Managing Employee Relations Sample Assignment


Employment relations policies affect employees’ work atmosphere and performance, making them crucial to any company’s success. Beginning with employment relations theories, this essay analyses an organisation’s H.R. procedures. High-performance work systems, strategic human resource management, and critical management studies are current approaches, while unitarism, pluralism, and radicalism are classic.

We will examine how local, national, and global circumstances affect employment relations climates. Economic, political, technological, legal, and social elements impact the employment relations environment. In the next section, employers and management will discuss employment rules and procedures, employee relations methods, and conflict resolution. Employees and trade unions will be covered, including collective bargaining, voice and participation, and empowerment. We shall then examine how organisational-level employment relations processes affect performance. This section discusses employee engagement, diversity management, communication, involvement, participation, negotiation and bargaining, dispute resolution, change management, and management control.

Amazon’s employee relations case study will identify strengths and flaws and suggest improvements. This section covers the company, industry, competition, staff size, and structure. Amazon’s employee engagement, diversity management, communication, involvement, participation, negotiation and bargaining, conflict resolution, change management, and management control methods will also be examined. This essay will analyse employment relations practices from various theoretical viewpoints, local, national, and global contexts, the responsibilities and functions of various parties, and the impact of organisational-level employment relations procedures on organisational performance.

Theoretical Perspectives on Employment Relations

Traditional perspectives

Employment relations research begins with traditional perspectives. Unitarism, pluralism, and radicalism are conventional viewpoints. Unitarism views management-employee relationships as partnerships with the objective of company development (Budd, 2020). Management must keep the company harmonious since conflict disrupts this cooperation. Pluralism views employment as a dynamic interaction between different groups of people with varied interests and beliefs. Management must manage and resolve disputes to preserve balance and justice for all parties because conflict is unavoidable. Fourth, radicalism perceives the employment relationship as exploitative and pits management against employees (Nowak, 2021). Employees must unite and mobilise to confront and change power systems because conflict is part of the employment relationship.

Contemporary perspectives

Modern employment relations reflect global economic and work trends. Modern viewpoints include high-performance work systems, strategic human resource management, and critical management studies. High-performance work processes foster an environment that inspires and empowers people. This requires superior technology, training and development, and constant progress. Strategic human resource management considers the employment relationship a strategic asset and aligns H.R. policies and practices with the business strategy (Ryan and Deci, 2020). This requires more strategic planning and a holistic human resources management approach. Finally, critical management studies see the workplace as a location of conflict and resistance. This perspective challenges managerial rhetoric and empowers workers to establish a more democratic and equitable workplace (Nelson and Tienda, 2022).

Comparison of theoretical perspectives

Theoretical approaches to employment relations offer diverse strategies to understand and manage the relationship. Unitarism, pluralism, and radicalism consider the employer-employee relationship either a collaboration or a source of conflict. Modern viewpoints, including high-performance work systems, strategic human resource management, and critical management studies, aim to improve workplace productivity, efficiency, and equity (Gupta et al., 2021). These seemingly contradictory viewpoints can be leveraged to improve employment relations. Unitarist employment relations encourage harmony, whereas critical management studies empower employees and promote social justice. Organisations can improve their employment relations strategies by knowing each theoretical perspective’s strengths and weaknesses.

Impact of Local, National, and Global Contexts on Employment Relations

Economic and Political factors

Economic and political issues can dramatically affect an organisation’s employment relations. The economy, labour market, and industry competitiveness can affect labour demand, pay, and benefits. Government policies, rules, and laws can also affect workplace relations. Labour laws and tax policies can affect labour costs and workforce investment. Economic and political variables can also cause company uncertainty and volatility, damaging management-employee trust (Eriksen et al., 2021). Organisations can improve employee relations by recognising and adjusting to these economic and political aspects.

Technological advances and changes in work

Technology and job changes are continually changing employment interactions. Automation, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things can boost production and innovation, but they can also displace workers and transform their skills. This can strain management-employee relations, especially if workers feel threatened or expected to accomplish more with less. The gig economy, remote work, and flexible work can complicate job relations. These changes can increase autonomy and flexibility but affect job security, benefits, and worker classification (Vrontis et al., 2022). By understanding and reacting to these technological breakthroughs and changes in work, firms can create more effective employment relations policies that support a happy and productive work environment and address employee demands and concerns.

Legal and Regulatory frameworks

Laws and regulations shape employment relations. Employment laws involve salaries, hours, discrimination, health and safety, collective bargaining, and more. Organisations must follow these laws and regulations legally and morally. Legal action, reputational loss, and employee unhappiness might result from violating these laws. Employment laws and regulations also affect collective bargaining agreements, wage and benefits programs, and workplace norms and practices (Lacey-Barnacle et al., 2022). By understanding and complying with these legal and regulatory frameworks, firms can build a more stable and predictable employment relations climate and promote a healthy and productive work environment responsive to employee requirements.

Cultural and Social factors

Cultural and social variables affect diversity, equity, and inclusion in employment interactions. An organisation’s culture and beliefs can affect how it treats its employees and represents treats, and promotes different groups. Discrimination, harassment, and inclusion are also affected by gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, and disability. Recognising and valuing diversity, supporting fairness and inclusion, and fostering respect and empathy help strengthen employment interactions (Kwiek, 2021). Diverse and inclusive workplaces attract and retain top talent, promote innovation and creativity, and make an organisation more competitive.

