Liberty Mutual Situational Analysis Sample College Essay


The Liberty Mutual Insurance Group is a market leader in its field. The firm is an insurance company that provides property and liability coverage (Liberty Mutual Insurance, n.d.). People, families, and companies may get a variety of personal insurance and commercial insurance solutions from the company’s subsidiaries and linked enterprises. It provides land/home owners, commercial multi-peril, properties, commercial car, liability policy, surety, workers compensation, and specialty lines insurance. It sells and advertises items through licensed brokers, staff sales agents, licensed tele sales counselors, captive agents, independent agents, third-party manufacturers, and the internet. The corporation has operations in the Americas, Europe, and Asia Pacific. It is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. By critically evaluating and evaluating the SWOT analysis, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group retains its market leadership. SWOT analysis is an extremely interactive process that demands effective partnership between many numerous departments within the company, including advertising, operations, MIS, finance, and strategic planning. Moreover, it helps a company to determine the internal key aspects like -strengths and weaknesses, and or external strategic aspects like – opportunities and threats.

SWOT Table


● Strong distribution network – it has created a dependable distribution network (Linked In, 2020).

● An established track record of effectively merging harmonizing initiatives through mergers and acquisitions.

● Fruitful knowledge and training programs have led to a highly competent staff.


●  Integration of enterprises with different work cultures have not been very successful.

●  When comparing to its rivals, it has not very proficient at approximating product demand, leading to a larger share of lost chances (McGlennon, 2021).

●  Because the organizational structure is only steady with the existing business strategy, growth into adjacent product sectors is inadequate.


● Customers gained via the web/online channel – The company has spent a noteworthy cash amounts in the internet platform in the last few years.

● After years of economic downturn in the market segment, the economic reflection and upsurge in consumer spending provide a chance for the company to add new customers and increase its market share (Liberty Mutual Insurance, n.d.).

● The government’s green initiative offers a good opportunity for government workers to purchase its products.


● Mounting local distributor strength poses a challenge in certain areas, given that competition leads to greater profit margins to distributors.

● A labor scarcity of skilled labor in key international markets threatens Liberty Mutual Insurance Group’s capacity to maintain steady profit growth in such areas (Potvin et al., 2021).

● Imitation of fake and lower-quality products is huge challenge to the firm’s products, particularly in emerging and low-income markets.

Situational Analysis

Internal Strategic Factors – Strengths

Liberty Mutual, being among the greatest organizations in its area, has a number of characteristics that allow it to flourish in the market. These strengths not only help the firm retain its share of the market in present markets, but also aid it to enter new ones. Among these advantages are: Robust distribution network – Over the years, Liberty Mutual has put in place a solid distribution system that can cover the bulk of its target market (Potvin et al., 2021). Moreover, a track record of effectively joining compatible businesses via acquisitions and mergers. It has fruitfully joined a number of technical businesses in recent years in order to modernize its processes and establish a robust supply chain. Knowledge and training initiatives that have been successful have led to a highly capable workforce. The firm makes significant investments in employee training, leading to staff that is not just well-trained but also determined to succeed.

Internal Strategic Factors – Weaknesses

Liberty Mutual Insurance Group’s weaknesses are parts where it can progress. Strategy is all about generating important choices, and weaknesses are sectors where a corporation may improve by using SWOT analysis to gain a competitive advantage and a strategic position. Integration of businesses with different work environments has not proven particularly successful. As previously indicated, while Liberty Mutual as a firm has been effective in combining small firms, it has also been unsuccessful in integrating enterprises with diverse work cultures. In compared to its competitors, it is less effective at forecasting product demand, leading to a higher percentage of wasted opportunities (Ibis World, 2020). Another reason is that the firm’s days inventory is larger compared to its competitors’ since the firm is not very good at predicting demand, therefore it retains more inventory both in that in channel. Growth into surrounding product areas is constrained since the organizational structure is only compatible with the present company plan.

External Strategic Factors – Opportunities

Customers recruited through the online channel. The firm has invested a substantial money amounts in the internet platforms throughout the previous few years, notably targeting generation z. This investment has given Liberty Mutual with a new marketing channel. In the following years, the company may leverage on this opportunity by better understanding its clients and understanding their wants and needs using big data analytics (McGlennon, 2021). (McGlennon, 2021). After years of economic slump and slow growth in the industry, the economic recovery and a rise in consumer spending present an opportunity for Liberty Mutual to attract new clients and strengthen its market share (Liberty Mutual Insurance, n.d). (Liberty Mutual Insurance, n.d.). The government’s green effort also gives an opportunity for federal and state government contractors to acquire its products.

