Researchers in learning and developmental theory utilize their findings to construct theories about how children develop in educational settings. A theory is a logical abstraction regarding phenomena or the conclusions of such an abstraction. Contemplative and rational thought are frequently linked to procedures like observational study or research. On the other hand, learning is the process of gaining information or abilities via instruction, experience, or study. The learning process of humans and everything related to it is observed, described, explained, and guided by a set of concepts known as a learning theory. Growth, advancement, positive change, or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social, and demographic components are all development products. Theories of child development describe how children adapt and develop throughout infancy (Shute, 2015). These theories focus on various development issues, such as educational, social, emotional, and cognitive development.
The development and behavior of the children are examined and interpreted by learning and development theories. It suggests the genetic and environmental factors that affect a child’s growth and behavior and the connections between them. Numerous developmental theories provide insight into how people’s performance is sparked, maintained, guided, and encouraged. Psychologists have developed numerous ideas on learning and development. The attachment theory by Bowlby & Ainsworth and the cognitive development theory by Piaget and Vygotsky are some of t well theories on learning and development. It has been developed to explore adult attachments in interpersonal relationships, relational communication, and individual-level psychological processes. Attachment theory is a conceptual structure for developmental psychology. Bowlby formulated the idea, and Ainsworth made it testable. According to cognitive theory, the extrinsic nature of education places a development focus on the learner’s abilities and education on the manifestation of those capabilities (Bowlby, 2013). According to cognitive theory, a child’s conduct shows the source of various mental frameworks, structured groups, or thought patterns that impact how they understand the world (Levine, 2022).
Learning and development theories are crucial in comprehending the emotional and mental factors that influence a child’s educational success. Developmental and learning theories are essential to understanding the nature and causes of cognitive, linguistic, and social skill development in children. In this setting, learning and development theories are vital for identifying specific developmental viewpoints relevant to childhood education fundamental topics (Charlesworth, 2016). This article will thoroughly study Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory and Piaget and Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory. This will be accomplished by reviewing the primary viewpoints of the theorists, comparing the significant similarities and differences, and then analyzing the significance of these ideas to children’s learning and development. A concise conclusion will be provided.
Part 1: Attachment theory: Bowlby & Ainsworth
Attachment theory is a conceptual framework established by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth that studies interpersonal relationships and psychological processes based on early parental relationships (Jones, 2015). The attachment theory received both popularity and criticism due to its opposition to the Freudian theory, which explains child development in terms of an individual’s internal mental processes and therefore does not take the individual’s external environment and social relationships into account. The idea consists of three primary attachment styles: proximity-seeking, stable base, and separation (Fraley, 2019). Attachment theory is a life-span hypothesis that posits attachment tendencies, once acquired, are maintained and expanded to various interpersonal connections throughout time. Attachment insecurities, defined as attachment avoidance and anxiety, influence social-cognitive systems like interpersonal goal formulation and planning. Consequently, these systems affect interpersonal communication. Attachment theory, one of the most prominent techniques for understanding interpersonal relationships, is an essential viewpoint because it explains why parental interactions profoundly affect children’s personalities.
By focusing on children’s attachments in interpersonal interactions, the attachment theory helps the contemporary world to comprehend children’s learning and development. Bowlby felt that children denied fundamental socio-emotional and social requirements develop deficiencies in their interactions, which might be perceived as having severely influenced their educational process. This concept is fundamental to the theory and is known as inter-generational transmission. Nevertheless, when children get regular, needs-based care, they will likely build effective internal practical applications for themselves and society. These children develop a feeling of attachment security, which comprises the belief that the globe is exciting and secure, that it is feasible to try new things and interact well with others, and that seeking assistance is an effective method to manage stress. This allows the youngsters to establish healthy learning attitudes and beneficial relationships with classmates and instructors. According to Bowlby, attachment security is necessary to develop good partnerships. However, neglected or inconsistently cared-for students tend to view themselves negatively by developing less favorable internal working models. These youngsters learn to cope with stress by employing affect regulation methods, such as inappropriate interpersonal communication patterns, which ultimately lead to dysfunctional interpersonal interactions with classmates and instructors, impeding their learning ability (Sutton, 2019).
