Magnesium In Enhancing Bodily Strength In Athletes Essay Sample For College


Magnesium comes as the fourth most abundant mineral found in body cells. However, the two ounces or more of magnesium present in the regular human body exists as magnesium ions instead of metal. That is, positively charged atoms of magnesium found in solution form or compounded with tissues like bone. However, in blood serum, magnesium is found to be less than one percent. The magnesium found in blood serum can be divided or categorized further into protein-bound, complex-bound, and free ionic portions (Schwalfenberg & Genuis, 2017). Moreover, in measuring magnesium status, the ionic portion is regarded as most important because of being physiologically active.

The mineral plays very important roles in the body, including producing energy and supporting or reinforcing nerve and muscle function. By loosening tight muscles, magnesium aids in preventing injury in addition to enhancing flexibility. This is because, with the absence of magnesium, it is impossible for muscles to relax appropriately, potentially initiating cramps. Moreover, most of the energy of the body emanates from Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but the production of ATP is entirely dependent on the magnesium mineral (Razzaque, 2018). ATP is a molecule responsible for capturing chemical energy found in food and utilizes the energy to fuel other body processes. This paper focuses on how effective magnesium is in enhancing bodily strength in athletes by evaluating the limitations and strengths of the scientific evidence that supports or contradicts the use of magnesium.

Review of the Science

The google search engine was used in investigating the research question. The keywords used include magnesium intake, strength performance, physical performance, and elite athletes. The investigation was carried out on the 24th of March 2022, which yielded twenty results. Furthermore, the inclusion criteria used involved exclusion of literature reviews or systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This is because all the articles mentioned above only investigated what other articles concluded about the research question hence did not conduct a study. Additionally, the articles picked were within the last ten years.

Giving or providing professional athletes with magnesium supplements may help increase their performance. Magnesium is an important mineral in the body since it works as a cofactor for over three hundred enzymes regulating different body reactions, including nerve and muscle function, muscle contraction, bone development, and energy production. Enzyme Creatine kinase is one of the enzymes where magnesium works as a cofactor. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing energy utilized during exercises such as anaerobic exercises. As a result, magnesium is essential for a short duration and high-intensity exercises (Setaro et al., 2013). Additionally, magnesium also takes the role of enhancing the utilization and mobilization of glucose.

According to Setaro et al. (2014), there was an increase in performances of countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing after the supplementation of magnesium. Setaro et al. (2014) investigated the association between the performance of elite male volleyball players and the supplementation of magnesium. The volleyball players received a magnesium supplement at a 350mg dose rate over a time period of four weeks. In support of this, Setaro et al. (2014) suggested that the performance of these exercises greatly increased due to short duration and high intensity or anaerobic exercises.

Moreover, Santos et al. (2011) also used dietary assessments to test the association between the physical performance of athletes, including handball, volleyball, and basketball players, and magnesium intake. Santos et al. (2011) findings indicated that compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), magnesium intakes were considerably low. Furthermore, Santos et al. (2011) found that magnesium intake levels were directly correlated with certain strength tests, including trunk rotation, trunk flexion, and countermovement jump with arm swing.

In addition, Matias et al. (2012) conducted a study investigating whether the intake of magnesium affects or mediates the relationship between elite swimmers and lean soft tissue and bone mineral density. Matias et al. (2012) findings indicated that magnesium continued to be vital in determining the relationship between lean soft tissue and bone mineral density and swimmers even when the lean soft tissue was varied for calcium, vitamin D, energy, and potassium.

Dehkordi (2020) also conducted a study on the muscle strength of active male bodybuilder athletes to support the research question. The experimental group was supplemented with magnesium tablets with 250 milligrams of magnesium oxide and forty-seven milligrams of calcium. Furthermore, the control group was provided with a placebo entirely similar to the supplements. Dehkordi (2020) used the Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) machine based on the 1-RM to measure the strength of the athletes. Dehkordi (2020) also measured resistance using a standard machine with 1-RM by 0.5 kilograms with more repetition on the bench press in the gym. In both groups, Dehkordi (2020) found no significant difference in the endurance of the upper body back muscle strengths from the Wilks’ lambda test. However, the test indicated a considerable difference in the chest and arm muscle strengths between the experimental and control groups.

