Mammary Cancer: Health Screening Initiative Writing Sample

Introduction

It should be stressed that breast cancer is one of the dangerous conditions, which might lead to lethal consequences. This type of cancer is a malignant tumor of the glandular tissue of the breast (Oeffinger et al., 2015). Throughout the world, women suffer from this form of cancer most frequently. It annually affects a large number of females aged 13 to 90 years. Over the past 30 years, the number of cases of this disease has increased dramatically. The purpose of this paper is to create a breast cancer screening initiative and discuss its implications.

Reasoning

Breast cancer has been chosen as the topic for screening initiative because it is the dominant form of cancer experienced by women. Importantly, many females die because of it (Oeffinger et al., 2015). The ultimate goal of the current screening initiative is to promote the early detection of this dangerous condition. Importantly, this objective includes the orientation at the detection of the disease at the stage when it can be treated before the unalterable harm to the woman’s body.

Population

Notably, different screening types will be applied to different population groups. Women starting from the age of 20 should carry out an independent examination of the breast. A clinical examination of the breast should be performed for 20 and 30-year-old women every three years. Starting from the age of 40, females should be screened every year. Women aged 50 to 74 are recommended to have screening every two years. Overall, females belonging to the high-risk group should be screened yearly; however, it is recommended that women at moderate risk discuss the advantages and disadvantages of annual screening with their therapist (Oeffinger et al., 2015). Thus, women aged 20-74 represent the group to which the screening will be advised; however, certain limitations and conditions are applied.

Outcomes

The screening will affect several outcomes. First, it will enable the active detection of early forms of breast cancer in the age group 40-60 years (the most vulnerable category). Second, an increase in the life expectancy of patients with malignant neoplasms of the breast is predicted. Third, the screening will improve the quality of life of patients and reduce the level of disability (Oeffinger et al., 2015). Fourth, this method will reduce the costs of treatment, enhance rehabilitation, and improve the social life of women. Fifth, it will allow achieving the main goal, which is to reduce mortality from breast cancer in the population groups discussed in the previous section.

Setting and Expenses

The setting for breast cancer screening is the low-resource environment. Importantly, the statistics have revealed that less developed regions have higher levels of mortality from breast cancer among women due to poor availability of screening resources. Therefore, the initiative is aimed at sustainable cancer prevention in regions where screening has been unavailable previously. Importantly, the initial screening will be free of charge as envisioned by the Affordable Care Act (Office of the Legislative Council, 2010).

Conclusion

It is worth noting that the goals of screening for breast cancer can be achieved only with its proper organization and active participation of the population groups. It will assist greatly in the timely detection of the tumor and allow conducting the appropriate treatment when the severe consequences can still be eliminated. The quality screening will lead to a significant reduction in mortality. However, not all women have equal access to screening services. Consequently, this initiative will allow covering those population groups that have so far remained unreached.

References

Oeffinger, K., Fontham, E., Etzioni, R., Herzig, A., Michaelson, J., Shih, Y.,…Wender, R. (2015). Breast cancer screening for women at average risk. JAMA, 314(15), 1599-1614.

Office of the Legislative Counsel. (2010). Compilation of patient protection and Affordable Care Act

Conjunctivitis: Identification And Medical Treatment

Problem Identification

The clinical problem is redness, burning, and itching in both eyes of an 11-year-old male. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral bacterial conjunctivitis that needs to be cured. Clinical goals are as follows: to cure conjunctivitis and relieve the patient from its symptoms, eliminate the possibility of complications, and prevent the spread of infection to peers and parents. Warm compress could be applied to eyelids and discharge could be removed with a soft warm cloth soaked in warm water (AAO, 2013). Abstain from touching the eye and surrounding area with fingers or non-sterile objects. Instead, the usage of clean cloth patches and napkins should be encouraged (AAO, 2013). As for lifestyle modification, it is essential to avoid contact lenses and follow proper hygiene, especially while touching the eyes and the face. To prevent disease transmission, every family member should use separate towels and other personal items.

Medical Treatment

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) guide for conjunctivitis diagnosis and treatment was used. It was devised by MD members of AAO who are also board members of the Preferred Practice Patterns Committee. The guide was developed using evidence-based research from 143 academic sources. The recommendations are evidenced by clinical trials, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials (AAO, 2013). Evidence quality is rated as either “good quality” or “moderate quality.” Recommendations are either strong or discretionary. The guidelines apply to patients of all ages (AAO, 2013). A range of antibiotics may be used in this particular case. According to Epling (2012), polymyxin B gramicidin eye drops efficiently eliminate the symptoms.

AAO suggests applying erythromycin 0.5% eye ointment q.i.d for 7-10 days. The use of ointments is preferable for infants and younger children (AAO, 2013). However, an 11-year-old boy may safely use drops. According to AAO, an appropriate dosage of Erythromycin 0.5% ointment is a portion of ointment 1 cm in length (AAO, 2013; CRNBC, 2016). If drops are used, 2-3 drops q.i.d. should be sufficient (CRNBC, 2016). The choice of medication is justified by the strong recommendation of AAO. Compared to other antibiotics, it is more beneficial considering the relatively low cost and high efficiency. More to the point, erythromycin is well tolerated and has a few side effects. The cost of this drug starts from $18.92. It is available at Walmart with a free discount.