External Strategic Factors – Threats

Swiftly growing distributor strength provides a difficulty in some regions, because competition pays bigger margins to local suppliers. A skilled labor scarcity in important international markets challenges Liberty Mutual Insurance Group’s capacity to continue steady profit growth in such sectors. Copying of fake and low-quality items also presents a risk to the firm’s product, especially in expanding and low-income areas. Given the different restrictions and continual fluctuations in quality control in those regions, the firm can face lawsuits in multiple marketplaces. In terms of rivalry, Nationwide Insurance, State Farm Insurance, Allstate, Travelers, and AIG are among of Liberty Mutual Insurance’s opponents (Owler, n.d). (Owler, n.d.). In compared to its peers, Liberty Mutual Insurance gets #1 in Overall Culture Score.


Certain organizational features or aspects can be a strength and a weakness. One of the most main limitations of SWOT analysis is this. For instance, changing environmental standards may be both a risk and an opportunity since it enables the business to remain competitive or acquire an advantage over market entrants if it is able to create items faster than the competition. Given the limits of the highlighted SWOT analysis, corporate leaders choose to allocate weightage to each internal firm strength and vulnerability. The firm can also evaluate the probability of future events happening as well as the extent of their impact on the company’s performance. It is better to doing a basic SWOT analysis since with the Weighted SWOT Analysis, the firms’s leadership may concentrate on the most key factors while discounting the less vital ones. It also resolves the long-list issue, in which businesses construct a long list, however none of the elements are considered relevant.


The SWOT analysis of Liberty Mutual looks at the brand’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. In the firm’s SWOT Analysis, the internal components are the company’s strengths and weaknesses, whereas the external aspects are the firm’s opportunities and threats. SWOT Analysis is a tested management methodology that enables Liberty Mutual to examine its business and results to those of its rivals. In the banking and finance business, Liberty Mutual is a very well name. Liberty Mutual Insurance Group Swot analysis evaluates a firm’s strengths and weaknesses, opportunities, and threats but does make the management to fully comprehend how they will be employed. To get over this restriction and help in the formulation of appropriate approaches, an expanded SWOT analysis is applied. This section contains the Strengths-Opportunities strategies, which include using one’s strengths to exploit opportunities. It describes the Strengths-Threat approaches, which entails utilizing the firm’s own strengths to face dangers. It makes use of the Weaknesses-Opportunities strategies, which entails transforming weaknesses into strengths through the utilization of opportunities. Lastly, Weakness-Threats (WT) strategies involve fixing weaknesses to avert threats.


Ibis World. (2020). Finance and Insurance Sector.

Liberty Mutual Insurance. (n.d.). PEOPLE Magazine Recognizes Liberty Mutual Insurance as a Company That Cares | LMG. Retrieved February 12, 2022, from

Linked In. (2020). Liberty Mutual Insurance.

McGlennon, J. (2021). Reimagining Insurance – The Data Agenda – WSJ Podcasts. WSJ.

Owler. (n.d.). Liberty Mutual Competitors or Alternatives. Owler.

Potvin, J. R., Ciriello, V. M., Snook, S. H., Maynard, W. S., & Brogmus, G. E. (2021). The Liberty Mutual manual materials handling (LM-MMH) equations. Ergonomics64(8), 955–970.

Literary Analysis: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson, Trifles By Susan Glaspell, The Swimmer By John Cheever Essay Example For College

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson

The lottery is one of the best short stories by Shirley Jackson. The lottery was published in 1948, just after world war two, to criticize traditions and human nature in a symbolic literary manner. The first publication was a success because Shirley received a lot of response letters from her readers. The impact of the short story was effective and was banned by the Union of South Africa during the years of the cold war. The short story has been put into play countless times and has been filmed three times since its first publication. Jackson is a good writer and uses different symbols and themes to capture the reader’s attention and communicate her message. The current text aims to analyze the themes found in the short story the lottery while taking into account the literary symbols that the author has used to put his points through.