Additionally, magnesium intake levels combined with supplements or diets allow muscle recovery from extreme or strenuous exercise. Córdova et al. (2019) shared their view on this after investigating the impact of supplementation of magnesium in preventing muscle damage in a twenty-one-day cycling challenge in professional cyclists. Compared to the control group, improvements in muscle integrity in the magnesium supplemented group were modest considering muscle biomarkers. As a result, the cyclists had optimal activity since the performance was not affected across the length of the race.

Moreover, Martínez et al. (2017) studied basketball players over the season over magnesium supplementation’s impact on muscular damage markers and their relation with serum magnesium changes. Martínez et al. (2017) provided the athletes regularly with 400 milligrams of magnesium supplementation every day. Under these conditions, Martínez et al. (2017) findings indicated no significant changes either in the muscular damage markers or in the levels of magnesium among the participants along the season. The athletes maintained a controlled diet supervised by the team nutritionist where the mean magnesium consumption in the diet of their study amounted to 217 ± 4.6 mg/1,000 kcal surpassing the standardized dietary recommendations. Following these conditions, Martínez et al. (2017) observed limited serum magnesium changes, possibly because of an adequate supply of magnesium in the diet. Martínez et al. (2017) supported the view that magnesium supplementation in basketball players along the season can increase the level of biochemical markers of muscular damage and prevent a serum magnesium level drop.

However, there were limitations encountered in some studies that could potentially communicate the inaccuracy of their studies. One of the limitations that could affect the accuracy of the results is having a limited number of participants. Matias et al. (2012) indicated that the study’s criteria of inclusion restricted participants to elite athletes, which led to a limited number of participants available in relation to the Portuguese swimmer population in Lisbon being considerably small. Martínez et al. (2017), on the other hand, reported a lack of a similar control group with no magnesium supplementation. Martínez et al. (2017) further indicated that it was challenging having professional players as controls since they were few and were located in different cities with diverse training and nutritional behaviors. It may also be challenging to interpret results correctly because the magnesium content in various tissues differs (Córdova et al., 2019). Moreover, magnesium can also be lost through transpiration, causing a challenge to determine accurate assessments concerning the distribution of magnesium in various body compartments over the supplementation protocols.

Table Summarizing the Primary Studies

Reference and year Subjects Methodology Conclusion
Matias et al., 2012 n=17 The study utilized a quantitative methodology where the subjects were subjected to experiments that took seven days. A linear regression model assessed the relationship between lean soft tissue (LST) and bone mineral density (BMD). Matias et al. (2012) concluded that young elite swimmers might profit or gain from its sufficient intake concerning the potential magnesium role in bone mineral mass accretion during growth. Considering the role magnesium plays during growth in bone mineral mass accretion, athletes that participate in less impact sports should focus on the level of magnesium intake.
Santos et al., 2011 n=26 The research uses a quantitative methodology where voluntary participants participated in three-team sports. The study used a linear regression model to identify the relationship between the parameter strength and magnesium. With regards to their results, Santos et al. (2011) concluded magnesium intake is essential in muscle performance, thereby enhancing athlete performance. Also, to improve strength and muscle performance, it is significant for athletes to have dietary guidelines to enhance magnesium and calcium intake.
Setaro et al., 2013 n= 25 The research used a quantitative methodology with designed experiments where groups were subjected to various treatments. The ANOVA pre-test and post-test were utilized to determine the within and the between factors. Concluded that even though players did not have a magnesium deficiency, supplementation of magnesium enhanced lactic anaerobic metabolism, increasing countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swings.
Dehkordi, 2020 n=40 The researchers employed a quantitative methodology where the groups under study were divided into the experimental and control groups. The research used a t-test to check for the mean difference. For the male bodybuilder’s athletes, supplementation magnesium for eight weeks had a considerable impact on the strength of chest muscles and arms muscle strengths.
Córdova et al., 2019 n=18 The researchers used a quantitative methodology where the groups under study were divided into magnesium supplemented and control groups. The authors utilized a one-way repeated ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test. Córdova et al. (2019) concluded that supplementation in magnesium has a positive impact on muscle damage. Also, magnesium intake, either combined with supplements or from the diet, can sustain magnesium levels, enabling muscles to recover from strenuous exercises.
Martínez et al., 2017 n=12 The research implemented a quantitative methodology involving two groups (the control group and the basketball players group), the repeated measure ANOVA was used to assess all the parameters. Their results concluded that magnesium supplementation in elite athletes might help prevent damage to tissues during the competition season by exerting a protective effect on the muscle, which significantly improves athlete performance.