Furthermore, the similarities between the two theorists are based on the fact that both Bowlby and Ainsworth agree that a child’s personality is highly derived from their relationship with their close caregivers, especially their mothers (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 2013). In her 1970s research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth significantly expanded upon Bowlby’s initial work. Ainsworth drew upon Bowlby’s foundation for attachment theory. Like Bowlby, Ainsworth agreed with homeostatic systems, but she expanded the study by dividing attachment into three distinct types: secure, avoidant, and resistive. Her innovative research on “strange situations” demonstrated the enormous consequences of attachment on conduct. In the study, researchers examined 12- to 18-month-old children as they reacted to being momentarily left in solitude before being reconnected with their mothers (Ainsworth, 2015).
However, differences arise because Bowlby’s work was mainly based on concepts and theories around the notion. Contrary, Ainsworth’s work was more of a methodology and took an experimentation approach towards testing Bowlby’s concepts Mary Ainsworth’s findings contradicted the belief of John Bowlby that attachment was an all-or-nothing process. Mary uncovered the presence of “attachment behaviors,” which she defines as actions shown by insecure youngsters in an attempt to create or reestablish a bond with a currently absent caregiver. This is a persuasive case for the presence of “innate” or instinctive actions in humans, as this behavior is consistent among infants (Bowlby, J., & Ainsworth, 2013).
Therefore, attachment theory is of significant relevance to early childhood and development as it allows children to seek secure attachments and relationships that facilitate emotional well-being and confidence in a learning environment. Parents and instructors must be sensitive to and attentive to their children’s needs to give proper care in their learning and developmental phases. This includes understanding when their infant is hungry, ill, or needs contact and care. Regarding implementing any theoretical framework of attachment theory, practitioners are guided by existing legislation and associated recommendations, such as strategic planning for children’s services, communal duties, and impoverishment effects (Bergen,2019). Existing policy frameworks highlight the child’s right to experience the continuation of loving connections and specifically encourage the development of certain parts of resource supply to enhance the learning experience.
Part 2: Cognitive development: Piaget & Vygotsky
Cognitive development theories are based on the logical processes of learning. Furthermore, cognitive development is also focused on the mental activities of individuals when interacting with their environment. Semmar and Al-Thani (2015) mention that the Piaget’s approach to cognitive development is focused on an individual’s intellectual skills and personal knowledge. Notably, Piaget’s cognitive development theory consists of four main cognitive stages; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal. On the other hand, Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory assumes that a child’s learning and development are highly dependent on their relationship with the external environment based on the social connections, tools, and signs used (Semmar & Al-Thani, 2015). Moreover, the Vygotsky’s approach involves three critical cognitive stages: the cognitive, motoric, and socio-cultural.
Cognitive development theories and psychology are essential to children’s learning and development because they assist clarify how children consume and comprehend information. It enables educators to grasp the learning demands of pupils and clarifies the mental process. This knowledge can aid educators in developing more effective teaching strategies. It provides a better understanding of youngsters who achieve academic achievement in school. Cognitive developmental theories describe the shift in a child’s level of reasoning as they acquire new methods to comprehend the environment (Olson, 2013). Teachers must exert more effort to arrange classroom activities for individuals and small groups instead of the entire class. Individual growth should be the criterion for evaluation rather than the average standards of peers of the same age. Individuals develop their knowledge via contact with the surrounding world. Piaget ascribed cognitive growth to developmental phases, which appear to be rather prevalent, but Vygotsky advocated an alternative approach that gave importance to culture and social interactions for children’s development (Topçiu, M., 2015). Particularly among child development professionals and early childhood teachers who embrace a constructivist account of cognitive development but oppose Piagetian theory, Vygotsky’s theories have garnered popularity. The approach of Lev Vygotsky has been mainly applied to language and literacy instructions.