Shirley Jackson uses foreshadowing to give the reader sensation and clues about the coming events’ expectations. The author uses a normal mood to make the reader feel calm while reading the short story, and ironies are also used to allow the readers to think of the literary texts critically. She also uses imagery to give her world’s life and more understanding when she attempts to get the reader’s mood and stabilize it. The lottery is controlled by Mr. Summers within the town (Jackson, 2021). Mr. Summers arrives with the black box, which has small pieces of paper which will be used as choices for drawings during the lottery. It is rumored that the black box has some original wood from the original lottery and is not the usual box used in the town for the lottery. Mr. Summers says that a black box should be made every year for the purposes of the lottery.

The themes in the short story are completed with symbols. The lottery results in a violent murder like a ritual every year. The theme of this story is the danger of following traditions blindly. Before the story unveils the real lottery, the village has appointed a pathetic man to control the lottery. The preparations from the villagers seem harmless when the lottery begins and as children run up to collect stones in the town square. The lottery is only made of small pieces of paper, and every person seems occupied with a funny-looking black box (Jackson, 2021). The writer explains the importance of the lottery in the town as it brings the people and the community together, but the writer pokes holes into the belief that people have for the tradition. In the story, she states that villagers do not really realize the origin of the original but still choose to follow the tradition blindly regardless. The ritual murders of the lottery have become a segment of their town’s fabric because of the acceptance of the lottery tradition.

The themes are accompanied by symbolism; for instance, the black box accompanies the theme of the danger of the lottery. The old black box represents the lottery tradition and the illogic loyalty of the villagers to it. As the story mentions, the black box is falling apart, but the villagers are willing to replace it. This signifies that the villagers are not yet ready to let go of their old traditions despite what it makes them go through. They found their attachment to the black box to the idea that the black box was made from an older black box. The lottery in the story represents an idea, behavior, or action that is passed from one generation to the other. The lottery system symbolizes that no matter how illogical, cruel, and bizarre, the tradition has existed since the beginning of the village and is not willing to do away with these traditions. In this regard, the lottery in the story exists because a lottery has always existed in the picture. The lottery leads people to be involved in ritualist murders every year as part of their tradition because that is how the lottery is played.

Trifles by Susan Glaspell

Susan Glaspell’s Trifles is one of her most famous plays. The play takes place in a farmhouse in a rural town in Iowa. The play is based on a true murder story that occurred in 1900. As a young reporter, he reported this story and later used it to write a play called trifles. The play is ideologically one of the most significant plays of that time. The play talks about the issue of the feminist perspective, which was at its peak during that time. As the play describes, the murder happens in a kitchen, which is a domestic environment that symbolizes the presence of women in every perspective. The play fundamentally talks about the murder of John Wright, who has been found strangled in his bed, and Minnie, his wife, is the primary suspect for the murder. However, the story is not centered within the two characters but focuses on the attorney of the county George Henderson who is in charge of investigating the murder. The local sheriff, Henry Peters, Lewis Hale, a farmer next door, and Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters, the wives of the two local men, are busy figuring out any evidence that would help identify the cause of death for Mr. John Wright. The two women discover the evidence in the “trifles” in Mr. Wrights Kitchen: cleaning, baking, and sewing.

Trifles, the title of the play, is a significant symbol in the play that reflects the perception that men have of women. a trifle can be defined as a small object with little importance and no consequence. Men in the play have a demeaning figure of speech and perception to the character women. Throughout the play, the author uses dialogue that allows the reader to see the demeaning factor that women face from men. For instance, at one point, she states, “Women are used to worrying over trifles” Trifles, 1987, p. 5). The irony Is that the men of the play are questioning the men’s tasks. This is evident as the men continue to run and look for evidence where a criminal could possibly hide the evidence; the women have already found the evidence needed in what the men consider as the women’s silly work.

Trifles symbolize the theme of domesticity in the play. When Mr. Henderson, the county attorney, observes John Wright’s kitchen, he concludes that Mrs. Wright must not have the “homemaking instinct.” Mrs. Hale finds this as an attack on the worth of Mrs. Wright and counters that Mr. Wright was the one who did not have the homemaking instinct. The symbolism of the trifle is evident as Mr. Henderson is seen belittling Mrs. Wright in front of other women indicating that patriarchy had dominated those times significantly. The symbolism of trifles in the story is evident when they find out that the wife was responsible for the murder of her husband. Henderson fails to understand why the wife kills the husband, but Mrs. Halee already has said that Mr. Wright did not have a homemaking instinct. This is an indication that the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Wright was troubled. Therefore, in a time where patriarchy dominated, a trifle less a woman manages to kill her husband because of his emotional absence.