In conclusion, magnesium intake can help increase the performance of elite athletes ranging from elite swimmers, basketball players, footballer players, bodybuilders, volleyball players, and handball players. Magnesium mineral helps the body in nerve and muscle function, blood pressure regulation, muscle contraction, bone development, and energy production. Magnesium intake has been shown to increase performances of countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing in volleyball players. The mineral has also been shown to increase certain strength tests like trunk rotation, handgrip maximal strength, squat jump, and trunk flexion. In addition, magnesium mineral has also been shown to have a direct relation with lean soft tissue and bone mineral density among elite swimmers, which improves their performance. Furthemore, supplementation of magnesium intake has also helped enhance chest muscle strengths and arms muscle strengths in bodybuilders. However, magnesium intake has failed to improve back muscle strengths and upper body resistance.

Moreover, increased magnesium intake levels have proved to enable muscles to recover or heal from extreme or strenuous exercises, especially in cyclists. In addition magnesium has proven beneficial in sustaining adequate muscle status and function if controlled or provided in diet in adequate amounts. Lastly, magnesium intake also profits athletes by increasing biochemical markers levels of muscular damage while preventing a drop in serum magnesium. Some limitations hinder accuracy in investigating the efficiency of magnesium. These include a limited number of participants, difficulty acquiring elite athletes due to diverse training and nutritional behaviors, and magnesium content in various tissues differ.


Córdova, A., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., Roche, E., Caballero-García, A., & Fernandez-Lázaro, D. (2019). Impact of magnesium supplementation in muscle damage of professional cyclists competing in a stage race. Nutrients, 11(8), 1927. Web.

Dehkordi, S. (2020). Effect of a period of magnesium supplementation on muscle strength and resistance of bodybuilders. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 12-21. Web.

Martínez, A., Lázaro, D., Ayuso, J., Calvo, J., & García, A. (2017). Effect of magnesium supplementation on muscular damage markers in basketball players during a full season. Magnesium Research, 30(2), 61-70. Web.

Matias, C., Santos, D., Monteiro, C., Vasco, A., Baptista, F., & Sardinha, L. et al. (2012). Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers. Magnesium Research, 25(3), 120-125. Web.

Razzaque, M. (2018). Magnesium: Are we consuming enough?. Nutrients, 10(12), 1-8. Web.

Santos, D., Matias, C., Monteiro, C., Silva, A., Rocha, P., & Minderico, C. et al. (2011). Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players. Magnesium Research, 24(4), 215-219. Web.

Schwalfenberg, G., & Genuis, S. (2017). The importance of magnesium in clinical healthcare. Scientifica, 2017, 1-14. Web.

Setaro, L., Santos-Silva, P., Nakano, E., Sales, C., Nunes, N., Greve, J., & Colli, C. (2013). Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: Effects of magnesium supplementation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(5), 438-445. Web.

Language And Literacy Development In Children


According to the YouTube video by Amochi013 (2014, Jan 9), when babies reach 4 months, they have the ability to read and understand the movement of lips. These actions form the transition to the first stage of the baby’s language development (Amochi013 2014, Jan 9). In the bubbling stage, it feels like the babies are saying words, but actually, they are not. In addition to that, in this stage, on the physical appearance, one cannot easily tell what country the baby comes from; the identification can only be made at approximately 10 months.

When the baby reaches 10 months, the child begins to use phonemes from words they perceive from their households and not from others. The child then transitions into the one-word stage, where they only learn to speak one-syllable words and make sentences comprising of syllables that their family members are able to comprehend. On the two-word stage, just as in the text speech, the children only speak to their family language members on the phrases that are recognized by family members. Finally, after the two-word stages, the children begin to expand their phrases.

5 Conversational Instances According to CECE (2016, Jul 27)

  • First Conversational Instance

    • Child: Yellow!
    • Beth: You have yellow on your shirt. There are two.

  • Second Conversational Instance

    • Beth: Deanna has yellow on her shirt too.
    • Children: Shouting!

