Lung And Bronchus Cancer In Smoking Americans Writing Sample

Lung and bronchus cancer is a serious problem globally and is one of the main causes of death of the population in many developed countries. The issue is especially relevant in the U. S., where many people, especially those with low socioeconomic status, suffer from this disease. Among the causes of cancer, smoking is the first to be distinguished, which is the reason for the vast majority of incidence cases. Moreover, the disease mainly affects adults and the elderly, and a minority lives for more than five years after diagnosis. However, a policy of restricting smoking in the U.S. and related measures can have a significant positive impact on the situation by 2065.


Lung and bronchus cancer has been extremely common in the U.S. for many years. Lin et al. (2019) underline that “lung cancer is the top-ranking cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and the incidence has risen over the last three decades” (p. 1). Notably, this type of cancer leads to the largest number of incidents and deaths in developed countries, while in countries with a lower socio-demographic index, the problem is less urgent (Lin et al., 2019). According to statistics, only 20.5% of those affected by lung and bronchus cancer live more than five years after diagnosis (“Cancer stat facts,” n. d.). More than 228,000 new cases and over 135,000 condition-related deaths have been reported in 2020 (“Cancer stat facts,” n. d.). Thus, this type of cancer is the second most common among the population and the first in the number of fatal outcomes.

As the 20th century began, the primary cause of the disease was long-term tobacco use, although it was extremely rare. With the development of industrial production and the increase in cigarette consumption, mortality from lung and bronchial cancer began to rise. Gradually, smoking began to spread not only among men but also among women, and the average age of smokers was diminishing (Schabath & Cote, 2019). During the 1960s, tobacco use increased dramatically, enlarging the amount of attention payed to lung and bronchial cancer (Jeon et al., 2018). Therefore, the negative connection of smoking with cancer risk is apparent.

However, smoking is not the only concerning risk factor of cancer. The magnitude of the problem is even more significant given the fact that lung cancer deaths in the U.S. have been steadily declining since the 1990s (Schabath & Cote, 2019). This phenomenon is associated with the implementation of programs to restrict tobacco consumption, including bans on smoking, the introduction of excise taxes, media campaigns, and restricting access to tobacco products for young people (Jeon et al., 2018). It is noted that between 1975 and 2000, about 800,000 deaths from this type of cancer were prevented in the population aged 30 to 84 years (Jeon et al., 2018). According to the data, efforts to control tobacco from 1964 to 2012 helped to avoid 8 million deaths, but 17.7 million still died prematurely due to smoking (Jeon et al., 2018). Thus, it can be assumed that further restrictive measures will result in maintaining and increasing the level of decline in occurrence of lung and bronchial cancer and its mortality.

Description of the Event

Smoking significantly boosts the risk of developing this type of cancer. Although only 15% of smokers are affected by the disease, about 90% of diagnoses in the U.S. are associated with tobacco use (Schabath & Cote, 2019). The relative risk of lung and bronchial cancer increases 20 times with smoking and depends on the intensity of smoking (Schabath & Cote, 2019). However, existing calculations based on data analysis and modeling predict a significant decrease in cases and mortality rates associated with the disease in the period from 2015 to 2065 (Jeon et al., 2018). Thus, over the course of half a decade, due to a decrease in tobacco consumption, a decline in the incidence of the disease is expected.

Description of the Disease

As with any other type of cancer, lung and bronchial cancer develops as a result of uncontrolled cell division. For this type of cancer, the developing tumor is localized in the lungs and bronchi. However, it can be transported through the lymph nodes to other organs, including the brain (“What is lung cancer?” 2020). Lung and bronchial cancer is divided into two groups: small cell cancer (including oat cell cancer and combined small cell carcinoma) and non-small cell cancer (including several types) (“Cancer stat facts,” n. d.). Lung and bronchial cancer may appear as epidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma. Each of the types presented is distinguished by the cells in which division occurs. Early symptoms of the disease include coughing, wheezing, chest pain, coughing up blood and slugs, fatigue, and frequent manifestations of pneumonia or bronchitis.

Description of the Population at Risk or Affected by the Disease

There are several persistent patterns of incidence and development of lung and bronchial cancer in specific populations. First of all, women are less likely to be affected by the disease than men. However, the situation is expected to change by 2045, and the number of deaths among women will be higher than among men (Bade & Dela Cruz, 2020). Lung and bronchial cancer mostly occur in people over 75 years old, the median age of diagnosis is 70 years, and the median age of death is 72 years (Bade & Dela Cruz, 2020). The highest number of deaths occurs among African American men and the lowest among Hispanic women. In the U.S., low socioeconomic status is related to an increased risk of lung and bronchial cancer, as smoking is the most common. Risk factors for the disease include smoking, secondhand smoke, radon, and environmental and occupational exposure as well.


Bade, B. C., & Dela Cruz, C. S. (2020). Lung cancer 2020: Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 41(1), 1-24. Web.

