performs an important social function of keeping the ethical and moral integrity of its members intact and, therefore, enabling them to oppose the political changes that disrupt the principles of equality on which communication between the community members is founded.

As a result, Christian values allow people not only to retain their integrity but also to contribute to creating the environment in which tolerance, acceptance, and equality are maintained as crucial values.

In a range of cases, the willingness to keep the structure of the society based on the idea of compassion and equal rights often results in having to make a sacrifice, such as Heathan Heyer, who “apparently loved her country too much to watch it crumble in the hands of bigots” (Glanton).

Nevertheless, the strong emphasis of the necessity to retain human values and encourage tolerance and support across the Christian community helps prevent the development of political injustice toward certain parts of the society or combat the specified incidences of injustice successfully.

The phenomenon of cultural assimilation, in turn, also requires a certain social context to be explored in depth. As a rule, the concept is traditionally applied to the situations in which people belonging to a cultural or ethnic minority face the need to accept the dominant culture as part and parcel of their identity in order to integrate into the target society successfully.

Although the subject matter is rooted deeply in the issues associated with language and traditions, religion may also be associated with the specified transition from one society to another and becoming a member of a new community.

From the specified perspective, Christianity can be deemed as the dominant religion that defines the patterns of interactions between the representatives of global communities. For instance, in The Letter of Ignatius to the Romans, the focus on the Christian religion as the only source of truth: “For I do not want you to please people, but to please God, as you in fact are doing” (Ignatius of Antioch 227).

It would be wrong to state that the letter implies that the Christian church aims at subverting the ideas that the rest of religions and philosophies view as essential. However, there is the sense of urgency and persistence that makes the idea of cultural assimilation as a possible cost to pay for the enhancement of the Christian values such as compassion very probable.

Nevertheless, it seems that the power of Christianity as the foundation for fighting oppression and promoting love and understanding seems to be more legitimate than its interpretation as the force that compels people to abandon their religious beliefs and philosophical viewpoints (“To Donatus”).

Instead, Christianity can be regarded as the source of wisdom that will provide one with the necessary ideas of acceptance and peace, thus, being a unique experience. Therefore, the nature of Christianity as the source of strength and power to fight oppression, in general, and build political resistance, in particular, can be considered a better representation of the complex nature of the religion.

Works Cited

Glanton, Dahleen. “Column: Heather Heyer Is a Civil Rights Martyr.” Chicago Tribune. 2017.

Ignatius of Antioch “The Letter of Ignatius to the Romans.” The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations. 3rd ed. Translated by Michael W. Holmes. Baker Academic, 2007, pp. 225-235.

Lind, Dana. “Donald Trump Proposes ‘Total and Complete Shutdown of Muslims Entering the United States.’ ” Vox, 7 Dec. 2015.

Oration in Praise of Constantine.” NewAdvent.org, n.d.

“To Demetrian.” EWTN.com, n.d.

“To Donatus.” EWTN.com, n.d.

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