Piaget and Vygotsky thought that children were active participants in their development; therefore, their philosophies were comparable. Both assumed that learners’ development would drop as they age. Both Piaget and Vygotsky felt that egocentric speech had a role in cognitive development, albeit in distinct ways. Both of their ideas focus on cognitive growth since they believe that cognitive conflict may begin and promote progress. They both argued that egocentric speaking is essential to the cognitive growth process. Both thought that the kid actively participates in his or her education. Piaget and Vygotsky both claimed that the rate of development slows with age (Blake, 2015). Finally, both researchers believed that both the function of biology and the role of language play a role in cognitive development. In addition, the two methods share a developmental perspective, an emphasis on implementation, and qualitative features over quantitative ones. The cognitive development idea in early childhood learning and development is significant since it enables pupils to articulate their thoughts better and comprehend their mental processes (Kouicem, 2016).
Piaget and Vygotsky approach cognitive development in children differently, and as a result, their beliefs on developmentally appropriate teaching techniques disagree. Notably, the primary distinction between the two theories is their respective learning philosophies, as the Piagetian method is based on developmental individuality. At the same time, the Vygotskian approach is founded on external factors (Lourenco, 2012). Piaget believed that egocentric speech indicates that children are self-centered and unable to see from any perspective other than their own. In contrast, Vygotsky believed that egocentric speech develops as children transition from language as a tool for social communication to language as private speech and then an inner speech or thought (Johnson, 2014). Piaget stated that the rate of cognitive development is determined by the child’s level of maturity, whereas Vygotsky maintained that children are born with intrinsic, essential functions (Huang, 2021). Lastly, Piaget felt that children learn autonomously, but Vygotsky asserts that infants learn through social contact, an idea known as the zone of proximal development (Ghazi, 2014).
The cognitive development theories advocated by Piaget and Vygotsky have had an impact on early-year practice and policies on early childhood education because the two scholars provided insights into how a child gradually comes to comprehend the world around him or her, thereby altering how people viewed a child’s world and how they studied children (Kouicem, 2020). Teachers learn more about their students’ thought processes by matching their instructional tactics with their students’ cognitive levels. Policy implications of contemporary theories of cognitive development include the realization that active involvement, investigation, heredity, maturity, and experience alone cannot explain cognitive growth. Cognitive growth is based on actively investigating the learner’s physical and social environment. Teaching and learning must be dynamic, exploratory processes if the instructor is to maximize things, allowing students to explore, discover, question, discuss, reflect, and solve issues independently.
In summary, attachment theory is a conceptual framework that analyzes people’s interpersonal connections based on individuals’ early parental relations. At the same time, cognitive development is focused on individuals’ mental activities and logical processes when learning and interacting with their environment. The attachment theory is significant to early childhood and development as it allows children to seek secure attachments and relationships. In contrast, the cognitive development theory allows students to articulate their thoughts better and comprehend their mental processes. The paper has delved into the study of Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory and Piaget and Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory. A review of the primary viewpoints of the theorists has been undertaken, comparing the significant similarities and differences and then analyzing the significance of these ideas to children’s learning and development.
Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory studies interpersonal relationships and psychological processes based on early parental relationships, which explain child development by considering the individual’s external environment and social relationships. Attachment theory is an essential viewpoint because it explains why parental interactions profoundly affect children’s personalities. Moreover, by focusing on children’s attachments in interpersonal interactions, the attachment theory helps the contemporary world to comprehend children’s learning and development. Piaget and Vygotsky’s cognitive development theories are based on the logical processes that occur when learning, with cognitive development focused on individuals’ mental activities when interacting with their environment. Cognitive development theories and psychology are essential to children’s learning and development because they assist clarify how children consume and comprehend information. It enables educators to grasp the learning demands of pupils and clarifies the children’s mental processes. The cognitive development theories advocated by Piaget and Vygotsky have had an impact on early-year practice and policies on early childhood education because the two scholars provided insights into how a child gradually comes to comprehend the world around him or her, thereby altering how people viewed a child’s world and how they studied children.
Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory and Piaget and Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory are vital learning and development theories that assist researchers and teachers in understanding how children develop in educational settings. The theories are essential to understanding the nature and causes of cognitive, linguistic, and social skill development in children. In this setting, learning and development theories are vital for identifying specific developmental viewpoints relevant to childhood education fundamental topics. Parents and teachers must be sensitive to and attentive to their children’s needs to properly care in their learning and developmental phases by fostering secure attachments and relationships. Moreover, the theories give teachers a more profound knowledge of their students’ thought processes by matching their instructional tactics with their students’ cognitive levels.
