Managing The Hospitality Workforce In Hyatt Hotel In India Writing Sample

The Indian culture represents a challenge for many international companies. For this reason, Hyatt Hotel develops unique strategies to manage a culturally diverse workforce. The purpose of diversity management is to level cultural, religious, age, and social differences and create effective communication and a positive climate. Equality of treatment and opportunity has been the official policy of some IT organizations for many years. In their standards of recruitment, training, and promotion, Hyatt Hotel has been more effective as an equal opportunity employer than the private business sector. But even in government and human services agencies, there is room for improvement. Many equal opportunity employers are merely paper compilers; their behavior is anything but exemplary of equality in action. In contrast to these policies, Hyatt Hotel in India does its best to attract and retain top talents. If the policy of equal employment opportunity (EEO) is to apply without regard to sex, race, creed, color, or national origin, an important first step is to ascertain whether influential members of an organization harbor prejudices (Armstrong 44).

In Hyatt Hotel, the planning function of HR management supports all activities and determines the overall performance of the HR department. The purpose of this function is to coordinate the actions of Hyatt Hotel employees and meet the requirements of the hotel. Planning is one of the key elements to success in business. Basic problems of business failures are poor location, undercapitalization, or unprofessionalism of managing staff. But all these problems start on the stage of planning. In India, marketing, as a business activity, must be planned. The plan contains information about the nature of the business, the set of actions for the company directed to fulfill its customers’ requirements in the marketplace (Barham and Conway 87).

Specifically, many Indian minority workers quit or retire from organizations without ever having understood what their supervisors diagnosed as their needs, why certain procedures were followed and, if the failure resulted, what their failures consisted of and the reasons for them. The minority workers’ rights include the right to courteous, prompt, and the best supervision (Reed 54). In India, they have the right to know what is wrong, why, and what can be done about skill deficiencies. The Hyatt Hotel managers could build a case of minority workers’ ignorance as being a byproduct of the managerial mystique. That is, Hyatt Hotel’s administrators and supervisors are commonly perceived as being people whose training and predilections place them in a special ability category. To put it even more bluntly, there is a tendency for Indian minority employees to be in awe of administrators. For the Hyatt Hotel, the challenge to managers and supervisors is to demonstrate that competence and empathy are not unique to members of a particular group (Beardwell et al 87).

Ta Hyatt Hotel, the HR plan is not only a subject of academic researches, but it also received its practical implementation with the ability to differentiate between success and failure in any organization. While making an HR plan Hyatt Hotel considers such basic concepts as external environmental assessment of the Indian economy, current HR situation, competitive advantage, and future strategies (Bartlett and Ghoshal 72). In India, Hyatt Hotel provides various approaches to planning; therefore this process might include different elements, depending on an organization and desired results. Planning provides Hyatt Hotel with a forward-looking view of the total enterprise. It is the basis for determining the fundamental strategies to be employed and the objectives, programs, and resources required. Hyatt Hotel planning is to a business enterprise what thinking is to an individual. It supplies the rational means for achieving maximum market-striking power and results from the resources in hand.

The function of diversity management can be applied by using (1) training programs for employees, (2) introduction of the codes of ethics, and (3) cross-cultural management philosophy accepted by n organization. Planning function can be applied by (1) a new approach to work structure and controls, (2) the development of specific courses of action for each department, and (3) the establishment of clear objectives and goals.

Works Cited

Armstrong, M. Human Resource Management. Kogan Page. Behavior. 2nd edn. Boston: Kent Publishing, 2003.

Bartlett, C. and Ghoshal, S. Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. 2nd edition, London: Ramsden House, 1999.

Barham K., Conway C. Developing business and people internationally: A mentoring approach. Ashridge Research, 1998.

Beardwell, I. Holden, L., Claydon, T. Human Resource Management, London Pitman Publishing, 2004,

Reed A. in Human Resource Management. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2001.