Roles and Functions of Parties in Employment Relations

Employers and Management

Employment Policies and Practices

Good employment connections depend on policy and practice. Employers and management set these policies. Recruitment, selection, onboarding, training and development, performance management, salary and benefits, and termination are covered by employment policies. These policies and practices can affect employee motivation, engagement, and company loyalty. , honest, and effective employment policies and processes can help employers and management develop a trusting, respectful, and productive workplace (Duggan et el., 2020). Good employment rules and processes can attract and retain top talent, enhance performance and productivity, and make a business more competitive.

Employee Relations Strategies

Employee relations tactics are essential for managing the workplace and fostering productivity. Management and employers design and implement these initiatives. Employee relations strategies include communication, voice and involvement, dispute resolution, and engagement. These tactics can affect employee motivation, engagement, and commitment to the firm. Employers and management may establish a trusting, respectful, and productive workplace by using successful employee relations tactics. Effective employee relations tactics may recruit and retain top personnel, boost performance and productivity, and make a business more dynamic and competitive (Triantafillidou and Koutroukis, 2022). Employee relations tactics include employee feedback, participation, and dispute resolution.

Conflict Resolution

Employers and management can have a big impact on workplace conflict resolution. Controversy can lower morale, productivity, and management-employee trust if handled improperly. Conflict resolution requires recognising the root causes, communicating freely and honestly with all sides, and working together to find a solution. Establishing clear conflict management rules and procedures, training employees on conflict resolution skills, and supporting employees in disagreements can help employers and management encourage effective conflict resolution (Duggan et al., 2020). Good dispute resolution can improve the work environment and management-employee relations.

Employees and Trade Unions

Collective Bargaining

Employees and trade unions can influence employment relations through collective bargaining. Collective bargaining involves trade unions and employers negotiating salaries, working conditions, and benefits. Employees can work together to achieve their goals through collective bargaining. Collective bargaining can improve worker morale and productivity. Employers and management may improve collective bargaining by negotiating in good faith, cooperating with trade unions to set goals, and creating open and honest communication channels (Czarzasty, 2019). Successful collective bargaining can improve work culture and management-employee relations.

Employee Voice and Participation

Trade unions and employees can influence employment relations through employee voice and engagement. Employee voice and participation involve giving workers a say in decisions and feedback. Examples include employee surveys, focus groups, town hall meetings, and suggestion boxes. Employee voice and participation can help solve challenges and create a good and productive workplace. Companies and management can encourage employee voice and participation by encouraging open and honest communication, giving feedback opportunities, and actively soliciting employee input in decision-making (Jha and Singh, 2019.). Effective employee voice and engagement can improve the work environment and management-employee interactions.

Employee Involvement and Empowerment

Trade unions and employees can influence employment relations by empowering and involving workers. Employee empowerment and involvement give workers more say in decisions and influence over their work. Cross-functional teams, self-managed teams, and job enrichment are examples. Employee empowerment and involvement can boost job happiness, motivation, and productivity and improve the workplace. Companies and management can empower employees by including them in decision-making, fostering autonomy and creativity, and giving training and development chances to learn new skills and take on new tasks (Triantafillidou and Koutroukis, 2022). Employee empowerment and involvement can improve work conditions and management-employee relations.

Organisational-Level Employment Relations Processes and Organisational Performance

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement is how much workers care about their jobs and the company. Engaged workers are more motivated, productive, fulfilled, and devoted to the company’s goals. Employee involvement affects company performance, productivity, and profitability. Employers and management can boost employee engagement by offering feedback, recognition, growth and development, a pleasant work culture, work-life balance, and decision-making involvement. Companies should also engage in staff well-being and training, set performance standards, and encourage collaboration and idea sharing (Nienaber and Martins, 2020). Employers and managers can improve morale, productivity, and management-employee relations by increasing employee engagement.

Diversity Management

Diversity management is how companies value and utilise employee differences. Diversity management helps firms establish a more inclusive and productive workplace, boost employee morale and motivation, and increase performance and competitiveness.

To manage diversity, employers and management can use diversity and inclusion policies, employee resource groups, diversity training and education, mentorship, and sponsorship programs. Employers can also assure inclusive recruitment and promotion, set clear diversity and inclusion expectations for leaders and managers, and routinely analyse and monitor their diversity efforts (Samdanis and Özbilgin, 2020). By managing diversity well, employers and management can improve morale, productivity, and employee relations.

Employee Communication, Involvement, and Participation

Communication is essential in the workplace. Give regular opportunities for open and honest communication with employees, communication channels that allow employees to voice their concerns, and clear and timely information regarding organisational changes and advancements. Good communication may foster trust, teamwork, and a happier, more productive workplace.

Management should promote employee autonomy, innovation, and decision-making by creating cross-functional teams and committees (Ewing et al., 2019). Training and development can help people find new positions, recognise their efforts, and promote work-life balance. Employee participation boosts workplace happiness and productivity.

Negotiation and Bargaining

Negotiation and bargaining are crucial to employee-management interactions. Negotiation and bargaining can enhance working conditions, remuneration, workplace relationships, and productivity. Employers and management may ensure successful negotiation and bargaining by researching and analysing the issues, formulating clear goals and objectives for the negotiation process, and fostering a collaborative and respectful climate that encourages open and honest communication. Employers can also be flexible, positive, and cooperative (Abdillah and Widodo, 2022).