The swimmer by John Cheever

The swimmer is a short story written about the journey of Neddy Merrill through various pools of his neighborhood, which turn into a journey of many years of his life. The pool area forms a cartographer’s eye, enabling him to see a line of pools that stretch to the back of his house. These pools form a river which he names the Lucinda River. He sees himself as an explorer, which leads him into an undiscovered world, and pledges his need to honor that day. Neddy shows a lot more confidence and dominance over the other men at the pool by getting into the pool and saying that the water is more than a pleasure and that it’s his natural condition. The current analysis focuses on providing the literary devices that John Cheever uses to communicate his message to the audience.

Neddy perceives that his words are unreliable, and ideally, he cannot swim for that long to his house. He lacks credibility when he says that he can swim for a long distance to the back of his house, and all he shows off is a crawl which is not ideal for long-distance swimming. In addition, when he says of his ability to swim in a river of pools, he is drunk, which concludes that he is not reliable (Nast, 1964). However, John Cheever uses different literary devices to communicate and paint a clear message of his story.

Symbolism is an example of a literary device that the author uses to express his message. Symbolism is evident in alcohol. The author uses alcoho0l to show the emotional instability and unhappiness of Neddy Merrill. The author says, “He needed a drink. Whiskey would warm him, pick him up, carry him through the last of his journey, refresh his feeling that it was original and valor” (Nast, 1964). This is an indication that Neddy is alcohol dependent and sometimes cannot work without taking alcohol. When the author mentions that alcohol would take him to the last of his journey, he implies that he requires alcohol for motivation and to realize his full potential. The author also uses the third person narrative to communicate, which puts more emphasis on his statements.

John Cheever uses allegory to showcase a metaphor in the story’s phrases, characters, and places. The swimmer can be referred to as an allegory that discusses the fall off of the aging process and the cycle of life. The river of pools which is intended to show the distance to his pool and ends up taking almost his entire life signifies that the aging process is very fast, and every person has limited time on the earth. The allegory meaning of the swimmer, which is the title of the story, symbolizes several meanings but more focuses on the hypocrisy of the upper classes. The author shows the losses of those attending as Neddy ideally feels the loss of his youth, regard for others, and vitality. The empty and dark houses illustrate his mental state during the climax of his swimming journey, which typically shows the losses of the attendants and their hypocrisy.


Jackson, S. (2021). “The lottery”. In the Mind’s Eye, 43-54.

Nast, C. (1964, July 11). “The swimmer,” by John Cheever. The New Yorker.

Trifles. (1987). Plays by Susan Glaspell, 35-46.

Literature Review: The Relationship Between The Big Five Personality Traits And Academic Motivation In University Students Sample Paper

The various studies have examined academic performance, focusing on academic achievement and not motivation; most of the motivation researches have focused on the middle, elementary, high school students forgetting the university students. (Zare et al.,2019) The research focuses on the academic issues related to university students’ motivation and personality, focusing on personality and learning, personality and academic performance, and performance. According to Sivrikaya (2019), other research indicates the five big traits, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, and neuroticism, that usually reflect the core aspects of strong influences and human personality on the behavior Stajkovic et al., 2018. Different researches have explored the Big five role in predicting academic success.

Conscientiousness has a positive and consistently predicted performance examination, academic success, and grade point average. According to Zare (2019) openness is also related positively with high scores by using learning methods that usually emphasize critical thinking. Moreover, the Neurotic is related to the reduction of the students’ performance. At the same time, agreeable is positively associated with the grades. By using good study methods, Stable introverts achieve a high performance compared to emotionally unstable students or extroverts. (Stajkovic et al., 2018) There is a significant positive correlation between performance and sociability in the seminar class. Various studies focus on the additional emotional and social factors and personality traits. The perfectionist usually attains higher grades and tends to love school and stay at school, whereas the low self-esteem students are likely to be more emotionally unstable( Rahman et al., 2018). The work drive has also reported a significant variance in the GPA beyond the big traits and intelligence.