Scheduling a follow-up visit in two days will help to assess the progression or regression of infection. Other treatments may be affected if the initial one did not affect. 1-2 week follow-up is to be ensured to eliminate reappearance and transmission of the disease. Post-treatment analysis such as in-office rapid antigen testing should be used to determine the viral causes of conjunctivitis. The reduced expression of itching, burning, and redness will also serve as indicators of the prescribed medication effectiveness. Provided the patient and his caregiver followed the instructions on treatment and lifestyle changes, there should be no side-effects. However, if a patient is allergic to a certain component of the drug, the treatment should be stopped, and new intervention should be planned. Drug-food relationships are non-existent as the drug (ointment) is applied on the surface of the eye and not administered orally. Drug-drug interactions are also not an issue as the patient does not receive any other medications. Also, his present condition does not require additional medication other than what was already prescribed.

Several instructions are to be given to the patient:

  • The dosage and frequency of administration are to be explained to the caregiver;
  • Advise the patient and the caregiver not to contaminate the tube;
  • Caregivers should be instructed that under no circumstances other people’s ointments or drops should be used;
  • Usage of contact lenses must be paused until the symptoms are completely eradicated;
  • Face towels should not be shared by members of the family until the disease is cured.

References

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). (2013). Conjunctivitis PPP – 2013. Web.

College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia (CRNBC). (2016). Decision support tool: Conjunctivitis. Web.

Epling, J. (2012). Bacterial conjunctivitis. Web.

Children Cognitive Development

Introduction

Jean Piaget is one of the first psychologists who contributed to the study of children cognitive development (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010). In his theory, Piaget observed some characteristics exhibited by children as they developed their cognitive abilities. According to him, children and adults think differently; however, children are usually born with genetically inherited ability to learn and acquire knowledge (Kesselring, & Müller, 2011).

As a child psychologist, Piaget did a lot of study and made observations on the intellectual abilities of infants, children, and adolescents. From his studies, he concluded that children usually undergo four stages of cognitive development, and in each stage, children usually gain a specific ability that prepares them for the next succeeding stage. These four stages of development are the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage (Ramos-Christian, Schleser, & Varn, 2008).

Concrete operations stage tends to be the most critical in children development, as it involves the transformation of the mind of a child in order to accommodate reasoning and logic capabilities. Here, children tend to learn from the environment; however, problem occurs due to their inability to comprehend abstract premises, thus failing to solve specific problems using general information. This paper will discuss the concrete operations stage of cognitive development by identifying the various crises that occur during this stage as well as how such crises can be related to our own development. Lastly, the paper will describe how these crises can change our development and affect our cognitive ability.

Concrete Operational Stage

Concrete operations stage is the third Piaget’s stage of cognitive development, which involves children between the ages of seven to eleven years (Tomlinson-Keasey, 979). Here, children’ thinking competencies and capabilities become rational and mature, thus allowing them to develop some reasoning capacity. In fact, children are able to think logically and rationally about different concrete events. However, they have some difficulties in understanding abstract and hypothetical premises. Therefore, the most prominent characteristic of children at this stage is their ability to use and understand inductive logic (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013). Evidently, children tend to have the ability to understand general experience from the use of specific experience.

On the other hand, children at this stage also lack the ability to understand specific experience from general experience mainly because they have problems in using deductive logic (Flannery, & Bers, 2013). As a result, they usually lack cognitive ability to know how to undo actions already completed. Despite this, they can only focus on multiple parts of problems that involve concrete facts and events (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013).

Therefore, children at the concrete operations stage are aware of others’ perspectives and viewpoints about world facts and concepts, and are able to understand that those viewpoints are different from their own. Besides, children have the ability to develop logical and rational thinking about objects, which they can easily manipulate. As a result, egocentric values of children disappear at this stage. This is mainly influenced by their ability to form ideas about different objects and learn that those objects are not always the way they appear (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010). This also enables them to focus on a number of aspects of an object by merely looking at it. In addition, children start having imagination about a variety of scenarios or occurrence of events using operational thinking ability (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013).

It is worth noting that at this stage, children begin to conserve ideas about concrete objects, especially those they are very comfortable with in their environments. After this, children are now able to use their conservation ability to learn about reversibility of events and situations. Here, they begin to recognize that things and ideas will be just the same even if they undergo some changes; thus, they are able to accept other people’s viewpoints and perspectives about the world (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010). For example, they are able to understand that, if a pile of books is spread, it will still contain the same number of books even though they may look different from before. Therefore, this stage involves children’s mental maturation through environmental experiences.

Another important aspect is that, children gain capability of using their existing knowledge in order to understand concrete objects and ideas. Besides, they learn to solve problems logically, especially those problems that involve concrete facts and events (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013). Furthermore, children can make generalization at this stage due to their ability to use inductive reasoning. However, they cannot apply deductive reasoning well; thus, they have problems in using general knowledge in specific problem solving scenarios. For example, children can understand that 1 plus 2 is three, two plus two is four, but will fail to understand that three multiplied by one is three (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013).