Negotiation and bargaining foster employee-management trust and cooperation. Negotiation and bargaining can help address workplace challenges and give employees a role in decision-making. This can improve employee-management communication, work happiness, and productivity. Clear communication, realistic expectations, concessions, and third-party mediation or arbitration are other ways to negotiate and bargain successfully. Training and development programs can also help employees negotiate and bargain effectively and foster a workplace culture of respect and teamwork.

Conflict Resolution

Employment conflicts are inevitable owing to personality, viewpoint, interest disparities, misunderstandings, and competing priorities. Employee disputes can include interpersonal, management-employee, and departmental or team conflicts. Employers and management can handle workplace conflicts by implementing a conflict resolution policy or procedure, training and educating employees and managers and fostering a culture of respect and open communication. Companies might also encourage third-party mediation or arbitration and provide explicit workplace conflict management procedures (John-Eke and Akintokunbo, 2020). Other conflict resolution tactics include actively listening to all parties, recognising the root reasons for the problem, and finding mutually beneficial solutions.

Change Management and Management Control

Organisations must manage change to stay competitive and adapt to new challenges and opportunities. Change management reduces disruptions and ensures long-term sustainability by planning, implementing, and monitoring changes. Effective change management boosts corporate performance, employee engagement, and growth. Effective change management reduces risks and improves workplace morale. Employers and management can use various tactics to manage change, including analysing the change and its potential effects, identifying important stakeholders and integrating them into the change process, and setting a clear vision and goals (Heath and Porter, 2019). Companies can also give training and development to help employees learn new skills, construct a clear communication plan to keep employees informed and involved and provide a feedback process to allow employees to voice their concerns.

Case Study: Analysis of Amazon’s Employment Relations Practices

Overview of Amazon

Amazon is the poster child for e-commerce because it serves as a marketplace, makes e-readers, and offers web services. Its administrative center can be found in Seattle. is a massive online business that acts as a go-between for manufacturers and the company’s millions of customers to purchase products such as books, music, movies, home goods, gadgets, and toys (Fortune, 2022). It offers “cloud computing,” or Internet-based data storage and processing services, as part of its Web services portfolio. Because of its massive online presence, one percent of all North American Internet traffic in 2012 went through’s data centers Amazon also produces the best-selling Kindle e-readers in the world. has become a highly disruptive force in the book publishing industry as a result of its aggressive marketing of e-readers.

Amazon’s personnel size and organisation are significant. The corporation will employ about company employed 1,608,000 full- and part-time employees, worldwide in 2022 (Coppola, 2023). Amazon prioritises customer satisfaction and innovation despite its size. Amazon Web Services, Prime, and Whole Foods Market are among its many business units and subsidiaries. The company’s fulfilment centres’ labour conditions and compensation have been criticised.

Employment Relations Practices at Amazon

Employee Engagement

Amazon’s employee engagement tactics boost motivation, productivity, and retention. The Career Choice program offers employees training and education to better their professions. Through the Career Choice program, Amazon pays up to 95% of tuition and fees for courses in high-demand industries, including healthcare, I.T., and transportation (Amazon, 2021). Amazon also has leadership development, recognition, and employee feedback programs like the “voice of the associate” program. The corporation provides healthcare, retirement, and parental leave (, 2021). Amazon’s scale and complexity make assessing its employee engagement efforts challenging. Some research implies that Amazon’s employee engagement strategy boosts motivation and productivity. Amazon’s “customer obsession” culture, which stresses addressing customer wants, motivates and satisfies employees, according to a 2019 International Journal of Human Resource Management research (Amazon, 2021). Amazon’s fulfilment centre workers’ working conditions and wages have been criticised. Critics say the company’s employee engagement strategy isn’t enough to meet workers’ concerns.

Diversity Management

Through diversity management strategies, Amazon promotes diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). The company’s DEI strategy prioritises women and people of colour at all levels. Amazon’s Black Employee Network helps Black employees enhance their careers. Mentorship, professional coaching, and networking are among the network’s perks (Amazon, 2021). Amazon’s Women in Engineering initiative promotes women in technical roles. Employee diversity and inclusion training programs raise awareness of bias and discrimination and provide DEI tools (Sustainability (U.S.), n.d.). Amazon’s scale and complexity make assessing its diversity management efforts challenging.

Some opponents say Amazon’s diversity management isn’t enough to address pay equity and underrepresented groups in technical and leadership roles. Amazon’s diversity management initiatives promote diversity, equity, and inclusion. The organisation has made headway in strengthening underrepresented groups in leadership roles, but these tactics are hard to measure. However, the corporation must handle DEI issues.

Employee Communication, Involvement, and Participation

Amazon’s communication, involvement, and participation practices encourage staff engagement and decision-making. The company’s leadership values, which emphasise ownership, innovation, and customer focus, guide decision-making and conduct at all levels. Amazon’s “voice of the associate” program lets employees give leadership feedback (Kim and Scott, 2019). Regular pulse surveys and town hall events allow employees to express questions and provide feedback.

Amazon’s scale and complexity make it challenging to assess its employee communication, involvement, and participation tactics. Some research implies that the company’s communication and involvement strategy boosts employee engagement and participation. Employees have complained about the company’s opaque performance evaluation and promotion processes.

Negotiation and Bargaining

Amazon’s negotiation style is controversial. The corporation has a history of opposing unionisation and utilising anti-union methods to deter workers from organising. Amazon still negotiates with labour unions. Amazon faced a high-profile unionisation push at an Alabama warehouse in 2021. Unionization failed when workers voted against it by a large margin. Amazon’s negotiation strategy is criticised as unproductive and harmful (Heubel, 2022). They argue that the company’s history of anti-union methods and hostility to worker requests for improved pay and working conditions shows the need for a more cooperative labour relations strategy. Amazon’s negotiation and bargaining methods have been widely criticised. The corporation has been accused of adopting anti-union measures to deter workers from organising. Opponents say the company’s labour difficulties demand a more collaborative approach to labour relations.