Other researches show that self-control, exhibitionism, dominance, and achievement are significant classroom performance predictors. The modest relationship between the intellectual ability measure and personality. According to Zare (2019) Many researchers conclude that the intellectual abilities, personality, and interest are interrelated and that the personality traits and intellectual ability level determine success, while the interest determines the motivation task. According to Stajkovic (2018), the Learning style and personality of a few studies have determined the importance of self-esteem and self-confidence in describing the person’s differences in the learning styles. It was found that the university students usually have high achievement and high esteem motivated usually prefer a deeper learning process learning .according to (Klobas et al., 2018). however, the students with low esteem and have low doubt usually prefer a surface processing style. Similarly, students with high confidence in their intelligence prefer learning rather than performing goals, and professors prefer professors who usually emphasize learning.

Several studies explain the significance of adjusting the learning environment in matching the person’s differences. According to Rahman (2018), extroverts tend to be actively reflective, as introverts, are usually reflective. Individuals have a high psychoticism in the data evaluation, while persons low on the systematic processing of psychoticism. Open and conscientious individuals usually prefer surface-style learning ( Yousefi et al., 2018). Agreeableness is associated negatively with the achieving style that emphasizes high grades. Regarding openness, the thinking styles of being open are positively affected by the syles of thinking emphasizing the structural environment. Moreover, the research also explains the significance of the preferred matching of the learning strategy with the complementary techniques on teaching.

The personality and motivation, various studies examine the personality variable concerning the academic motivation aspects such as test anxiety, performance goal, achievement motivation, and related variable to the academic performance.“Introverted people are usually timid and not cold, independent and no observant, slow-paced but not numb,” according to Kircaburun (2020). People who get higher scores from the dimensions of agreed desired traits are observed, such as tolerance, reliability, and help. Those who get lower scores from the various dimensions are usually noted to doubt other people’s express and behavior hostile attitude and maladaptive according to Sivrikaya (2019). Conscientiousness is observed where the degree of discipline and control is possessed in our behaviors. Individuals at the high edges of the dimensions are determined, organized, and act in plans line. However, the one at the low edges, it is easy to lose concentration, and it is difficult in the self-control and where it is focused. The neuroticism dimension places individuals between emotional stability or personal harmony in comparison to emotional imbalance and maladaptive. According to Zare (2019), people with high scores in neuroticism experience sadness, emotional imbalance, guilt, shame, fear, anger, and hate.

People with a higher score from the openness dimension experience/development have aesthetical, curious and have creative ideas are independent, wide imagination, liberal, have a broad range of interests, excited, and fond of change. (Rahman et al., 2018). The self-determination theory is a theory that describes both motivation and personality. Thus, it generally researches the different reasons that may rely on individual behaviors. The questions, why the theory is significant, and the three primary psychological needs recommended as the answers to those questions are; competence, relatedness, and Autonomy, according to Kircaburun (2020). Therefore, the autonomy need is the characteristic that shows a high relationship with motivation. Motivation and self-determination perspectives are classified based on the level of Autonomy between the entire external and internal levels of motivation. According to Zare (2019), another motivation is motivation, which is an apparent disconnection between outcomes and actions. They usually attribute their achievement to natural abilities or luck and therefore conclude that they are not earned through efforts.

The motivation of people does not look upon any relations between attainment and efforts of the rewards, according to Zare (2019)). External motivation refers to the engagement of activities for instrumental reasons. Internal motivation refer to the engagement in the activities for their own sake, satisfaction, and the pleasure derived when one participates in it, according to Stajkovic (2018). Various types of external motivation usually differ in terms of self-determination; identified regulation, external regulation, integrated regulation, and introjected regulation. The behavioral regulations may be viewed as a continuum that ranges from highly internal to highly external, according to Butz (2018). Considering that the correlations between personality and motivational levels are supported by various researches (Jiang et al.., 2018), self-determined motivational levels of individuals are to be is acquired from the total level of the special formula scores. According to Zare (2019) the relationship between motivation and personality has always been interesting.