Ainsworth, B., Marshall, J. E., Meron, D., Baldwin, D. S., Chadwick, P., Munafo, M. R., & Garner, M. (2015). Evaluating psychological interventions in a novel experimental human model of anxiety. Journal of psychiatric research, pp. 63, 117–122.
Bergen, D. Developing Attachment:(2019). The Theoretical Work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. In Theories of Early Childhood Education (pp. 118–127). Routledge.
Blake, B. (2015). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories in classrooms.
Bowlby, J., and Ainsworth, M., (2013). ‘The origins of attachment theory, Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives, 45(28), pp.759–775.
Charlesworth, R. (2016). Understanding child development. Cengage learning.
Fraley, R. C., & Roisman, G. I. (2019). The development of adult attachment styles: Four lessons. Current opinion in psychology, pp. 25, 26–30.
Ghazi, S. R., Khan, U. A., Shahzada, G., & Ullah, K. (2014). Formal Operational Stage of Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory: An Implication in Learning Mathematics. Journal of Educational Research (1027-9776), 17(2).
Huang, Y. C. (2021). Comparison and contrast of Piaget and Vygotsky’s Theories. In 7th International Conference on Humanities and Social Science Research (ICHSSR 2021) (pp. 28–32). Atlantis Press.
Johnson, A. P. (2014). Cognitive development: Piaget and Vygotsky. Education Psychology: Theories of Learning and Human Development, pp. 1–7.
Jones, S.M., (2015). ‘Attachment Theory,’ The International Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Communication, pp.1–5.
Kouicem, K. (2020). Constructivist theories of Piaget and Vygotsky: implications for pedagogical practices. dirasat nafsiyat wa tarbawiyat, 13(3), 359-372.
Kouicem, K., & Kelkoul, N. (2016). Constructivist theories of Piaget and Vygotsky: general teaching implications.
Levine, M. (2022). A cognitive theory of learning: Research on hypothesis testing. Taylor & Francis.
Lourenço, O., (2012). ‘Piaget and Vygotsky: Many resemblances, and a crucial difference,’ New ideas in psychology, 30(3), pp.281-295.
Olson, D. R. (2013). Cognitive development: The child’s acquisition of diagonality. Psychology Press.
Semmar, Y. and Al-Thani, T., (2015). ‘Piagetian and Vygotskian approaches to cognitive development in the kindergarten classroom,’ Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 5(2), p.1.
Shute, R. H., & Slee, P. T. (2015). Child development: Theories and critical perspectives. Routledge.
Sutton, T. E. (2019). Review of attachment theory: Familial predictors, continuity and change, and intrapersonal and relational outcomes. Marriage & Family Review, 55(1), 1–22.
Topçiu, M. (2015). Vygotsky’s theory on social interaction and its influence on the development of preschool children. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 2(3), 172–179.
LGBT Communities Sample Paper
The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the LGBT with the primary goal of creating social equality and health conditions for LGTB individuals. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender terms comprehensively describe distinct groups within the gay community (Meyer, 2016). Primary data sources, including interviews among groups and movements that support LGTB, and data extracted from secondary sources, are essential sources that provide reliable information that is analyzed based on the findings on the status of the social and health of the LGTB communities. The results based on the research indicate a common goal among organizations and movements entailing strategies for creating a favorable environment with social equality in various basic life fields, including health conditions (Hafeez et al., 2017). Some organizations and movements have put focus on building communities for LGBT and intensifying work towards liberating the broader society from homophobia, transphobia, and biphobia.
The research on LGBT aims to build a world that offers social equality and equal treatment in all social life aspects for all individuals, including the vulnerable communities associated with LGTB. The world can reach a level of social equality among vulnerable communities, including LGBT-associated individuals, through facilitating and supporting efforts made by clinicians, academics, policymakers, and researchers (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). These groups can play a significant role in eliminating the barriers to social equality for the LGBT communities to improve the health outcomes and social being of the gender and sexual minority populations, including the LGBT communities.