Conflict Resolution

Amazon offers several methods for resolving workplace disputes. The company’s human resources department handles employee claims and has several internal inquiry methods for workplace misconduct. Amazon also has workplace respect and professionalism policies. For instance, the corporation’s code of conduct sets behaviour standards and addresses problems and grievances. Amazon’s conflict resolution has drawn criticism despite these efforts. Opponents say the company’s internal investigation procedures are weak and that reporting workplace wrongdoing or grievances may result in retaliation (, n.d.). In 2020, a group of Amazon employees openly denounced the firm’s handling of workplace harassment and discrimination accusations, stating that the corporation had failed to address their issues and punished them for coming up Lyons, K. (2021. Amazon has created several dispute resolution systems to handle worker issues.

Change Management and Management Control

Amazon uses change management and management control to boost performance and efficiency. The company’s leadership team identifies and develops plans to implement areas that need change. One example is Amazon’s continuing fulfilment center process and technology change management strategy. New algorithms and software tools for inventory management and product tracking, as well as robotics and automation to streamline order fulfilment, have been developed. Amazon’s change management and management control procedures are hard to evaluate (PerformYard, 2021). Innovation and efficiency have helped the company grow and succeed. But, some employees and labour organisations say Amazon’s rapid growth has compromised worker safety and well-being.

Analysis of Amazon’s Employment Relations Practices

Amazon’s employment relations are mixed. On the one hand, the organisation has adopted several employee engagement and diversity management initiatives and created multiple channels for employee communication, involvement, and participation. Amazon’s Career Choice program covers up to 95% of tuition and other costs for employees training in high-demand sectors, including healthcare, I.T., and mechanical and electrical crafts. The “Black Employee Network” and “Women in Engineering” programs promote workplace diversity. These activities may boost employee motivation, dedication, and satisfaction, boosting productivity and performance. Amazon’s use of chatbots and AI-powered solutions to improve employee-management communication has streamlined processes and reduced communication obstacles. Amazon has been criticised for its employee relations, notably regarding worker safety and well-being. Opponents say the company’s rapid growth has compromised worker rights and protections (Newton, 2021). Local, national, and global settings heavily influence Amazon’s employee relations. Labour groups and government officials in the U.S. have criticised the corporation for worker safety, wage and hour breaches, and anti-union operations.

Amazon’s employee relations methods are closest to high-performance work systems (HPWS) theory. This view emphasises employee engagement and participation in organisational success and efficiency. Amazon’s HPWS approach emphasises innovation, efficiency, and productivity (Kaushik and Mukherjee, 2022). Critics say Amazon’s HPWS prioritises efficiency and production over employee well-being and work-life balance. Some believe the company’s emphasis on technology and automation has created a dehumanising and alienating work atmosphere that lowers employee motivation and commitment.

Recommendations for Improvement

Amazon’s employment relations need a multifaceted approach to handle employee issues and ensure the company’s success and expansion. Improve employee openness and communication. Town hall meetings and monthly feedback questionnaires could help employees voice their workplace and job satisfaction concerns. Positive employee relations require better negotiating and conflict resolution. Amazon may improve collective bargaining and grievance procedures and treat employees fairly during negotiations and confrontations.

Amazon should prioritise employee well-being and work-life balance. This could include remote work and staff wellness services like mental health support and stress management. Amazon should also promote diversity and inclusion in hiring, promotions, and employment opportunities. These enhancements have huge promise. By prioritising employee well-being and engagement, Amazon can boost productivity, retention, and loyalty. Transparency and communication can boost employee-management trust and collaboration, creating a more positive and productive workplace. By fostering diversity and inclusion, Amazon can also increase its talent pool and reputation as a socially responsible and progressive company.


This study examined old and contemporary work relations theories. It also examined how local, national, and global factors affect employment interactions and how different parties manage and control them. The essay examined Amazon’s employee engagement, diversity management, communication and involvement, negotiation and bargaining, conflict resolution, and change management tactics. Amazon’s employment relations methods were analysed for strengths and deficiencies and compared to theoretical viewpoints and best practices. The essay suggests strengthening Amazon’s employment relations by increasing transparency and communication with employees, improving employee well-being and work-life balance, and fostering diversity and inclusion. These recommendations have been assessed for benefits and dangers.

This research emphasises the need for a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing and controlling the working relationship. It offers practical suggestions for enhancing employment relations in a quickly changing and complex global economy. This essay’s drawbacks include its single case study, theoretical viewpoints, and best practices’ biases and limits. The generalizability and applicability of these findings to different companies and locations, as well as new employment relations trends and difficulties, require more research. By strategically managing and controlling the employment relationship, Amazon can increase performance, recruit top personnel, and boost its reputation as a socially responsible and progressive employer.


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McInce Collections International Marketing Plan Sample College Essay

Executive Summary

McInce Collections International is a luxury fashion brand that focuses on creating attire that is friendly to the environment. Through the implementation of a comprehensive marketing strategy that makes use of various digital communication channels, the company intends to strengthen its position in the markets of the UK and the EU. For McInce Collections International, the ideal customers are members of the millennial and Gen Z generations from all economic brackets, particularly those who emphasize fashion that is both high-quality and environmentally responsible. The company plans to market itself as an approachable environmental brand that specializes in the sale of things that are kind to the environment. McInce Collections International will leverage a variety of digital marketing platforms, including social media marketing, email marketing, and influencer marketing, to accomplish its goals and realize its potential. In addition, the company will define particular KPIs and optimize its website to increase the number of visitors and conversion rates to guarantee the success of the campaign.