The personal relationship between personality traits and academic motivation is a significant question when arranging the education environment. The research suggests that personality trait affects academic performance/motivation and can forecast academic achievements and motivation (Klobas et al., 2018). * found out that many internally motivated students are aggregable, open, extroverted, conscientious, and to the new experiences. Kircaburun (2020) observed the relationship between academic motivation and personality and found out that internal motivation is related positively to conscientiousness. Identified motivation is also related positively to introjected motivation, conscientiousness, and extroversion was related positively to neuroticism. According to Kircaburun (2020), the relationship between academic motivation and the Big Five personality traits found various vital relationships between motivation and personality in their investigation. Ideally.

Conscientious students are motivated by their achievements, whereas neurotic students have a high avoidance score. According to Zare (2019) their results they found out that those who are intrinsically motivated tend to be open and conscientious to the new experience; and for those who are extrinsic motivated are extroverted, conscientious, and neurotic; for those who lack motivation lack conscientiousness and are disagreeable (Yousefi et al., 2018). It is a problem of concern of whether the relationship is observed personality traits level and motivation indicated in the similar character in the various culture (Sivrikaya et al., 2019). Most unchangeable structures for the opinion and the Big five theory that Self Determination is universal in increasing its concerns even for more. These are why the studies have had a design of specifying the relationship between academic motivation and Five-Factor Personality traits in the universities.

Motivation and Personality traits are identified as significant education achievement and acquisition factors and educational. In recent years, the instructor has adapted the curriculums that prepare the student’s professional pursuits and academic presentations, and collaborative inquiry-based projects (Yousefi et al., 2018). The student works in groups it socially constructs to achieve stipulated outcomes and knowledge. It has become primary characterizes of the tertiary landscape of learning. It is argued that utilization of literature as a foreign language and university students’ Collaborative Inquiry-based Project and Big Five Inventory Questionnaire ratings are used in the performance prediction on the collaborative for an inquiry-based project that needs presentation. The results showed a revealed project and worked extraversion as the forecasters of the scores Presentation (Rahman et al., 2018). In addition, Conscientiousness and Extraversion emerge as a partial mediator between Presentation Scores and Project Work motivation. The findings underscore the extravert advantage in possessing the oral presentation situation and emphasize the significance of the effort and diligence in inquiry-based projects—the relationship between the big five personality traits and academic motivation in university students.


Butz, N. T., Hanson, S., Schultz, P. L., & Warzynski, M. M. (2018). Beyond the Big Five: does grit influence the entrepreneurial intent of university students in the US?. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research8(1), 1-16.

Isik, U., Tahir, O. E., Meeter, M., Heymans, M. W., Jansma, E. P., Croiset, G., & Kusurkar, R. A. (2018). Factors influencing academic motivation of ethnic minority students: A review. Sage Open8(2), 2158244018785412.

Jiang, Y., Rosenzweig, E. Q., & Gaspard, H. (2018). An expectancy-value-cost approach in predicting adolescent students’ academic motivation and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology54, 139-152.

Kircaburun, K., Alhabash, S., Tosuntaş, Ş. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Uses and gratifications of problematic social media use among university students: A simultaneous examination of the Big Five of personality traits, social media platforms, and social media use motives. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction18(3), 525-547.

Klobas, J. E., McGill, T. J., Moghavvemi, S., & Paramanathan, T. (2018). Compulsive YouTube usage: A comparison of use motivation and personality effects. Computers in Human Behavior87, 129-139.

Rahman, M. S., Mannan, M., Hossain, M. A., Zaman, M. H., & Hassan, H. (2018). Tacit knowledge-sharing behavior among the academic staff: Trust, self-efficacy, motivation and Big Five personality traits embedded model. International Journal of Educational Management.

Sivrikaya, A. H. (2019). The Relationship between Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement of the Students. Asian Journal of Education and Training5(2), 309-315.

Stajkovic, A. D., Bandura, A., Locke, E. A., Lee, D., & Sergent, K. (2018). Test of three conceptual models of influence of the big five personality traits and self-efficacy on academic performance: A meta-analytic path-analysis. Personality and individual differences120, 238-245.

Yousefi, A., Jamshidnejad, A., & Moatamed, N. (2018). Evaluation of Relationship between Academic Motivation and Achievement in Students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Medical Education Development11(29), 54-62.

Zare, M., & Flinchbaugh, C. (2019). Voice, creativity, and big five personality traits: A meta-analysis. Human Performance32(1), 30-51.