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender terms comprehensively describe distinct groups within the gay community (Meyer, 2016). Several research objectives in this area include uncovering the nature of health disparities among LGBT populations, understanding factors contributing to these disparities, and recommending approaches to improve health outcomes for vulnerable groups. These objectives can be accomplished by strengthening the network of organizations and movements to provide social equality to LGBT people. In addition to promoting strategies that change the perception towards LGTB people in the world population (Hafeez et al., 2017), these organizations also contribute significantly to improving access to quality healthcare services. According to Kissack (1995), most of the literature on LGBT populations is based on studies about gay men, and lesbians are excluded from most of these studies. In other words, this research report represents the first time a study focuses on bisexual, transgender women in relation to health issues.
There have been repeated calls for improving the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (LGBT) since 1990 (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014; Meyer & Northrop, 2016). Vulnerable groups such as sexual minorities suffer from psychological distress and have higher rates of physical illness (Meyer et al., 2016). Despite all this, there is no more evidence that social inequality is a significant factor contributing to health disparities among sexual minorities. Without more evidence, research has never been conducted to explore the causal relationship between social inequity and health outcomes for sexual minorities.
Sexual minority groups, including LGBT people, are victims of social inequity and discrimination, and it is a significant factor contributing to health disparity among vulnerable groups in the world.
Health Disparities in Transgender Women
Transgender women suffer from multiple social inequalities. Research shows that transgender women experience discrimination based on their gender identity and sexual orientation (Hafeez et al., 2017). Social inequality, one of the key factors contributing to health disparities among vulnerable groups worldwide, especially among bisexual and transgender women, can be addressed by undertaking more research studies. The health conditions of transgender women are quite complex since they are disadvantaged in multiple ways, and the health issues of bisexual, transgender women have not been studied at length. Therefore, this study is aimed to provide an overview of the current health issues and health disparities affecting bisexual and transgender women in the world.
It is important to examine the relationship between LGBT people and their health systematically. Research on LGBT people has shown that social inequalities affect their mental and interpersonal lives (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). Some studies have reported that LGBT people feel unsafe in most social situations (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2013). According to Hafeez et al. (2017), the health issues of LGBT people are inextricably linked to social inequalities.
According to Meyer and Northrop (2016), heterosexual people, including bisexuals and transgender women, are marginalized in our society because the general population ignores them. The bisexual community is one of the most vulnerable groups among sexual minorities. Bisexuals face significant health issues related to their gender identity, and social inequalities continue to adversely affect the health outcomes of bisexual and transgender women. Sexual minority groups such as bisexuals include 17 million individuals and represent approximately 4% of the population in the United States, 4% in Europe, and 0.34% in Australia (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014; Meyer, 2016). Sycamore (2004) reported that bisexuals face health challenges, including increased rates of asthma, sexually transmitted infections, and substance abuse compared with heterosexual people. This fact suggests that bisexuals remain socially isolated because they do not perceive such behaviors as appropriate for heterosexuals or homosexuals (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014).
Several studies have reported that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals and homosexuals (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014; Meyer, 2016). Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual women have a higher rate of sexually transmitted infections and cancer. Although it is still unclear whether bisexual women of all ages are associated with non-heterosexual orientation (Hafeez et al., 2017), some studies suggest that sexual orientation does not determine the health status of bisexuals. In some cases, people with non-heterosexual orientations may be healthier than heterosexual people (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014).
The health of gay men in the United States is typically worse than that of heterosexual men and women, especially regarding sexually transmitted infections and HIV (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). In general, compared with heterosexual adults, gay-identified men have a higher rate of suicide attempts. According to Kissack (1995), the health of gay men has a negative impact on their physical and mental health outcomes, especially when they cannot receive needed treatment because of social inequalities.
LGBT people, including lesbians and bisexuals, experience discrimination in the United States (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014; Meyer, 2016). The health issues associated with LGBT people are also related to the stigma they experience in society. Lesbians have higher rates of hepatitis C than heterosexual women (Meyer et al., 2016). Women who have sex with women have a higher rate of physical injury and mental disorders such as panic disorder and eating disorders (Kissack, 1995).