Cancer stat facts: Lung and bronchus cancer. (n. d.). National Cancer Institute. 

Jeon, J., Holford, T. R., Levy, D. T., Feuer, E. J., Cao, P., Tam, J., Clarke, L., Clarke, J., Kong, C. Y., & Meza, R. (2018). Smoking and lung cancer mortality in the U.S. from 2015-2065: A comparative modeling approach. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(10), 683-693. 

Lin, H. T., Liu, F. C., Wu, C. Y., Kuo, C. F., Lan, W. C., & Yu, H. P. (2019). Epidemiology and survival outcomes of lung cancer: A population-based study. BioMed Research International, 2019(4), 1-19. 

Schabath, M. B. & Cote, M. L. (2019). Cancer progress and priorities: Lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 28, 1563-1579. 

What is lung cancer? (2020). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Managing Pain In Older People With Analgesics


Accurate pain evaluation is the fundamental principle of proper pain control. With advancing age, some older people may have higher pain thresholds and pain tolerance resulting in slow response and misperception of intensity (Booker et al., 2016). To add, older patients are vulnerable to drugs and adverse reactions due to cardiac issues, hepatic and renal malfunction, decreased body water, and altered absorption (Booker & Haedtke, 2016). Accurate pain evaluation includes recognizing behavioral response: facial expressions, vocal complaints, changes in usual routines, mental changes (Hogans & Barreveld, 2020). Some patients over 65 consider pain to be a necessary part of their life at this age (Godwal et al., 2020). Fear of painful testings leads to denying pain as well (Hogans & Barreveld, 2020). In the case of elderly patients, correct evaluating prevents unnecessary endurance and improves functional and psychological ability.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often prescribed to reduce pain. The most common of them are aspirin (71 % of all NSAIDS prescribed) and Diclofenac (25%) (Czarnecki et al., 2018). NSAIDs are especially dangerous for the elderly, taking the factors listed above into consideration, as they cause different adverse reactions (Al-Azayzih et al., 2020). The list of such effects may include renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular dysfunction (Sezen, 2019). Therefore, alternative medications are to be considered in older adults’ treatment and care.

Case Study

Managing metastatic pain is an essential part of elderly treatment as it contributes to the geriatric quality of life. According to WHO (World Health Organization), metastatic pain is treated with analgesics in three successive steps: NSAIDS for minor pain, mild, then strong opiates for sharp pain. However, as stated above, older people are susceptible to side effects from NSAIDs and opioids can perform successfully with appropriate dosages, as modern pharmacodynamics studies show (Ahmad et al., 2018). The patient Bob can self-report, for he has had an active lifestyle before pain aroused; thus, based on his feelings, it is clear that the pain increased for the past week. Such type of pain is to be treated with opioids.

The safe use of opioids is debatable, yet, the correct dosing may be beneficial. A decrease in pain was proved for patients taking opioids in 65% of the cases by El Hachem et al. (2019). Another 45% of patients suffered from adverse reactions, including poor metabolism, urinary retention, nausea, and mental issues (El Hachem et al., 2019). The side effects of this kind could be easily eliminated if they were treated appropriately. For mild or sharp pain management, opioids can be of help. Buprenorphine, among others, proved to be the safest with a single agent that helps to avoid polypharmacy and addiction (El Hachem et al., 2019). Besides, the medication possesses an anti-depressive effect and can be used for patients with renal failure (Kennedy-Malone et al., 2019). The recommended dosing for onset equals 5 mcg per hour every three or four days.

The patient and his family should be informed about possible side effects and urged to report any changes. The pain is intense such opioids at a low dose that equals 30 – 50 % of an adult dose as morphine, oxycodone, and hydromorphone can help (Kennedy-Malone et al., 2019). Constant pain might be a factor more apt to cause cognitive impairments than opioids (Ahmad et al., 2018). On the whole, pain took under control and its relief improve the patient’s psychological well-being and guarantees the maintenance of the quality of life.


Ahmad, I., Ahmed, M. M., Ahsraf, M. F., Naeem, A., Tasleem, A., Ahmed, M., & Farooqi, M. S. (2018). Pain management in metastatic bone disease: A literature review. Cureus, 10(9), 9. Web.

Al-Azayzih, A., Al-Azzam, S. I., Alzoubi, K. H., Jarab, A. S., Kharaba, Z., Al-Rifai, R. H., & Alnajjar, M. S. (2020). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs utilization patterns and risk of adverse events due to drug-drug interactions among elderly patients: A study from Jordan. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28(4), 504-508. Web.

Booker, S. S., Bartoszczyk, D. A., & Herr, K. A. (2016). Managing pain in frail elders. American nurse today, 11(4), 1-14. Web.

Booker, S. Q., & Haedtke, C. (2016). Evaluating pain management in older adults. Nursing2016, 46(6), 66-69. Web.

