The best way to enjoy an unforgettable view of London is by visiting the observation deck of ArcelorMittal Orbit in the former Olympic Park. ArcelorMittal Orbit is a unique synthesis of art, architecture, and engineering. The construction was designed by Kapoor and Balmond and is an iconic image of London’s sightseeing. The monument is a web of red loops of steel pipes. This paper is an overview of ArcelorMittal Orbit and other projects that were held as part of the huge public art program associated with the Olympic Games in London, 2012.
Olympic Games are always a landmark event of global significance. Therefore, public art devoted to such events possesses certain social and political value. According to Marini (2013, p. 588), the principal aim of the ArcelorMittal Orbit was “to materialize a spirit of national unity during the Olympics”. However, monument’s design and the cost of the visit caused some ambivalence in the society dividing citizens on those who could afford it and those who had to admire it on the ground. Moreover, the fact that ArcelorMittal presented this piece of art as its public image, in other words, using it for business purposes, makes one wonder the very message of the monument. Nevertheless, taking a trip up to ArcelorMittal Orbit, Jones points out its “very well design and fantastic view” (London 2012 Olympics: first view from the ArcelorMittal Orbit tower 2012).
Impact of Public Art
It is also very important to point out the influence of public art on national wellbeing. In this regard, Smedley discusses the impact of public art on society. Speaking of Anthony Gormley’s Angel of the North and other pieces of art, he states that art is subjective (Smedley 2013). Nevertheless, public art allows receiving aesthetic pleasure along with cultural wellbeing. One of the obstacles of modern art is the shortage of funding that leads to the perverse purposes of economic benefits to some extent.
In order to achieve objectivity, it seems appropriate to overview other projects connected with Olympic Art. Thatcher (2012) claims that cultural Olympiad began its work since 2008 with the construction of new projects of art pieces. For example, she notes Jeremy Deller’s bouncy-castle version of Stonehenge, Columbia Road, Olympic Park, and plenty of others that promoted cultural fulfilment of the event. Besides, Thatcher compares the London Olympic Games with those of Beijing and Sydney examining their Olympic cultural heritage as well. Precisely speaking, she argues that public art was not incorporated in the Sydney Olympic program.
Berry (2015) reveals some interesting political ideas about the role of art nowadays. The crisis of neoliberal urbanism caused so-called biopolitical ‘milieu’ when social, economic, and political values of human life are extremely increased. In this respect, it tends to fix the everyday life of people making art autonomous. Berry (2015, p. 21) criticizes ArcelorMittal Orbit as it “lacks any processional approach due to its surround-wrap of refreshment and ticket kiosks and is prohibitively expensive to visit”. Thus, she examines the connection between public art and urbanization issues.
In conclusion, it should be stressed that in spite of the fact that ArcelorMittal Orbit seems ambivalent, it exudes courage, beauty, and splendour of steel capacity. Along with other Olympic public art projects, it contributes to the cultural background and possesses social and political values.
Berry, J 2015, ‘Everyone is not an Artist: Autonomous Art Meets the Neoliberal City’, New Formations, vol. 84-85, no. 2, pp. 20-39.
Marini, H 2013, ‘The ArcelorMittal Orbit’s Ambivalent Effect and the London Olympics: Art, Regeneration, Business and Sustainability’, Contemporary Theatre Review, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 587-592.
Smedley, T 2013, ‘Banksy, Gormley or Hirst: is public art good for the nation’s wellbeing?’, The Guardian, Web.
Thatcher, J 2012, ‘Cultural Olympiad’, Art Monthly, vol. 359, no. 1, pp. 1-8.
Should Marijuana Be Legal In United States?
The legalization of marijuana in the United States has caused a decidedly heated and divisive matter currently. Most Studies reported that around 60% of all Americans consider that marijuana should be legalized, and the remaining 40% considers that marijuana should be prohibited (Pierre 598). Marijuana contains minimum effects on Americans since it is less dangerous than alcohol or cigarettes, causes minimum deaths, does not cause cancer, less addictive, improves economy through taxes, and has medical benefits. This paper discusses the benefits of legalization of marijuana to Americans and the economy.