Globalisation has transformed the world into a common market allowing companies to extend their operations to new heights. this expansion is necessary since these companies have to explore unsaturated markets, diversify their risks, and extend their brand awareness, however, with this expansion comes the challenging but necessary requirement for an international marketing plan to help make this global venture successful. The purpose of this marketing plan is to provide recommendations for the launch of a marketing campaign in the UK and the EU for McInce collections.

Situation Analysis

Situation analysis is a process of gathering and evaluating information about the internal and external factors that affect an organization or a specific situation. For this marketing plan, to understand the internal and external forces impacting the firm in the global landscape, it is imperative to conduct a PESTLE analysis of the UK and the EU.


Political factors that can affect the fashion industry include government policies, regulations, trade agreements, and taxes. For instance, Brexit has had a significant impact on the fashion industry in the UK, with the UK losing access to the EU single market and customs union. This has resulted in increased tariffs and trade barriers, which have made it difficult for UK-based fashion companies to do business in the EU (Brock et al., 2022). In the aftermath of Brexit, companies based in the UK that conduct trade with EU member countries experienced notable transportation setbacks and amplified operational expenses (Fusacchia et al., 2022, p. 29). As an illustration, a £500 garment purchased from a European online store might incur a customs fee of 12 per cent, or £60. Subsequently, the sum of £560 is subjected to a 20 per cent value-added tax, resulting in a VAT charge of £112. The final cost of the dress for UK customers would be £669 (BBC, 2021).


Economic factors that affect the fashion industry include economic growth, inflation, exchange rates, and consumer spending. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the fashion industry, with many companies experiencing a decline in sales due to reduced consumer spending. For example, Brock et al. (2022, p.9238) report that the UK reported inflation its highest inflation level at 11% in 2022, which poses a challenge for the company business due to lower consumer spending. this way, Economic uncertainty in the EU and the UK, especially in the wake of Brexit, could affect consumer spending on fashion items. This could impact the sales and growth prospects of the Mcince Collection. However, the UK economy is showing signs of stabilising since the inflation rate dropped to 10.5% in early February, and this presents an opportunity for a rejuvenated economy.


Socio-cultural factors that affect the fashion industry include demographics, lifestyle trends, and cultural norms. For instance, sustainability has become an important issue in the fashion industry, with consumers increasingly demanding environmentally friendly and ethically produced clothing. This shift in trend presents an opportunity for the farm to develop men’s fashion that appeals to these consumers and aligns with this trend. This is also beneficial for the firm since this trend corresponds with its overall mission and vision and it is poised to have a large demand for its products. Lai et al. (2017, p,82) report that Gen Z consumers are 40% more likely to buy fashion from sustainable brands.


Technological factors that affect the fashion industry include innovation, automation, and digitalization. For instance, the use of 3D printing technology has revolutionized the way fashion products are designed and produced. Additionally, there is increased embracement of Ecommerce in the UK and the EU as shown in the figure below.

Internet users who bought or ordered goods or services for private use in the previous 12 months, 2012 and 2022

Additionally, Eurostat reports that the majority of these sales were clothes, which accounted for more than 44% of all sales. This technological adoption presents a significant opportunity for McInce as it strongly favours its business model of ordering and delivering.


Legal factors that affect the fashion industry include regulations and laws related to labour, intellectual property, and product safety. For instance, the EU has strict regulations on the use of chemicals in textiles, which can affect the production process for fashion companies (Fusacchia et al., 2022, p.28). Legal restrictions present both opportunities and challenges for the company in these global markets as it has to comply with these regulations to avoid being fined or denied lines. Though, some new regulations favour the company by allowing easier trade. For example, The Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the EU and the UK was provisionally implemented on January 1st, 2021, and it enables duty-free and quota-free trade of EU and UK merchandise that adheres to the relevant rules of origin (House of Commons, 2022).


Environmental factors that affect the fashion industry include climate change, waste management, and resource depletion. For instance, fast fashion has been criticized for its negative environmental impact, with many fashion companies taking steps to reduce their carbon footprint and promote sustainable practices (Brock et al., 2022). In the EU, sustainability has become an increasingly important issue in the fashion industry, with many companies adopting sustainable practices to reduce their environmental impact (Henninger et al., 2016, p. 401). This factor presents an opportunity for McInce to stay ahead of the competition by it becoming an environmentally sustainable brand since it is already aligning with these requirements in its production.

In addition, to understand the company’s internal landscape, we can consider the following SWOT table.

SWOT Analysis

Task 2


For effective global marketing, plan the firm would need to have SMART, long-term and short-term objectives for this marketing plan. The long-term and short-term marketing objectives are aligned with the mission and vision of McInce Collections, which is to promote sustainable and ethical fashion practices. The objectives are also clear, relevant, and justified as they aim to increase brand awareness and recognition, online sales, and social media following, and expand into new international markets while also offering more environmentally friendly options to customers and promoting customer loyalty. Achieving these objectives will help the company achieve its mission and vision while also driving growth and revenue.