Safety and Security Issues Faced by LGBT Communities
The safety and security issues faced by LGBT people are closely linked to the social inequalities in society. Hobson (2016) reported that gay and bisexual men were more likely to face physical and sexual violence than heterosexual individuals. These security issues also affect their mental and physical health outcomes. For example, gay men are more likely to use alcohol, which puts them at risk of developing cirrhosis (Hobson, 2016). The social inequalities faced by LGBT people are one of the main factors contributing to health disparities among vulnerable groups in the world. According to Hanhardt (2018), drug abuse is common among gay and bisexual men. The research also shows that LGBT people are more likely to experience bullying and abuse by their peers (Hobson, 2016). These hostile situations may lead to physical challenges, including depression, poor concentration, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Studies indicate that gay men have higher rates of bipolar disorder than heterosexual individuals (Hanhardt, 2018). Bullying can take place in the workplace, school, or neighborhood. However, young people have not received much attention from health researchers; thus, it is unclear whether discrimination and bullying contribute to the health disparities among sexual minority groups in the United States (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014).
Targeted Health Interventions
The health disparities among vulnerable groups in the United States are widespread and often not related to income or race (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). This can be attributed to social inequalities that lead LGBT people to experience discrimination in society. These disabilities are prompting the need for holistic programs that focus on strengthening the self-esteem and resilience of LGBT individuals. For example, healthcare professionals should monitor how LGBT people navigate different healthcare settings and how they cope with these situations. This is especially important because many LGBT individuals may not disclose their sexual orientation due to discrimination (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014).
LGBT people should also be aware of their mental and physical health. Although homosexuality is forbidden in many religions, Muslims have a higher rate of suicide compared with other religious groups in the United States. These negative attitudes are coupled with policies and laws that discriminate against LGBT people. Moreover, LGBT individuals face strong social stigma from their families and the general population (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). This can be problematic for LGBT people because they may not feel like they can confide in someone about their mental or physical health. According to Sycamore (2004), LGBT people should have greater access to healthcare services and be given a more comprehensive health plan. These individuals should be able to have access to services such as HIV/AIDS counseling, hormone replacement therapies, and surgery. Additionally, clinicians and medical professionals must pay attention to the LGBT population’s experiences dealing with mental disorders or medical issues.
The health disparities among vulnerable groups in the United States are widespread and are not only related to race or income. These disabilities are prompting the need for holistic programs that focus on strengthening the self-esteem and resilience of LGBT people. For example, healthcare professionals should monitor how LGBT people navigate different healthcare settings and how they cope with these situations. This is especially important because many LGBT individuals may not disclose their sexual orientation due to discrimination. LGBT people should also be aware of their mental and physical health. Although homosexuality is forbidden in many religions, Muslims have a higher rate of suicide compared with other religious groups in the United States. These negative attitudes are coupled with policies and laws that discriminate against LGBT people. Moreover, LGBT individuals face strong social stigma from their families and the general population. This can be problematic for LGBT people because they may not feel like they can confide in someone about their mental or physical health. According to Sycamore (2004), LGBT people should have greater access to healthcare services and be given a more comprehensive health plan. These individuals should be able to have access to services such as HIV/AIDS counseling, hormone replacement therapies, and surgery.
Taylor, K. Y. (Ed.). (2017). How we get free: Black feminism and the Combahee River Collective. Haymarket Books.
Hanhardt, C. B. (2018). “Dead Addicts Don’t Recover” ACT UP’s Needle Exchange and the Subjects of Queer Activist History. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 24(4), 421-444.
Kissack, T. (1995). Freaking Fag Revolutionaries: New York’s Gay Liberation Front, 1969–1971.
Sycamore, M. B. (2004). Gay shame: From queer autonomous space to direct action extravaganza. That’s revolting: Queer strategies for resisting assimilation, pp. 237–262.