Schuler, R. Managing Human Resources. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing,1998,

HR Functions
HR Functions

The United States Bill Of Rights

Introduction

The United States Bill of Rights refers to the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. When the constitution was written, it did not guarantee certain rights to the American citizens and it was therefore necessary for it to be amended in order for these rights to be protected. (Patterson, 2007. pp 5-9) The Bill of Rights originally included twelve amendments but the first two (relating to the distribution of the House of Representatives and the pay due to congressmen) were not immediately ratified. The latter of these two was finally ratified in the year 1992 and is currently the twenty seventh amendment. Any amendment to the Constitution of the United States is normally done in a two part process; passing the bill (proposition) in Congress and then the adoption by no less than three fourths of all the states. It therefore follows that the Bill of Rights was passed in Congress on the 25th of September, 1789 and was consequently adopted by the States (ratification) on the15th of December, 1791.

The amendments

The First Amendment addresses the rights and freedom of religion, speech and assembly, guaranteeing that Congress will not pass laws pertaining to the religion of the American citizens or prohibit their right to exercise their chosen religion. It also guarantees a free media, the liberty to talk, gather together in peace and to petition the government when citizens feel aggrieved.

The Second Amendment guarantees safety in the form of a reliable armed forces as well as the right of the citizens to keep and bear weaponry.

Citizens have a right to refuse the government from using their residences as accommodation for soldiers, whether in times of peace or when there is war, as pledged in the Third Amendment.

The Fourth Amendment assures citizens that no searches or detainment can be made to them or their property unless there is reason enough for such an action to be taken.

The Fifth Amendment deals with the rights of citizens accused of crime, promising that when a citizen has been accused of a chief offense, he or she will not stand trial unless the grand jury issues an indictment for the same, except only if these citizens are members of the armed forces and they committed these offenses when on duty. It goes ahead to prohibit unlawful punishment of citizens, repeated trials for a similar crime, giving evidence against oneself and unfair recompense when the government acquires personal property for public use.

In the Sixth Amendment, citizens, upon arrest, are assured a right to know why they are being arrested, to see and hear those testifying against them, to obtain their own witnesses and to enjoy a fast trial in which they also have a right to an attorney.

The Seventh and Eight Amendments respectively guarantee jury trials and prohibit excessive punishment of offenses.

The Ninth Amendment guarantees that other rights not necessarily mentioned in the Bills of Rights but maintained by the people still apply.

The powers that have not been allotted to the United States by the Constitution, or those that have not been forbidden, remain automatically reserved to the Constitution or to the people, as guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment. (Kelly Et Al. 1991)

Relevant Amendment

The first amendment is the most relevant to me today. The other amendments generally dwell on crime and the legalities appertaining to it.

As a citizen, I find it reassuring to know that I am free to practice any religion of my choice. When am free spiritually am able to achieve so much more and be productive as am not laden with guilt about not doing what I know is required of me spiritually.

The liberty to be able to express myself vocally is also of importance to me as am not worried that saying this or that may or may not get me into legal problems. It is actually in the freedom of speech that great revelations and ideas get to be known and nurtured for the advancement of the country.

A free media is relevant, too, because through the media am able to know all the facts about prevailing situations not only in the United States but in the whole world as well. Media reports are generally unbiased as different media houses usually compete to be the first to let the real truth known. When they are free to give facts as they are to the citizens, the government and citizens get to be careful about what they are doing because it could easily be announced to the whole world. This makes everyone accountable.

The right to be able to convene in groups, peaceful, is essential especially in highlighting issues that need to be addressed. This is because there are so many issues that may be taking place that do not necessarily aggrieve me as an individual but are hurting humanity elsewhere. Things like hunger walks, protests about terrorism in the world, genocide or global warming are just but a few the things that need people to come together and peacefully create awareness.

There are also other things that may hurt me directly that I may need to let the government know about. Therefore the right to petition the government remains relevant to me because some things may be taking place that are not right and can only be addressed when the concerned people get to know about them.

References

Patterson, T. E. (2007). The American Democracy (9th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Kelly, Alfred Hinsey; Harbison, Winfred Audif; Belz, Herman (1991). The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development (7th edition Ed.). New York: Norton & Co.

Ana Mendieta’s Works Analysis

This research work aims to analyze the works of a famous Cuban-American artist, Ana Mendieta. In particular, we need to focus on such issues as the dominant motifs in her photographs, sculptures, and performances. Secondly, it is of the crucial importance to trace the sources of artistic influence, and the way in which she incorporated them into her own style. Furthermore, we should discuss the symbolism of her art; because it always renders a powerful but often concealed message. Finally, it is necessary to present various interpretive approaches to her images.