Czarnecki, M. L., Turner, H. N., & American Society For Pain Management Nursing. (2018). Core curriculum for pain management nursing. Elsevier.

El Hachem, G., Rocha, F. O., Pepersack, T., Jounblat, Y., Drowart, A., & Dal Lago, L. (2019). Advances in pain management for older patients with cancer. Ecance Medical Science, 13(1), 980-994. Web.

Godwal, K., Asija, R., & Khanijau, R. (2020). Monitoring of Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) along with NSAIDS in elderly patients. International Journal of All Research Writings, 2(1), 58-64. Web.

Hogans, B. B., & Barreveld, A. M. (2020). Pain care essentials. Oxford University Press.

Kennedy-Malone, L., Lori Martin Plank, & Evelyn Groenke Duffy. (2019). Advanced practice nursing in the care of older adults. F.A. Davis Company.

Sezen, G. (2019). Polypharmacy in elders. Proceedings of the 6th Anesthesiology and Reanimation Specialist’s Society Congress. ARUD.

World Health Organization. (n.d.) WHO’s cancer pain ladder for adults. Web.

Market Designs And Entrepreneurship Innovations

Technology has played a significant role in elevating entrepreneurship globally. Innovative ideas have been diverse to fit the digital world in business and market systems. Products have been improved through technology; hence, encouraging competition in the market. When the quality of products advances through innovation, their value increases, enabling them to gain a competitive edge against other brands (Pech 2016). An intersection of design and technology improves the commercialization of goods and services in the modern world. Various companies have emulated using innovation in improving their business ideas and engaging in a competitive market. Technology has enabled entrepreneurs to develop software and programs that uphold their success in their companies (Vorbach et al., 2017). Also, companies can research various techniques to enhance their services and apply them accordingly. This essay discusses the comparison between companies that upheld the triadic approach to entrepreneurship and companies that did not use the method.

The Amazon Company has constantly upgraded with technology by innovating more straightforward ways of accessing its products online. However, disruptive innovation has led to the enhancement of the provision of services by the Amazon Company. Besides, radical innovation has made products cheaper and affordable to the general public fond of Amazon products (Pech 2016; Tou et al., 2019). For example, readers have benefitted from the disruptive innovation as they can download softcopies of diverse books and buy them at less than half the price. People’s perspective about online products has changed as they are now attracted to Amazon’s more affordable online products.

Disruptive innovation can be used to determine a company’s success as it pushes away competitors in the market systems. Besides, disruptive innovation is easy to use, simple, cost-effective, and consists of one engineering design achieved through digitization. Businesses that depend on hardcopy books and articles have been made redundant by the enhanced invention (Del Bosco et al., 2019; Tou). The originality of their ideas on entrepreneurship was based on less developed innovation before technology evolved.

Also, some companies such as Apple Company have resolved to close innovation. Apple Company has not successfully applied the three-dimensional approach to innovation and entrepreneurship. Hence leading to a lack of enhanced profits in their products. Companies using closed innovation do not approve other companies from using their business designs. Also, companies such as Apple do not share their expertise and prefer not to disclose their business models identified by their engineers. According to Pech (2016), the kind of business perspective has been discarded in favor of open-source innovation.

The intense global competition in commerce does not encourage closed innovation as companies benefit from shared expertise by applying new business designs. The main limitation of this invention is that it relied entirely on in-house expertise that took time to develop (Pech, 2016; Eckhardt et al., 2018). Sharing manufacturing ideas enables companies to enhance their engineers’ designs and strengthen their arguments. Besides, products in an open-innovation model are designed to fit their purpose and the market.

To sum up, companies’ business success depends on their flexibility in coming up with innovative ideas that fit the digital market. Companies that follow the three-pronged approach have been more successful in their business endeavors than companies that have ignored the new models of innovation strategies. Also, companies that re-invest their surplus profit in their business often have a competitive advantage. Innovation ideas go hand in hand with business ideas towards commercializing a new product in the market.


Del Bosco, B., Chierici, R., & Mazzucchelli, A. (2019). Fostering entrepreneurship: an innovative business model to link innovation and new venture creation. Review of Managerial Science, 13(3), 561-574.

Eckhardt, J. T., Ciuchta, M. P., & Carpenter, M. (2018). Open innovation, information, and entrepreneurship within platform ecosystems. Strategic entrepreneurship journal, 12(3), 369-391.

Pech, R. M. (2016). Achieving the innovative edge in technology, engineering design, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 5(1), 6.

Tou, Y., Watanabe, C., Moriya, K., Vurpillat, V., & Neittaanmäki, P. (2019). A new concept of R&D in neo open innovation: transformation of R&D triggered by Amazon. International Journal of Managing Information Technology, 11(1). Web.

Vorbach, S., Wipfler, H., & Schimpf, S. (2017). Business model innovation vs. business model inertia: The role of disruptive technologies. BHM Berg-und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte, 162(9), 382-385.

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