Research has reported that marijuana is far safer than other substances or drugs, such as cigarettes and alcohol, for the users and the immediate community. Tobacco and alcohol are more toxic, unsafe, and addictive to the consumers’ health more than consumption of marijuana. Alcohol is more probably to cause physical injuries, aggression, and violence matched up to marijuana use. According to the latest studies, health-related expenses for alcohol users are nine times above the users of marijuana, and users of tobacco are around 35 times higher than marijuana consumers (Swartz 5). Law enforcement officers arrest around 750,000 people annually for marijuana related crimes. These new wrongdoers are taken away from employment and families, and taken into a prison structure that drives new wrongdoers into toughened criminals. Given that all the issues associated with disallowing marijuana, it appears irrational to use billions against drug use when the government could have decreased crimes and generated more money through trading marijuana in a controlled structure. They could use income on treating individuals undergoing any severe effects.
Deaths caused by marijuana consumption have hardly been reported in history, as well as overdose of marijuana. Therefore, it may not be surprising that the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, research organization recording all sources of death in America, has not put in place a record for marijuana consumption. However, alcohol consumption causes more than 50,000 deaths annually and more than 20,000 acute alcohol overdoses (Swartz 5). Since alcohol proscription generated the American Mafia, cannabis proscription has generated a secretive economy where misdeeds unrelated to cannabis, but linked to individuals who trade and consume it, go unnoticed. Eventually, the real offenses become difficult to unravel.
Studies have not reported any link between cancer and marijuana use. There are no decisive facts connecting marijuana consumption to cancer. The biggest case-controlled research that did research about the subject reported that marijuana usage is not cooperated with a higher likelihood of acquiring lung cancer. Interesting issue about the study is that marijuana users have a lower likelihood of developing lung cancer than nonusers, or tobacco users. Currently, alcohol has been reported to contribute to the growth of several kinds of cancer, but tobacco usage is more likely to cause various kinds of cancer than alcohol or marijuana consumption. Currently, all studies have not reported any cancer that is attributed to marijuana usage annually, but there are more people that acquire cancer attributed to alcohol and tobacco in the United States and other countries in the world (Bello 31). Since alcohol and tobacco are more probably to cause harm to consumers and the community, it appears ridiculous that they are legalized, and marijuana is not legal. The validation of marijuana would eliminate an irregularity from the law.
Most studies have reported that marijuana usage is less addictive than alcohol or tobacco usage. It contains minimum side-effects matched up to alcohol and tobacco consumption. They also reported that reliance on marijuana by the consumers is comparatively uncommon and far less brutal than reliance on other substance, such as alcohol and tobacco. Studies managed by the National Institute on Drug Abuse came to similar findings about the addiction of marijuana usage (Burnham 4). Extreme use of marijuana can develop into problematic behavior, just like extreme use of any other drugs or activities, such as sex, food, money, and other common behaviors. However, there are minimal physical withdrawal symptoms linked to marijuana usage, while tobacco and alcohol addiction can generate harsh and possibly fatal physical withdrawal symptoms.
Legalizing and taxing marijuana commodities might generate substantial income to the economy. Immediately after the legalization of marijuana in the country, law enforcement savings are expected to increase to around $10 million yearly, which enables criminal justice system to allocate these savings to more severe crimes. By 2016, the cost savings and tax returns that are brought about by legalization of marijuana could increase to around $90 million per year, and may serve as an important element to the economy through generating more jobs, construction, and increase in small entrepreneurs that carry out marijuana activities (Burnham 4). Through legalization of marijuana in better managed settings and eliminating it from the underground market, the country will never empower criminal groups and lobbies, but relatively improving the economy. In the United States, all states get involved in the war on drugs and related activities. Therefore, if marijuana is legalized, these levels of government would acquire taxes on marijuana usage and trade. Additionally, they would have an adequate sum of funds to support effective drug education, promotion projects and other significant causes of health problems.