Long-term Marketing Objectives (3 years)

  1. Boost brand visibility and awareness by 50% through ethical and sustainable fashion practices. The organization will be able to accomplish its goals and develop a devoted consumer base by raising brand awareness and recognition.
  2. Through an enhanced e-commerce platform and focused digital marketing activities, increase online sales by 100%. By enhancing the online shopping experience and conducting focused digital marketing strategies, the business may reach a larger audience and boost sales.
  3. Grow into two new international markets with a focus on Europe and Asia by partnering with influencers and merchants of sustainable fashion.

Short-term Marketing Objectives (1 year)

  1. Increase social media following by 25% through engaging content and influencer partnerships to communicate the sustainability message on social channels. By increasing its social media following, the company can reach a wider audience and promote eco-friendly product alternatives.
  2. Launch a new sustainable fashion line featuring recycled materials within the next 12 months. By launching a new sustainable fashion line, the company can offer more environmentally friendly options to its customers and increase brand loyalty.
  3. Implement a loyalty program to increase repeat purchases and customer retention by 20%. By implementing a loyalty program, the company can reward its loyal customers and increase customer retention, ultimately leading to increased sales and revenue.

International Markets

Based on the PESTLE analysis conducted earlier, it can be concluded that the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) present potentially profitable international markets for McInce Collections. The EU and UK both have large populations with high purchasing power and a growing demand for sustainable fashion. Additionally, both regions have implemented policies to promote sustainability and reduce the environmental impact of the fashion industry. According to a report by Niinimäki (2015, p.12), the fashion industry is responsible for 10% of global carbon emissions, and consumers in the EU and UK are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental impact of their purchasing decisions. Furthermore, the fashion industry in the EU and the UK is highly competitive and fragmented, offering opportunities for McInce Collections to differentiate itself through its eco-friendly product alternatives. In terms of market size, the EU fashion market was valued at €393 billion in 2020, while the UK fashion market was valued at £55 billion in the same year (Elf et al., 2022, p. 2684).

STP analysis

For McInce Collections, the following STP approach can be taken for the UK and EU markets:


The target market for McInce Collections will be segmented based on demographic and psychographic characteristics. In terms of demographics, the target market will be men aged 18-40 years who are environmentally conscious and willing to pay a premium and affordable prices for sustainable fashion. Research indicates that this age group includes millennials and Generation Z fashion consumers, who have shown the highest awareness of the social and environmental impacts of businesses. Psychographic segmentation will be based on the attitudes, values, and lifestyles of consumers who prioritize sustainable living (Hur and Cassidy, 2019).


The target market for McInce Collections will be individuals who are environmentally conscious and value sustainable living. These individuals will be targeted through social media and online platforms. The target market will be reached through Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, which are popular social media platforms among the target demographic (Hur and Cassidy, 2019). In addition, online advertising will be used to target consumers who are searching for sustainable fashion.


McInce Collections will position itself as a sustainable fashion brand that offers eco-friendly and affordable fashion alternatives. The brand will be positioned as a solution to the problem of fast fashion and its negative impact on the environment. The positioning strategy will be realized through the use of a mix of marketing tactics.

Step 3: Action (marketing mix and digital comms strategy)

1. Marketing Mix

According to Nguyen-Viet (2023, p. 98), the marketing mix framework is best suited to design this marketing strategy. This section outlines the marketing mix strategy for the firm in the EU and UK markets.


McInce Collection offers eco-friendly men’s clothing and accessories made from sustainable materials, and the products are of high quality. To differentiate the firm’s products from its competitors, McInce Collection will offer customizable options for customers to create unique pieces that suit their style. The company will also work to continually innovate our product range to meet changing customer needs and preferences.


The pricing strategy is to offer affordable, yet competitive prices. Thus, they will be competitive with those similar eco-friendly brands in the market. In addition, the firm will offer occasional discounts and promotions to attract more customers. The advantages of this approach are that the apparel would be affordable to the target consumers, while still high quality (Nguyen-Viet, 2023). Though, some premium higher quality apparel will also be offered to the high-end customer. This approach is appropriate as the company addresses the needs of all segments (Nguyen-Viet, 2023)


McInce Collection will make its products available in physical stores and online. The firm will also collaborate with select retailers to expand its reach. The focus will be on establishing a strong online presence and leveraging social media platforms to reach a wider audience (Hur and Faragher-Siddall, 2022, p. 233). Online channels are selected since they are popular among the target customers as shown by the figure below. The firm will also partner with select brick-and-mortar retailers to expand our reach and offer customers the opportunity to touch and feel our products.

Social media use by age

PEW Research Center (2021)


To enhance the reputation of our brand, McInce will take part in sustainable fashion events and work with other brands who share our values. The business will also use influencer marketing and social media to reach our target demographic and generate talk about our products. The promotional plan will put a major emphasis on developing a distinctive brand identity and a base of devoted customers. To raise brand awareness and improve traffic to the physical stores and e-commerce platform, it will also make investments in targeted advertising campaigns (Poradova,2020).


The company’s staff will be knowledgeable about sustainable fashion and adept at providing great customer service. To guarantee that they deliver great customer service and uphold the business’s commitment to quality and sustainability, the team members will receive thorough training. The business will also try to foster a supportive workplace atmosphere that promotes employee retention, which is essential for sustaining a pleasant customer experience and forging a strong brand image (Poradova, 2020).


Sustainable and moral production methods will be given priority, and the company will be open about its supplier chain. Additionally, the procedures will emphasize making sure that customers have a seamless and delightful experience, both online and in-store. This strategy will considerably raise the brand’s attractiveness, bringing in more clients. As a result, we must spend money on user-friendly e-commerce platforms and make sure that our physical locations are attractive and simple to use.