There are many books or scholarly articles, dedicated to the study of this woman, and none of them must be overlooked, but probably, the most comprehensive and compelling analysis is provided by Jane Blocker in her book Where is Ana Mendieta?, the author examines not only the impact of the artists background on her works, but also discusses the main themes and concepts that Mendieta explores.

Overall, she is often regarded as a prominent representative of postmodernism in visual arts, thus the principles of this movement, are palpable practically in all her sculptures and performances, namely, we may speak about such concepts as the death of the author. The essence of this tenet lies in the following: the viewer may interpret a work of art in his way, and his opinion may not necessarily be in agreement with that one of the authors. Mendietas photographs or video recordings can be discussed from various perspectives and may have drastically different meanings. She deliberately wants the spectator to be unbiased and unprejudiced in his or her analysis. Apart from that, it should be mentioned, that the major ideas of postmodernism also find their reflection in the symbols, which she conjures up.

Yet, this is just a general overview; we can draw more specific examples, suggesting that Ana Mendieta was in part relying on the ideas expressed by Vito Acconci and Carolee Schneemann (Blocker, 1999, p 4). We should first remember his short film Claim that is often considered as a brilliant example of performance art, in which he tried to render the feelings of a frightened and isolated person. The most peculiar feature of this movie is that the artist actually performed the main character, and thus he merged the author and his work into a single entity.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that such amalgam became the intrinsic characteristic of Ana Mendietas style. In this regard, we should not forget about Carolee Schneemann, who is also renowned for her live performances. She attached primary importance to sexuality and gender roles, later these questions were frequently analyzed by Mendieta. Regarding this particular issue, we must examine the early projects such as Facial Hair Transplant and Glass on Body.

In these photographs, the author explores such a notion as gender identity. It stands to reason that her pictures are multidimensional, and may be analyzed from various standpoints. Yet, it appears that the main idea, which she wants to render, is that gender identity is a very fluid concept, and very often it is extremely difficult to draw a borderline between the two sexes. While working on this project, Mendieta performed such an operation: she transplanted the beard of a man on her face and photographed herself. As a result, we can observe that there are very few distinctive characteristics, which distinguish a male from a female (See picture 1).

Later, Mendieta develops this idea and advances even a more radical one, like for instance the loss of gender identity. To substantiate this statement we should refer to the collection of her photographs entitled Glass on Body. Naturally, she does hint at some neutral sex, but perhaps she argues that sometimes we pay attention only to the physiology of an individual (either man or woman), and ignore his or her inner world. In this series, the author closely leaned her face over the glass and took a picture of it (See picture 2). The distorted image of a human face signifies a person, who is torn between effeminate and masculine natures in oneself.

Perhaps, such phenomenon as the loss of identity should not be limited only to gender questions, it may also be discussed within the context of cultural heritage. It should be taken into consideration that Mendieta is of Cuban origin, her family lived in this country but she was moved from there at a very young age, and most importantly she was brought up by foster parents (Viso, 2008, p 22). It seems that such experience was almost bound to produce an indelible impression on her creative work. On the whole, one may say that she was trying to unite Western European and Latin American art.

As far as this aspect is concerned we should undoubtedly examine the influence of the so-called Santeria; it is a syncretic religion, which seeks to reconcile beliefs that are often incompatible with one another. Santeria weaves Christianity (or Catholicism to be more exact) into the beliefs of Native Americans. We need to point out that it is extremely ritualistic. Therefore, Mendieta attempted to present a work of art in the form of a ritual.

Traditionally, this genre is classified as earth body, which means that any work created in this style is transient or momentary; it exists only for a certain time, after that it disappears (Blocker, 1999, p 24). One can preserve it using a photo or video camera, but the overall effect will be considerably diminished. As for this particular aspect, we may speak about several projects. It should be taken into account that sometimes they do not have any name; Ana Mendieta did not want to call them in any way, because she expected the viewers to evaluate them without her prompts. First and foremost, we may remember the Death of Chicken (or Beheading of Chicken).