Marijuana serves as medicine since it helps stimulate the desire for food and reduce pain in people with AIDS and cancer. Marijuana consumption has the constructive characteristics, such as medication use and leisure substance use with comparatively moderate side-effects. Most people consume marijuana since they have decided that it has the greater benefits, particularly people in the countries that are undergoing a range of severe disorders and diseases. Marijuana helps ease spasticity, pain, vomiting, and other significant symptoms for most people who have been under effective treatment with convection prescribed medicine. Most adults favor marijuana more than alcohol or tobacco use since it is moderate and sensible means to relax. Regardless of around 70 years of federal proscription, marijuana will remain to be used. Therefore, the government should admit this reality and remove the control of marijuana from untaxed entrepreneurs, and set it in the control of legal entrepreneurs.
Marijuana is among the most used substance in the United States, but it has brought about controversial debates regarding its effects and benefits to the users. From the above discussion, we can conclude that marijuana use should be legalized since the benefits are more than the risks. Marijuana is considered not addictive, medicine, improves economy, causes fewer deaths, and does not cause cancer among the users. A realistic regulatory structure that enables for the restricted legal consumption of marijuana by adults would effectively moderate any threats associated with its consumption and misuse. This change would effectively limit marijuana’s accessibility among teenagers.
Bello, Joan. The Benefits of Marijuana: Physical, Psychological and Spiritual, Lifeservices Press, New York, 2007. Print.
Burnham, Alex. Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana, GRIN Verlag, Boston, 2011. Print.
Pierre, Joseph. “Psychosis Associated With Medical Marijuana: Risk vs. Benefits of Medicinal Cannabis Use.” The American Journal of Psychiatry 167.5 (2010): 598-599. Print.
Swartz, Ronald. “Medical marijuana users in substance abuse.” Harm Reduction Journal 7.3 (2010): 2-9. Print.
The Root Cause Of Domestic Violence
Domestic violence had great implications on the physical and mental health of the victim. There are many attempts that have been put in place to deal with domestic violence. Domestic violence is mainly characterized by aggression towards women even though there are few cases where men are assaulted by the females. There have been some substantial gains that have been achieved through activism. However, the problem has remained prevalent. According to Hanmer and Itzin (2013), a change that will end domestic violence requires a framework that will holistically address the social issues that lead to domestic violence. In the existing studies about domestic violence, feminist contributions have been the definition of domestic violence as a fundamental tool used by men to socially control the women. Also, domestic violence is associated with structure and hierarchy that exist within the family. In the patriarchal; society, men have benefited with the ascribed cultural status; hence, they have abused the privileges by domineering the women through violence. Therefore, there is the need for in-depth examination of the societal set up in order to have a better understanding of why domestic violence has remained prevalent and the measures that can be used to address the problem.
Fundamental Issues of Domestic Violence
Even though researches have pointed to many causes of domestic violence that are mainly social issues, Hanmer and Itzin (2013) noted that the causes have one commonality, i.e., the problem has been normalized in the society. Most of the domestic abusers grew up in families and societies where they experienced violence (Howard & Oram, 2013). As a result, they were accustomed to the fact that emotional and physical violence can be used to solve disputes and cope with their fears.
The long standing gender stereotypes that exist in the society have contributed to the perpetrating the violence. The process has thus become generational as there is no one in the society who has stood against the problem. This has contributed to the normalization of the problem. The other factor that has resulted in the problem being considered as normal is the culture of violence that characterizes the modern society. In the different attainment viewed from TV, there are many violent scenes that make brutality against women to appear normal, for example the sexual violence. The objectification and dominance of women becomes usual.
The problem with domestic violence is that sometimes the victims tend not to disclose their sufferings. This is because the people who are abused depend on the abusers financially. As a result, they feel subjugated, and hence, the common feeling of inability in case they were separated from the abuser, while the oppressor is accustomed to the fact that authorities are not informed. The result is that the domestic violence is left to continue. As the problem continues within the family, a trend is set in which the children witness the violence. Their ability to trust others is undermined and they cannot control emotions due to the image of violence forded in their brains (Howard & Oram, 2013). Therefore, when they are adults, they are likely to continue to practice violence as a way of exerting authorities in their families.