  • Third Conversational Instance

    • Beth Martin: What do you see?
    • Children: Ojos
    • Child: Los entidos!

  • Fourth Conversational Instance

    • Beth:…. stand for orange and black
    • child: Tengo black

  • Fifth conversational Instance

    • Beth: What is going to be on the next page?
    • Child: Yellow Duck

5 Instances that the Teacher Just Gave Instructions

The first instance is the use of visuals and picture cues, such as squared papers of different colors, for the children to identify the colors. The second instance is when Beth Martin plays with the kids, showing them how they can use their bodies to play, she dances as the children copy (2016, Jul 27). Thirdly, Beth Martin also shows the children how they can couple their language with finger play. During this, she taught them the labels for various parts of the body, from the toes up to the head. Fourthly, Beth would open a large book and ask the children to name what they were seeing, “What do you use to see?” Beth asks the Children (Martin, 2016, Jul 27). Lastly, “Beth:….. stand for orange and black,” she also asked them to stand for either black or orange color. Throughout the video, the children provided precise answers upon translation into their native languages by the bilingual teacher.

Oral Language refers to the foundation for future writing and reading. During this time, the teacher teaches the correlation between vocabulary and comprehension reading. A good instance is a teacher requesting the student to make eye contact with her.

Print Knowledge refers to the use of print to enable the child to understand nature, for instance, environmental print with all features labeled.

Phonological awareness refers to the act of hearing, identifying, and manipulating sounds in a language. For instance, Willoughby, Wallabee, wee. The elephant sat on me. Through this, children are able to hear and identify sounds that are similar.

Alphabet knowledge enables the child to understand the names, sounds, purpose, the symbol of the letters and how they can be used. For instance, showing the picture of a tooth on the big screen Tv and guiding the children in spelling it out.

Emergent Writing refers to the first attempt at a young child’s writing process. For instance, the use of sign-ins, and the children’s signs so that it can be known that they were present.

Vocabulary Development refers to the process where a child learns more words. For instance, when a child is babbling in order to achieve a meaningful speech.

Background knowledge refers to the amount of knowledge a child possesses on a subject as a result of their own life upbringing and experiences. A good instance is the use of vocabulary, which triggers a memory of a past experience.


Amochi013 (2014). Language development stages.

Martin, B, (2016). Strategies for supporting dual language learners in an early childhood classroom. CECE, Center for Early Childhood Education.

The “Lifeboat Ethics” Article By Garret Hardin

In the article “Lifeboat Ethics,” published in 1974, the American ecologist Garrett Hardin offers an unexpected but quite exciting metaphor of a lifeboat with limited capacity surrounded by hundreds of swimmers. This metaphor demonstrates an ethical dilemma of saving these swimmers: if they are ignored, they will die, and if they are taken aboard, the lifeboat can swamp. Hardin’s article involves several exciting ideas, including resource distribution between rich and lagging countries, the issue of overpopulation in poor states, and the problem of starvation.

Hardin’s primary idea is that significant help to emerging countries will make all states poor. Comparing the country with a boat, the author considers that too many people aboard cause a boat wreck (Hardin, 1974). Therefore, in Hardin’s opinion, “survival of the people in the lifeboat is possible” only if they “admit no more to the boat” (Hardin, 1974, pp. 38-39). Although this idea is cruel and harsh, it is difficult to disagree with his arguments that demonstrate: states’ capacity is not infinite; therefore, resources need to be utilized with caution.

Hardin also pays attention to the problem of overpopulation and the challenges it creates for the world, including the issue of starvation. Considering that the population in developing countries doubles every 21 years, “each American would have more than eight people to share with” (Hardin, 1974, p. 40). Overpopulation can cause starvation of many people because lagging countries have no resources to provide increasing populations with them. Hardin demonstrates that if the tendency to overpopulation does not change, it can cause the situation when resources come to an end.

Hardin’s article contains ideas that can seem non-accepted and too harsh; however, they have a kernel of good sense and need to be thoroughly explored. The ecologist focuses on the modern world’s significant problems: overpopulation, potential starvation, and inappropriate resources allocation. Therefore, although this article involves ideas that it is challenging to agree on, it makes people think about the future and is worthy of being read.


Hardin, G. (1974). Lifeboat ethics: The case against helping the poor. Psychology Today, 8, 38–43.

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