This performance was not received very successfully and the audience was not quite sure as to possible interpretations but this work only brought out the major artistic principles of Mendieta, namely the brevity of art, itself. In addition to that, she wanted to show that a work of art is not static, but dynamic. In this case, we should mostly speak about the influence of postmodernism, whose representative rejects traditional aesthetic dogmas. They believe that a masterpiece is not some kind of physical object or commodity, which can be kept, stored, and possessed. In their opinion, it is something ephemeral, disappearing immediately when the artist completes it. Certainly, such a statement may seem rather unusual, to say the least. The thing is that postmodernists insist that any work of art should be preserved in the memory of the person.

To some extent, Mendieta followed this principle. Among her most famous projects, executed in such a manner, we can mark out the Fetish Series and Feathers on Woman. Nonetheless, we must not limit her contribution only to sheer aesthetics. She was not a supporter of the popular slogan “art for art’s sake”. On the contrary, she always intended to reflect on some social or philosophical problems. In the vast majority of cases, her projects were motivated by some events that had taken place in her life or the lives of her friends.

For instance, we may mention her rather controversial Rape Scenes. The author decided to portray this particular issue because one of her friends was violated (Viso, 2008, p 66). Thus, Mendieta was determined to show all the brutality, which women so often have to face. In her works, the artist always attaches primary significance to the naked body of a woman. If we discuss this nakedness in terms of the feminist movement, we may argue that Mendieta mostly concentrates on sexuality. Namely, she wants to tell that men often regard a woman as an object of sexual desires, and completely ignore her inner world.

Subsequently, such form of relations between both sexes is mostly based on the use of brutal force, but one can hardly speak about any harmony or equality of male and female. The main problem is that even now there are some women, who think only about their sexuality, turning themselves into some kind of commodity. Mendieta cries against such behavior, and the rape scene is an appeal to both sexes.

Apart from that, the famous artist examines racial relations. She was a Cuban who was often treated by others as non-white, someone who does not fully belong to this society. Her earthwork Venus Negra (or Black Venus, if we translate this expression into English) is designed to express her feeling of estrangement from other people, who always looked at her with some uncertainty or even apprehension (See picture 6). In part, this earth sculpture is the embodiment of her tragedy, being alien to people, surrounding her.

Some of her performances were videotaped and became rather popular, at least in artistic circles; for example, Rock Heart with Blood, or Ocean Bird Wash up. Yet, it has to be admitted, Ana Mendieta opposed the idea of her art being videotaped. Thus, we may say that the author was partly influenced by the principles of modernism, especially, if we are speaking about the disappearance of art, but she was also drawing her inspiration from Latin American religious and cultural tradition.

According to Jane Blocker, Mendieta was always longing to regain her cultural heritage. The motif of exile and alienation often reoccur in her pictures, performances, or sculptures. The whole tragedy of her situation lied in her alienation or estrangement from the traditions of her compatriots; this was one of the underlying causes of her avid interest in Santeria and Taino culture. In this way, she was strengthening the ties between herself and her native land. This passion for Taino culture manifests itself many times, in particular in Fetish Series, in which the artist constantly employs such symbols as water, fire, rock, and blood.

The impact of Taino culture becomes perceptible in her Jaruco caves sculptures. According to the traditional beliefs of Indians, caves gave birth to the first human beings. They regard the earth itself as a living entity, which has a will of its own. Mendieta sculptures represent this birth, the ties between mankind and nature, or even between mother and children (See picture 5). She is intent on proving that the so-called primitive art may also convey very elaborate messages. She is so interested in earthworks because they underline the idea of unity between a person and the environment.

However, we should not state that the Fetish series are motivated only by the feeling of nostalgia; they have multidimensional and have several layers of meaning. To prove this argument, we should provide some theoretical background of Santeria and Taino culture. As it has been mentioned before, Santeria is a synthesis of Catholicism and the religious beliefs of Native Americans. Yet, the essence of this synthesis lies in the unity of nature and human beings. In traditional Western philosophy, these notions are always separated from one another. Moreover, the human being is believed to be the pinnacle of Gods creation and all other creatures are treated as inferior to homo sapiens. Indians do not share this opinion, they are firmly convinced that a human being is just a part of nature, but it does not necessarily mean that he or she is superior to others in any way.