Physical evidence

McInce Collection’s physical stores and online presence will be designed to reflect the firm’s commitment to sustainability to create a unique and memorable shopping experience for customers. Similarly, the firm will ensure that our products and packaging are visually appealing and align with the brand values of sustainability and quality. This approach is recommended by Katsikeas et al. (2020, p.407) who argue that appealing packaging and attractive store layouts attempt to make customers develop an emotional connection with the brand, and this results in higher brand loyalty.


The firm will collaborate with influencers, sustainable fashion organizations, and other brands to expand its reach and promote sustainable fashion. McInce Collections will also collaborate with suppliers and manufacturers to ensure that our products are ethically and sustainably sourced. these partnerships will help improve brand awareness and cohesiveness of partnerships.

2. Digital Communication Strategy

To develop a successful digital communication strategy for McInce Collections, the following aspects should be considered:

Brand Identity and Key Messages

By employing a consistent tone of voice, visual branding, and key statements that highlight the brand’s objective and vision, the digital communication strategy for McInce Collections should represent the identity of the company. To do this, the voice should be sincere, approachable, and informed, exuding an air of sincerity and moral rectitude along with the brand’s emphasis on sustainability and environmental friendliness (Rosário and Raimundo, 2021, p. 5). The visual branding should be clean, and contemporary, and make use of organic materials and colours to show the brand’s commitment to environmental responsibility. McInce Collections may emphasize its distinctive attributes and contemporary style by producing interesting material and telling stories that highlight the brand’s ideals, sustainability methods, and premium quality.

Global Considerations

McInce Collections must adapt its digital communication approach to the target audience’s cultural diversity and linguistic preferences when it comes to worldwide concerns. The selection of platforms and channels should also be appropriate for the preferred digital communication platforms used by the target audience. According to the graph below (Dixon, 2023), social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram, for instance, are well-liked by users in the UK and EU. McInce Collections can use these platforms to efficiently reach its target market.

Most popular social media platforms in the United Kingdom (UK) 2022? by usage reach

Source: (Dixon, 2023)

Content Marketing

Content marketing is an essential part of any digital communication strategy. McInce Collections can use its blog and social media channels to share useful and relevant content related to sustainable fashion and eco-friendly products. This content can help build the brand’s authority and attract potential customers who are interested in sustainable fashion (Fernandes et al., 2020, p.52).

Influencer Marketing

Influencer marketing can be an effective way for McInce Collections to reach a broader audience and build credibility. The brand can collaborate with influencers who align with its values and promote the brand’s eco-friendly products to its followers.

Email Marketing

Email marketing is an excellent way for McInce Collections to engage with its customers and build brand loyalty. The brand can use email marketing to share exclusive offers, new product releases, and other relevant information with its subscribers.


Search engine optimization (SEO) is critical for any digital communication strategy. By optimizing its website and blog content for relevant keywords, McInce Collections can improve its search engine rankings and drive organic traffic to its website.

Step 4: Results

The final step in the marketing plan is to put in place appropriate controls and measurement criteria to monitor the success of the campaign. The key to this is to identify critical success factors and set key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be measured and tracked over time.

Critical Success Factors

Critical success factors (CSFs) are crucial components that are necessary to ensure the marketing campaign’s success. In the case of McInce Collections International, these CSFs comprise the augmentation of brand recognition and sales figures. To achieve this, the company is striving to maintain uniform messaging that caters to the interests of its target audience across all communication channels. Moreover, the company must cater to the desires of its intended market and keep its products in high demand to drive up sales, which is the ultimate objective of the marketing campaign.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

To measure the success of McInce Collections International’s marketing campaign, the company must establish specific key performance indicators (KPIs). The company can track website traffic and conversion rate, among other KPIs. The company can determine the effectiveness of its digital communication strategy by monitoring the number of website visitors and pages viewed. Tracking the conversion rate, which measures the percentage of website visitors who make a purchase, is also crucial to assess website design and user experience. Moreover, monitoring return on investment (ROI) is important to determine whether the marketing campaign generates a positive financial return (Kotabe and Helsen, 2022) By setting and monitoring these KPIs, McInce Collections International can evaluate the success of its marketing campaign and make informed decisions for future marketing initiatives (Kotabe, and Helsen, 2022). McInce Collections International can use Google Analytics and social media listening tools to monitor the strategy as they can provide insights into website traffic, social media engagement, and customer feedback.

Risks and Contingencies

The marketing plan for McInce Collections International is not immune to risks and contingencies. The company should be aware of these factors to make any necessary adjustments to its campaign. The primary risks and contingencies include competition response, changing consumer preferences, and possible economic downturns (Smith, 2022, p.147). Competitors may launch their marketing campaigns, requiring adjustments in McInce’s strategy. Shifting consumer preferences may necessitate changes in the company’s product offerings. Additionally, economic downturns could negatively impact sales, so the company needs a contingency plan to adjust its strategy accordingly (Smith, 2022, p.149).


This marketing plan was created for McInce Collections International, a luxury fashion brand specializing in eco-friendly clothing. Its goal is to increase brand awareness and sales via a digital communication strategy. The situational analysis revealed that the brand operates in a highly competitive market, targeting affluent individuals who value luxury and exclusivity. The strategy focuses on segmentation, targeting specific locations and age groups, with a unique selling proposition of sustainability and quality. To position itself in the market, the brand should offer high-quality products, target affluent customers, and provide excellent customer service. Consistency in a tone of voice and visual branding is essential to convey key messages.