Hobson, E. K. (2016). Lavender and Red. In Lavender and Red. University of California Press.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Simoni, J. M., Kim, H. J., Lehavot, K., Walters, K. L., Yang, J., Hoy-Ellis, C. P., & Muraco, A. (2014). The health equity promotion model: Reconceptualization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health disparities. The American journal of orthopsychiatry, 84(6), 653–663. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350932/pdf/nihms649015.pdf
Hafeez, H., Zeshan, M., Tahir, M. A., Jahan, N., & Naveed, S. (2017). Health care disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: A Literature review. Cureus, 9(4), 1–7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478215/pdf/cureus-0009-00000001184.pdf
Meyer I. H. (2016). The elusive promise of LGBT equality. American journal of public health, 106(8), 1356–1358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940645/pdf/AJPH.2016.303221.pdf
Limited Access To Health Care For Africans Americans Sample College Essay
Inequalities between different racial groups characterize the American healthcare system. Access to healthcare facilities and health outcomes vary between other racial groups, which impacts various aspects of their lives. African Americans are among the U.S. racial group marginalized in health matters. The marginalization dates back to the American history of slavery and racial segregation that has put the community on the receiving end regarding their health. While health inequality affects various aspects of health, access to healthcare is a significant factor in determining health outcomes. In this regard, multiple factors interplay, leading to challenges in accessing health among African Americans. Therefore, challenges in accessing health care are significant factors contributing to health and healthcare disparities.
Limited healthcare insurance is a significant factor contributing to limited access to healthcare services. When the Obama administration took power, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was rolled out to increase healthcare coverage for millions of Americans. Since the insurance act was rolled out, the rate of uninsured African Americans has reduced significantly. Despite the large number of African Americans that got insurance coverage through the ACA, members of this population are still highly likely to be uninsured. The main reason for this trend is that although ACA coverage has increased the scope of universal coverage, many insurance options remain high and unaffordable to African Americans (Egede & Walker, 2020). There are many reasons why the insurance programs under ACA remain unaffordable to many African Americans.
One of the reasons is the high rate of unemployment. Historically, African Americans’ unemployment rate has remained high, negatively impacting their financial welfare. Employment remains a crucial source of income for most Americans; lack of it impacts Americans’ ability to pay their bills, including insurance coverage. Inadequate education is one of the reasons that lead to high unemployment. Compared to other racial groups, African Americans have fewer opportunities to advance their education, a factor that affects their competitiveness in the labor market. In addition, racism plays a role in their unemployment. Most businesses in the United States are owned and run by Whites. Racism in business disproportionately affects African Americans (Chen et al., 2021). Inadequate health facilities are the other major factor affecting African Americans’ access to health care.
Despite the increase in ACA coverage among African Americans, healthcare provider shortages remain a barrier to accessing healthcare services. Fewer healthcare facilities are located in areas inhabited by Blacks than in areas where Whites are the dominant population. In addition to inadequate health facilities in Black neighborhoods, the available health facilities are not adequately equipped. For example, the lack of medicine in health facilities is a significant issue in Black neighborhoods. Secondly, the hospitals in the Blacks dominated regions are less likely to provide advanced medical care. In one of the studies conducted to investigate the issue of inadequate access to health care, 49% of Black people cited poor health facilities in their neighborhoods as the main reason for their poor health outcomes (Chen et al., 2021). This means that even when insured, they have limited access to healthcare.
Access to healthcare is also affected by communication problems associated with language or cultural differences in the United States. Less education is one of the primary reasons for communication problems. As noted earlier, African Americans with higher education levels are less than those without. Education is crucial in facilitating communication, especially in health matters. Inadequate education implies that African Americans cannot understand most health issues, which impacts healthcare provision. In addition, most doctors in the United States are whites, which introduces the cultural barrier in healthcare. Different cultures have a different understandings of health issues. This implies that differences in cultural understanding between Whites and Blacks will negatively impact access to healthcare services (Ochieng & Chris, 2021). Studies have also shown that disproportionate representation of Blacks in the health sectors leads to their health issues not being taken seriously.