There are many theories that have been used to explain domestic violence, for instance, a general systems theory approach to domestic violence views the problem as a system rather than the cause of an individual make up. Therefore, it is within the systems of the society that violence has been perpetuated. For example, stereotypes which exist within the society that places men as superior to woman create images that reaffirm the practice (Krizsán & Paantjens, 2016). The gender learned roles are also passed through a societal setting that defines what each gender is supposed to do in the family (Hanmer and Itzin, 2013). These roles are culturally ascribed and designed in manner to ensure that men exert power and control over the women. The result is that men use physical abuse to gain dominance in the relationships. Therefore, Hanmer and Itzin (2013) noted that the society has contributed in the processes that normalize the gender violence. Also, the society has neglected its role of redefining values and norms that discourage any kind of violence at the family level. Society has not established alternative
The factors that are associated with domestic violence are engrained within the society and very few relate to the individual. Therefore, the issue of domestic violence can only be solved through measures that address the root causes at societal level. It is the mandate of the society to redefine values and norms of the society and ensure that they are based on equality. This will create a platform on member of society feels lesser being as they will all have equal opportunities. Therefore, therefore, there will be no need for violence to superiority. It is the mandate of society to change the situational and the individual factors that are responsible for domestic violence.
As it has been stated, domestic violence remains one of the most insidious problems in modern society. Worse still, in some communities maintaining social hierarchy, using physical and emotional violence is still regarded as a tradition that should be treated with respect (Grose & Grabe, 2014, p.972). The purpose of the present research is to reveal the primary cause of domestic violence and define which methods would be effective for decreasing the number of cases of domestic violence in the society. The complexity of the problem that the research is supposed to solve lies in several reasons that contribute to its contagion.
The present research is to define origin of domestic violence, and the measures that can be taken in order to lessen the influence of the discovered reason.
Due to the enormous number of the victims of domestic violence, it is absolutely impossible to postpone solving this problem. In order to reveal the primary cause of domestic violence, I conducted thorough analysis of the theories on its roots. As it follows from the analysis, the primary cause of the domestic violence is likely to be connected to specific gender roles that are supposed to define the appropriate behaviour (Sinno, Schuette, & Killen, 2014, p.133). As almost all the cultures proclaim the superiority of men over women, husbands are believed to have an ultimate right to take all the important decisions concerning the family. Such a situation causes overindulgence in men, and they start gaining authority over women using their physical fortitude. Instead of feeling guilty, many abusers claim that they just live in accordance to the rules of their culture or religion (Taylor, 2013, p.420).
Taking the discovered reason into account, I developed a new way to decrease the domestic violence rates in our society. I suggest that nobody can be blamed for being a victim, and this is why it is the abuser who has to reconsider his behavior and look at himself from the outside. Thus, I believe that developing a new method of correctional rehabilitation would be the best solution for the problem. To be more precise, I am convinced that only traumatic experience simulation can make abusers understand the cruelty of their behavior. The method that I suppose to be effective for domestic violence prevention, involves creating a situation where abuser and his victim reverse the roles.
The experiments should be conducted with help of the specialist who will ensure that everything is going according to the plan. The couples have to act out episodes of their life that are the most traumatic for the victim. The abuser is supposed to see himself in his victim, and he has no permission to resist the violence. The method should be applied only after conducting a test that shows that participants have no mental disorders. After the experiment, the couple has to live separate from each other for a week. Then, abuser is supposed to have a conversation with the psychologist. I consider the method of traumatic experience simulation to be the most effective as it is it aimed at making the abuser sober. It will be cheaper to develop and implement this method than the other ones, and it will not require any expensive equipment.
Major steps of implementing the method include conducting a series of experiments to prove its effectiveness, developing the guideline helping to use the method, and creating a training program for the psychologists who would like to use it in their work.
Strengths of the simulation method include repetitive practice, ability to provide feedback, and the ability to present different life scenarios that possess valuable lessons (Lateef, 2010). One of the benefits of traumatic experience simulation is the attitude change that it will create in the individuals who will participate. The situations and experiences used will be fictitious. However, they will be representations of the real-life experiences that victims of domestic violence undergo. The method will replace and amplify real experiences with guided ones in order to present specific scenarios that will cover different aspects of domestic violence (Lateef, 2010).
