Life Of Jews In Eastern And Western Europe Free Writing Sample

Eastern Europe

The Jews population in Eastern Europe was the largest. For example, it counted approximately 3,000,000 Jews in Poland, 2,500,000 in Russia, and 1,000,000 in Romania. The unique feature of Eastern Jewish communities was their desire for autonomy inside their countries. At the dawn of the 20th century, Jews mostly stayed in their towns or villages called shtetls and spoke Yiddish, a mix of Hebrew and German. Moreover, they read Yiddish books, attended Yiddish theatres and movies, and wore traditional clothes – hats or caps for men, wigs or kerchiefs for women. Despite the younger Jews eventually moving to the bigger cities and in some way adopting the different cultural features, overall, Jews lived a separate life of a minority within the culture of the majority.

In comparison to other minorities in the country, which were either ambivalent or neutral, the Jewish community in Poland actively participated in the fight for Poland’s independence between 1914 and 1918. Although some Jews left the country following the Polish-Russian conflicts, their population in Poland remained the most numerous. They built schools, printed newspapers, formed political parties, and even achieved representation in the Polish Sejm – the Polish Parliament.

The Jews in Russia also showed deep concerns for their host-country future. When the Russian Civil War began, they mostly supported the Bolshevik Red Army since the non-communist forces often displayed anti-Semitic behavior. Following the civil war, the Bolshevik government outlawed all expressions of Anti-Semitism and supported the secular Jewish culture. It invested in the infrastructure that provided Jews with workplaces on farms and fabrics. In 1934, the Soviet Union established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the far East. Similar to Poland, Jews were well-represented in the state administration and the army.

Western Europe

In comparison to their Eastern representatives, Western Jewish communities were few. Slightly over 500,000 lived in Germany and roughly 100,000 in France. They also chose to live another way, trying to adopt the culture of their host countries. They dressed and talked like the people around them, tended to be better educated than Jews of Eastern Europe, and lived in towns and cities. By proving to be competitive to the natives, they invoked the feeling of envy, which served as a foothold for the later anti-Semitic moods.

The Jews in pre-nazi Germany played a significant role in politics, and diplomacy had a solid ground in the financial, economic, and cultural ways. In the year 1933 thought, the persecution of the Jews became a new national policy. It began by taking away the ability to be employed in privileged upper-level positions, such as doctors and lawyers, also banning the Jews from shops, stores, and eventually the government. In 1935, following the appearance of anti-Semitic propaganda and the further tightening of the employment situation. The Jews in Germany faced a choice – either leave Germany or go into hiding.

In France, a relatively small community of Jews was based in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century. They were well-represented in the city’s business, financial, and intellectual elite. In addition, the Jews considered themselves fully a part of French culture. France had to face several waves of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe in the following decades. The newcomers showed no desire for integration and collaboration, which provoked anti-Semitic moods in the country at first and facilitated extremism during the german occupation after 1940.


Despite their differences, the Eastern and Western Jewish communities eventually shared the same fate – with the rise of Nazis in Germany, they all became gravely endangered. Nazis launched the Holocaust company, killing countless Jews on the occupied territories and building the death camps, where they brought survivors from all parts of Europe. This act of brutality changed the lives of Jews forever, no matter where they lived before or how they chose to live.

The Beyoncé Performs At The Super Bowl Essay Diagram

The Beyoncé Performs at the Super Bowl Essay Diagram

This paper discloses the rationale behind certain choices for the drawing of a diagram of the essay “Beyoncé Performs at the Super Bowl and I Think about All of the Jobs I’ve Hated” by Hanif Abdurraqib. This piece has a nonlinear structure, which complicates the comprehension of its main points. Nevertheless, it is possible to ascertain two main themes of the essay: celebrities’ influence on social issues and the necessity of black people to resist discrimination. Both themes are highlighted by arrows with different colors that show how the essay’s main idea is derived from the text.

The essay is divided into four major parts, with each one covering a specific story. The first part is about the famous American singer Beyoncé using her performance to deliver an important social message. The second part describes the life of the narrator, who observes the ignorance and indifference of white people toward the injustices done to black Americans. The third part serves as the convergence of the previous two storylines when a specific Beyoncé performance has a deep psychological effect on the narrator. The fourth part is a conclusion, in which the narrator ponders potential ways of changing the status quo in American society.