Members of the Black community have continuously complained that their health issues are not taken seriously. Because the physician-patient relationship is key to the effective delivery of healthcare services, a poor relationship will negatively impact the patient’s health outcomes. A study conducted (by Egede & Walker, 2020) indicated that when it comes to pain treatment, 35% of Black patients complained that their pain had not been taken seriously by healthcare workers. The study also reported that 32% of adults in the Black population complained about being rushed by healthcare providers. Further, some complained that they felt they had been handled with less respect than patients from the dominant races. Whether these are facts or perceptions, they directly impact the healthcare outcomes in the Black population.
Inadequate access to seniors’ nursing homes is another major factor affecting access to health care services. Once people get old, their physical, mental, and social capabilities are limited. In addition, they have increased susceptibility to infections which puts their health at risk. For this particular group of people, living in a nursing home provides them a better opportunity to access healthcare than in their private homes. However, access to nursing homes in the Black community is significantly affected by inadequate financial resources and a lack of adequate governmental sponsored nursing homes in the areas dominated by the Black community. This implies that fewer older adults from the Black community are accommodated in nursing homes compared to the white population (Adebayo et al., 2022). Consequently, their access to specialized healthcare is curtailed.
Digital literacy is another factor affecting access to health services in the Black population. Digital literacy is an adequate understanding of the use of digital devices whose use in healthcare settings has increased. For example, much healthcare information, such as patient history, prescriptions, and health assessment schedules, is being communicated through digital devices. In addition, Covid-19 and the associated restrictions forced a reduction of in-person visits to healthcare services, implying that most health information was being shared through technology. This implies that digital illiteracy among the Black population affects their ability to seek healthcare services through technology (Ochieng & Chris, 2021). Because technology has become a significant part and parcel of health care services provision, digital illiteracy in the Black population affects such access significantly.
Inadequate health information is a significant factor determining access to health care services. This information may include; various diseases in a given region, signs and symptoms, and preventive strategies, among others. Without information such as signs and symptoms, individuals may fail to understand various health conditions, which reduces their probability of visiting a health institution. On the other hand, access to information is directly correlated to literacy levels. The more illiterate an individual is, the less likely they will access health information even in circumstances where it is provided. Since the Black community’s illiteracy levels are higher, their access to health information is lower (Adebayo et al., 2022). Consequently, access to health care services is significantly affected.
Policies and structures are other issues affecting African Americans’ access to healthcare services. Many policies aimed at improving healthcare services are discriminatory, with African Americans as the victims. Examples of such policies include expanding ACA coverage, where the coverage in rural areas inhabited by the Black majority is insufficient. In addition, policies regarding social protection against the effects of covid-19 were not developed in a way that serves all races equally. Policies form the basis of healthcare provision and promote easy access to healthcare services. They ensure the provision of health facilities, equipment, and personnel (Chen et al., 2021). Unfortunately, discriminatory policies have led to the ineffective provision of healthcare facilities and services in Black neighborhoods, which has significantly affected access to healthcare services.
Although the main issues discussed regards racial differences, in health care, an interdisciplinary approach is required to promote racial equality in healthcare. To address healthcare disparities between the Black community and the whites, stakeholders need a more comprehensive effort to take charge. The efforts to address the issues should focus on eliminating healthcare segregation in major societal institutions. The institutions include the education sector, employment, housing, the criminal justice system, and other areas that affect the welfare of society as a whole. This will end the inequality in the Black community, which will directly or indirectly improve their access to health care services.
Adebayo, C. T., Parcell, E. S., Mkandawire-Valhmu, L., & Olukotun, O. (2022). African American Women’s maternal healthcare experiences: a Critical Race Theory perspective. Health Communication, 37(9), 1135-1146.
Chen, K. L., Brozen, M., Rollman, J. E., Ward, T., Norris, K. C., Gregory, K. D., & Zimmerman, F. J. (2021). How is the COVID-19 pandemic shaping transportation access to health care? Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10, 100338.
Egede, L. E., & Walker, R. J. (2020). Structural racism, social risk factors, and Covid-19—a dangerous convergence for Black Americans. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(12), e77.
Ochieng, J. M., & Crist, J. D. (2021). Social determinants of health and health care delivery: African American women’s T2DM self-management. Clinical nursing research, 30(3), 263-272.