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Movie Review On “Menace 2 Society” Sample College Essay

Allen and Albert Hughes’ “Menace 2 Society” is a classic American criminal drama movie. The 1993 film, which depicts the struggles and difficulties encountered by young Black men in South Central Los Angeles, was released. The movie takes a realistic stance on the problems of systematic racism, crime, and poverty that plague many urban areas. The film opens with a flashback of Caine and his friend O-Dog robbing a nearby convenience store when they were teenagers. Following that, the film follows Caine as he makes his way through the criminal underworld to escape. In this paper, I will analyse the movie and examine the theories and concepts of interpersonal communication. I will demonstrate how the movie emphasises the significance of self-concept, perception, and social learning theory in comprehending interpersonal communication by examining the interactions between the characters and their surroundings.

Applicable Text Concepts and Interpersonal Communication Theory:

Self-disclosure: The act of divulging one’s knowledge to others. O-Dog, Caine’s companion, constantly reveals details about himself and his violent background in Menace 2 Society. For instance, O-Dog tells Caine about a time when he was humiliated by a Korean shopkeeper before killing the Korean store owner in retribution for being disrespected. O-Dog’s admission of himself strengthens their relationship and enables Caine to comprehend why he responded the way he did.

Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal communication is the exchange of messages that do not include the use of words (Beebe et al., 2014). Menace 2 Society uses nonverbal communication to depict emotion and power dynamics. For instance, the local drug lord’s posture and tone of voice when Caine and his companion Ronnie visit him to convey his authority over them. Like when he confronts his girlfriend’s ex-boyfriend, Caine displays wrath and aggressiveness through his body language and facial expressions.

Perception Checking: Verifying one’s comprehension of a message with the sender is the process of perception-checking (Beebe et al., 2014). There are multiple situations in Menace 2 Society where perception checking would have avoided conflict and violence. For instance, instead of retaliating defensively when Harold, Caine’s cousin, accuses him of taking his car, Caine should have asked for clarity. Similarly, Caine could have asked Ronnie additional questions about her sentiments and intentions rather than assuming the worst when she informed him that she was pregnant.

Social Penetration Theory is the Interpersonal Communication Theory most relevant to Menace 2 Society. Social Inclusion According to theory, people increasingly reveal more personal information when they connect (Beebe et al., 2014). Between people, this process fosters intimacy and trust. The character interactions in Menace 2 Society are based on trust and a foundation of shared experiences. However, the intense brutality and desperation of their surroundings also contribute to a breakdown in human relations and a lack of trust.

Instances of the Chosen Text Concepts and Interpersonal Communication Theory:

Self-Disclosure: O-Dog telling Caine about his earlier encounter with a Korean merchant illustrates self-disclosure. In this sequence, O-Dog exhibits vulnerability and tells a personal tale enlightening Caine on his friend’s objectives. O-Dog’s self-disclosure further solidifies their relationship and emphasises the value of shared experiences.

Nonverbal Communication: Throughout the movie, emotion and power dynamics are shown through nonverbal communication. For instance, Caine’s body language and facial expressions when confronting his girlfriend’s ex-boyfriend demonstrate his rage and hostility, like how he sits and speaks to Caine and Ronnie; the drug king exudes dominance over them through his posture and voice.

Perception checking: There are various scenes in the movie where it could have been possible to avoid conflict and violence using perception testing. For instance, when Caine’s cousin claims that he stole his car, Caine could have used perception checking to clarify the situation instead of defending himself and taking his cousin’s claim as a personal attack. Questions like “What makes you think I stole your car?” or “Can you give me more information about what happened?” could have been used. Caine may have done this to understand his cousin’s viewpoint better and perhaps defuse the issue before it became explosive.

Clear explanations of how the text concepts were illustrated in all supporting instances:

The chosen text themes are demonstrated in each illustrative example through vocal and nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication. For instance, O-Dog’s tone of voice and facial gestures when he self-discloses about his prior encounter with a Korean shopkeeper demonstrate his vulnerability and emotional attachment to the narrative. Similarly, Caine’s nonverbal communication, such as his posture and gestures, conveys his rage and aggressiveness in the scene where he confronts his girlfriend’s ex-boyfriend.

According to Social Penetration Theory, the connections between the characters are based on a foundation of shared experiences and the gradual disclosing of private information to one another. However, the intense brutality and desperation of their surroundings also contribute to a breakdown in human relations and a lack of trust (Mendiratta, 2018). For instance, while Caine and Ronnie talk about her pregnancy, their misunderstanding and lack of communication are caused by Caine’s assumptions. This breakdown in their relationship’s communication and trust is a stark reminder of the harm their surroundings have done to it.

Menace 2 Society exposes the catastrophic effects of poverty, drugs, and violence on interpersonal connections compellingly and movingly. The movie emphasises the significance of efficient communication in creating and maintaining healthy relationships through self-disclosure, nonverbal communication, and perception checking. However, the harsh circumstances of the protagonists’ life also highlight how brittle human communication is and the disastrous results of its failure.

Conclusively, “Menace 2 Society” is a solid and thought-provoking film about young Black men in America. The film depicts self-concept, perception, and social learning theory in interpersonal communication. The movie shows how our environment affects our behaviour and decisions through the characters’ interactions.


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Mendiratta, J. (2018). MENACE II SOCIETY (1993). The Encyclopedia of Racism in American Films, 379.