The way the essay is written determines the structure of the diagram. It should be evident that there is no proper larger introduction. Specifically, there are two introductions, which are equally important for the subsequent part of the writing. It is also noteworthy that the title itself does not disclose what the essay is really about. Just reading the title creates the impression of personal emotional investment in a particular performance by Beyoncé without any political context. Meanwhile, the piece itself is a primarily political text that uses the singer as a way to accentuate a particular social problem. As both the singer and the narrator are important to the essay, their respective biographical parts are given equal importance in the diagram.

Beyoncé’s part began with the recollection of her performance at the Super Bowl in 2016. Despite the higher quality of her performance at the same spot three years earlier, this show overshadows all her previous work. The reason for this discrepancy lies in her transformation “from an already showstopping entertainer to someone who had a foot in two worlds of performance: being memorable, and delivering a message” (Abdurraqib 189). The message conveyed during that performance was simple – to remind the public about injustices done to black people by showcasing costumes clearly reminiscent of the Black Panther movement.

The narrator’s introduction begins with her recalling that many colleagues had difficulty pronouncing her name. In some instances, people would ask her about her whereabouts and family, which is presented as a sign of bigotry (Abdurraqib 191). As the Black Lives Matter movement started to gain prominence, the narrator started noticing numerous indications of white people’s indifference and outright rudeness towards black people who have a fear of being shot at. The ultimate point of this part is that working in settings where white people could not relate to the narrator’s apprehensions made her feel miserable.

The third part is the climax of the overarching narrative. As the narrator is traveling to California, she finds herself surrounded by many people who are suddenly distracted by their phones. At this point, Beyoncé’s video “Formation” is released, and audiences around the world are exposed to Beyoncé’s depiction of black people’s resilience and pride. The narrator is heavily influenced by this video as images of drowning and silence is conjured up in her mind.

The final part is the narrator’s consideration of the American political climate, both historical and contemporary. The narrator remembers Elaine Brown, who was the first female leader of the Black Panther Party. Then, she recalls that 93 percent of black women voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016. However, the narrator believes that Clinton was not the best option for black women but rather the best alternative. She laments that “many black people in the country have to go to jobs they don’t love, or deal with waves of macroaggressions”, while knowing that “voting won’t save or stop any of this” (Abdurraqib 197). So, black people have to choose a better alternative in order to institute wider public awareness of black people’s empowerment, as Beyoncé does in her performance.

While analyzing this essay, I have learned the writing technique of converging different storylines to deliver a single message. Had the first part not included the description of Beyoncé’s biography, it would have been confusing for the reader to understand why the appearance of her video has caused such an effect. Likewise, the introduction of the narrator’s past in the second part helps explain her strong emotional response to Beyoncé’s video in the third part. The fourth part is a logical conclusion, as all events are summed under a single message that black people should search for ways to make their lives easier and safer.

Work Cited

Abdurraqib, Hanif. A Little Devil in America: In Praise of Black Performance. Random House Publishing Group, 2021.

The Judicial Process: Smith V. Goguen Case

The Smith v. Goguen case is an excellent example of how unclear statements can be misinterpreted. I agree with the court’s decision that the phrase “treats contemptuously” is unconstitutionally vague, as it does not fully address the standards of contemptuous treatment. Considering that the demonstration of contempt can vary significantly across individuals and can be presented differently based on the person’s traits and behavior, legislation guidelines should justify which actions are to be considered contemptuous (Vile, 2018). In the lack of such descriptions, contemptuous behavior becomes challenging to define and prosecute, which leads to complications in enacting the relevant laws. As evident in the Smith v. Goguen case, the specific definitions behind contemptuous treatment were absent, and the prosecution mostly relied on the common meaning of this term (Vile, 2018). Nevertheless, in the judicial process, it is essential to rely on the established legislation rather than the proposed understandings, meaning that the utilized language was indeed constitutionally vague.

From this perspective, the necessity to justify the principles of the contemptuous act most significantly impacts the persecution of activities that could be considered as desecrating the integrity of the national symbols. Given that perception of contemptuous behavior depends on individual preferences and beliefs, various people could understand the “contemptuous treatment” idea differently, leading to numerous interpretations of the law (Hessick, 2016). However, to ensure just and equal law enforcement, the persecution should rely on distinct legislative guidelines, avoiding vague definitions and different understandings of the issue (Hessick, 2016). Considering that the language in the Massachusetts statute was unconstitutionally vague, this instance can prevent the emergence of similar situations which are based on the broad meaning of contemptuous treatment and not a specific definition.


Hessick, C. B. (2016). Vagueness principles. Arizona State Law Journal, 48.

Vile, J. R. (2018). The American flag: An encyclopedia of the stars and stripes in U.S. history, culture, and law. ABC-CLIO.

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