For instance, aspects of domestic violence such as the physical, mental, and psychological pain will be covered in different simulation exercises (Ross, 2014). The simulation tool will be developed in such a way that abusers will be able to move, do, think, and experience the lives of victims of domestic violence. For instance, the abusers will be introduced to the key concepts related to domestic violence including trauma, depression, anxiety, and mental instability (Ross, 2014). In that regard, they will be presented with situations and experiences that will bring them one-on-one with the pain and trauma that their victims undergo. One of the goals of the proposed solution is to develop empathy in the abusers by helping them understand the level of suffering they inflict on their victims.
This will be achieved by allowing the abusers to go through simulation scenarios and experience all the pain, trauma, and stress of domestic violence. This simulation will give the abusers an opportunity to be in the shoes of their victims and, as a result, judge their actions from a different perspective. The simulation will also equip participants with knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will empower them to change their behavior and responses toward their partners. It will supply knowledge regarding the negative effects of violence on the victim, family, and society in general. The simulation will provide an opportunity for participants to learn and re-learn until they acquire positive attitudes that will allow them to see domestic violence from both ethical and legal perspectives (Lateef, 2010). The proposed method will be effective in ending domestic violence because abusers will experience different scenarios for as many times as it will be necessary for them to learn and change.
The method of traumatic experience simulation is supposed to show good results, but in order to start its implementation, there is need to conduct more experiments. I suppose that my solution is going to bring innumerable benefits to the society as it involves active work with the perpetrators and their attitudes towards domestic violence. Companies interested in this method can invest in its development because once completed, the simulation tool will provide great value for the money that they invest. It is supposed to be relatively cheap but their investments are likely to pay off in the long-term. The things that I need to start are the assistance of prominent researchers to conduct additional experiments, a laboratory or house supplied with the necessary video facilities, and unlimited access to the latest psychodiagnosis programs.
Domestic violence has far-reaching implications on the physical, mental, and psychological wellbeing of victims. Therefore, eradicating it from society is of utmost importance. As mentioned earlier, addressing the issue requires an in-depth evaluation of the role played by social factors such as gender, gender roles, and hierarchy in society. The most efficacious solution to end domestic violence is to expose the perpetrators to the mental and physical pain that their victims encounter. Thus, traumatic experience simulation is a method that should be implemented in order to contribute in domestic violence awareness and significantly decrease the number of its victims through active and fruitful work with abusers.
Traumatic experience simulation will be an effective method because of its strengths that include repetitive practice, ability to provide feedback, and the ability to present different life scenarios that possess valuable lessons. The main goal of the method is to change the attitudes of the abusers toward their partners as well as develop a new understanding of domestic violence with regard to its negative effects on victims, families, and the society. Domestic violence should not become more common, and it is the duty of every person in the society to make the efforts in order to prevent its spread. Its effects on families and the society are severe and, therefore, eradicating it is necessary. I strongly believe that this method will show positive results once it is tested thoroughly.
Hanmer, J., & Itzin, C. (2013). Home truths about domestic violence: Feminist influences on policy and practice—a reader. New York, NY: Routledge.
Howard, L. M., & Oram, S. (2013). Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 10(5), 1-5.
Krizsán, A., & Paantjens, M. (2016). Domestic violence: Who’s problem? The Greek Review of Social Research, 117(117), 63-92.
Grose, R. G., & Grabe, S. (2014). The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: A feminist psychology analysis. Violence against women, 20(8), 972-993.
Lateef, F. (2010). Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing. Journal of Emergencies,
Trauma, and Shock, 3(4), 348-352.
Ross, L. E. (2014). Continuing the war against domestic violence (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Sinno, S., Schuette, C., & Killen, M. (2014). Developmental social cognition about gender roles in the family and societal context. Gender and development, 9(2), 133-154.
Taylor, C. (2013). Infamous men, dangerous individuals, and violence against women. A Companion to Foucault, 1(1), 419-435.