Ana Mendieta explores this idea, a great number of her works signify the unity of a person and environment. The author found several ways to express this concept: sometimes she covered her naked body with grass and moss, thus creating some kind of connection between herself and the earth (See picture 3). Arguably, the most eloquent picture is often called A Live Tree (See picture, 4).

Another peculiarity of these pictures is her nudity. Certainly, this feature can be interpreted from various points of view, but it seems that this artistic manner also originates from Santeria and Taino. We may remember also Christianity and especially the fall of Adam and Eve, who had been naked before they were banished from Paradise. To some degree, her pictures symbolize this return to the Garden of Eden.

On the whole, we must acknowledge that the interpretation of Mendietas photographs or performances has always been a subject of heated debate. We cannot presume that there is only one approach. On the contrary, one may suggest at least three frameworks, such as feminist criticism of Julia Kristeva, deconstructive analysis, developed by Jacques Derrida, and the critical theory, proposed by Jacques Lacan. These scholars represent two opposing schools of philosophy and art criticism.

According to Jacques Derrida, we should think mostly about our impressions while analyzing and interpreting any work of art. The essence of deconstruction lies in the following: we rely on certain stereotypes or widely held beliefs while analyzing art, and subsequently, we are unable to assess a book, a musical piece, or painting objectively. He insists that people must first make their assessment, even though their opinion may be contrary to well-established beliefs. Furthermore, Jacques Derrida claims that the reader or viewer must disregard the personality of the author. Only in this way, we can assume an unbiased attitude towards art. In this respect, we should say that Ana Mendieta always wanted the viewers to act in this manner; this is the reason why many of her projects are untitled because the title itself already influences the spectator. In sharp contrast with him, Julia Kristeva and Jacques Lacan stated that the personality of the artist was the most important aspect and we should primarily get insights into his or her life, before analyzing the work, itself (Culler, 1983, p 55).

Mendieta’s projects might be discussed from both these perspectives, but it appears that constructivism is more effective because the artist is relying on her personal experience and her photographs reflect the authors quest for identity both gender, ethnical, and even racial. On the one hand, she was torn between American and Cuban cultures, and secondly Mendieta was trying to establish herself as a woman, not bound by traditional stereotypes, and the semiotics of her photographs and sculptures only confirms this belief. We have described some of them before, namely earth, fire, water, representing the basic elements of nature. Moreover, we should mention her constant use of blood, which is a token of her devotion to Cuban and Latin American tradition, namely Santeria.

Therefore, we can conclude that Ana Mendietas works may be analyzed from various standpoints. Her style indicates that this woman had always been in quest of her ethnic, racial gender identity. Her interest in Taino culture and Santeria religion indicates that the author was desperate to regain her cultural heritage. Whereas, such projects as Hair Transplant or Venus Negra aim to show her struggle against male chauvinism and racism in modern society. We can mark some of the major of her sculptures, photographs, for instance, the relations between man and woman, and the ties between a human being and the environment.

Bibliography

Catherine Twomey Fosnot (2005). “Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives, and Practice”. Teachers College Press.

Jane Blocker, Ana Mendieta (1999). “Where is Ana Mendieta?: Identity, Performativity, and Exile” Duke University Press.

Jonathan Culler (1983). “On deconstruction theory and criticism after structuralism”. Routledge.

LINDSAY ARTURO (1996). “Santeria Aesthetics in Contemporary Latin American Art”. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Marsha Meskimmon (1996). “The art of reflection: women artists’ self-portraiture in the twentieth century” Columbia University Press.

Olga Viso (2008). “Unseen Mendieta: The Unpublished Works of Ana Mendieta”. Prestel Publishing.

Olga M. Viso et al 2004. “Ana Mendieta: earth bodyethnicure and performance, 1972-1985”. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution.

Raysa Elena Amador Gómez-Quintero, Mireya Pérez Bustillo (2002). “The female body: perspectives of Latin American artists” Greenwood Publishing Group.

Appendix

Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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Ana Mendieta's Works Analysis
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