This is more of a learning stage that allows children to gain new knowledge and add to what they had before. Firstly, they learn to differentiate between their own thoughts and those of others, thus accepting other people’s opinions (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010). Secondly, children can be able to classify objects and concepts; for example, they begin to classify objects according to their weight, mass and numbers in order to differentiate them. Thirdly, in educational set-up, children are able to solve mathematical problems involving subtraction and addition, and they can think logically about these problems (Nakagaki, 2011).

Crisis in Concrete Operational Stage

The main crisis in concrete operations stage is that, children are only able to understand concrete situations and events but fail to use abstract manipulations. Again, most operations in this stage are associated with children’s personal experiences. Besides, they cannot use deductive reasoning process, making them unable to use generalized principles in order to solve specific problems. In addition, most children lack the ability to figure out logic in their minds. As a result, they cannot fully apply common sense in order to solve problems (Nakagaki, 2011). Another crisis in this stage is the inability of children to use mental reversibility competence to arrive at solutions of problems they encounter. Therefore, children are unable to solve problems that do not apply to actual and concrete objects and events (Bibace, 2013).

On the other hand, this stage has a lot of importance to children. For example, it allows them to gain classification skills and the ability to understand that redistribution of an object does not change it in terms of mass, volume and number (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010). Again, the stage gives children the ability to take into account a variety of problem solving skills (Nakagaki, 2011). In addition, it also helps children to understand several reverse concepts. Finally, children develop the ability to sort objects according to their serial order, size, shape, and color. Besides, children at this stage can clearly use logic and avoid the use of egocentrism (Pinkney, & Shaughnessy, 2013).

Nevertheless, the concrete operations stage is related to human development and it shapes our development in a number of ways. For example, the delays people portray in giving answers are due to the use of logic reasoning and thinking (Nakagaki, 2011). Again, reversibility skills that develop in this stage allow us to use different problem-solving aspects and reflections in order to generate conclusions. In addition, the classification skills developed in this stage allow us to sort objects, ideas, and events in adult life. Moreover, what we learn becomes important in later part of life in making judgment about other people’s decisions and viewpoints. Finally, people gain capability to overcome various preoperational stage egocentrism (Shayer, & Adhami, 2010).

There are also other general characteristics and behaviors that children exhibit as they develop their cognitive abilities. For instance, most children tend be gender sensitive, and in most cases, girls like playing with gender stereotyped objects such as female dolls. Social interactions skills also develop, which are very important given that children are in early school-going age where interaction with other children is inevitable.

Besides, children begin to have more organized and logical thinking, which allows them to have the ability to imagine various consequences of an event; however, they get lost when the situation becomes complex. For example, children are very good in arithmetic involving addition and subtraction; however, this arithmetic must be real and concrete, since children at this stage cannot apply abstract hypothesis of facts. In most cases, children’s knowledge usually depends on their environmental experiences because their mental abilities depend largely on objects that can be touched or seen. Therefore, Piaget argued that children begin to master abilities such as, conservation, reversibility, classification, and logical reasoning.

Conclusion

From this paper, it is clear that Jean Piaget is one of the first prominent founders of children cognitive theory, which states that children usually undergo a series of stages in their mental development. His third cognitive development stage known as the concrete operations stage is very influential in mental development of children. Various developmental characteristics are observed in this stage, among them being the growth of logical and rational thinking capability in order to solve problems. In addition, children tend to develop inductive reasoning capability, which helps them to generalize facts.

However, a crisis sets in when children tend to fail to use general information to solve specific problems. Nevertheless, children at this stage are not egocentric and are able to consider perspectives of others. Moreover, they learn to use their reversibility skills to view objects in different perspectives without confusion. Finally, children gain classification skills that allow them to sort objects according to their different characteristics.

References

Bibace, R. (2013). Challenges in Piaget’s Legacy. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 47(1), 167-175. Web.

Flannery, L. P., & Bers, M. (2013). Let’s Dance the “Robot Hokey-Pokey!”: Children’s Programming Approaches and Achievement throughout Early Cognitive Development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(1), 81-101. Web.

Kesselring, T., & Müller, U. (2011). The concept of egocentrism in the context of Piaget’s theory. New Ideas in Psychology, 29(3), 327-345. Web.

Nakagaki, A. (2011). The Significance and Potential of Piaget’s Developmental Stage Theory. Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22(4), 369-380. Web.

Pinkney, J., & Shaughnessy, M. F. (2013). Teaching Critical Thinking Skills: A Modern Mandate. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(3), 346-352. Web.

Ramos-Christian, V., Schleser, R., & Varn, M. (2008). Math Fluency: Accuracy Versus Speed in Preoperational and Concrete Operational First and Second Grade Children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(6), 543-549. Web.

Shayer, M., & Adhami, M. (2010). Realizing the cognitive potential of children 5-7 with a mathematics focus: Post-test and long-term effects of a 2-year intervention. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 363-379. Web.

Tomlinson-Keasey, C. (1979). The Structure of Concrete Operational Thought. Child Development, 50(4), 1153. Web.

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