Managing Under Uncertainty


Organizational management is dependent on adequate information to increase efficiency in decision-making. However, uncertainty is a condition where circumstances in the operation environment inhibit confidence in decision-making despite the availability of information (Govindan et al., 2017). Pandemics such as the Corona Virus illustrate instances where many organizations endured uncertainty in making management decisions. Equally, changing customer needs or market globalization can arouse uncertainty in management. Decisions are crucial in resolving conflicts, mitigating further risks, and capitalizing on opportunities (Silverstov et al., 2017). Organizational management loses productivity when it fails to make clear and structured decisions amidst uncertainty. This essay will discuss how “management under uncertainty reduces organizational productivity .”It will analyze the issues which affect management during uncertainty, such as conflicting purposes among decision-makers, complexity in decision making and biases that lead to decision impairment. It will also suggest methods management can use to improve their operation strategies in these uncertain situations.


Market characteristics directly influence many companies’ productivity. For instance, the supply and demand characteristics determine an organization’s operation and production plan. Shortages are common in the organization’s operations as the market forces can be highly unpredictable. Due to these fluctuations, organizations strive to avoid producing unwanted goods. These occurrences have a significant financial cost which may demand uncertainty reduction efforts. Uncertainty may demand reduced employee compensation, organization downsizing and withdrawal from further investment efforts. All these downsizing options harm the overall organization’s performance. Reduced employee compensation directly influences their morale (Markovits et al., 2014). This move contradicts the administrative management theory that recommends competitive remuneration, which sustains employee productivity.

More so, uncertainty affects employee concentration. Researchers highlight that uncertainty causes fear among employees who anticipate layoffs. Fear is a major distractor that will affect employee creativity and productivity. Companies can encounter a dilemma in this uncertain period since they must depend on unmotivated and fear-stricken employees. Employees in such a state can hardly devise creative solutions which will maintain and improve a company’s productivity (Markovits et al., 2014). Similarly, this workplace fear and reduced concentration highly affect workplace safety. Injuries at the workplace are the least expected occurrences during uncertainty. They reduce the workforce while increasing expenditures on renovation and employee medication. Research indicated a rise in workplace injuries in 2019, which caused a $42,000 expenditure on every injury. Uncertainty further halts investment decisions in organizations (Narayanamurthy, and Tortorella, 2021). Organizations dread market risk factors, such as inflation or currency volatility, that arise in these uncertain periods. The inherent operation conditions may also obstruct the generation of enough revenue to allow the expansion of the company’s operations. Uncertainty reverses the organization’s operation strategies which affects productivity.

Uncertainty causes management challenges which are negatively reflected through reduced productivity. Periods such as pandemics or civil wars affect the prediction of outcomes on managerial decisions. Uncertainty is an opportunity for informed risk-taking which can offer huge organizational rewards (Baxter et al., 2013). However, uncertainty may cause fear which impairs risk assessment. Risk assessment is crucial since it determines the success of organizational decisions during demanding situations. This assessment provides insightful data on expected outcomes, reversibility of a decision’s result, probability of social conflict or demographic factors that may affect the decision. A recent survey by the Federation of European Risk Management Associations indicates that sixty percent of organizations have competitive risk management strategies. Uninformed risk-taking may affect productivity through adverse financial losses. The crisis periods are challenging to organization heads due to the varied nature of the data. The information may be too much to derive specific insights. For instance, too many variables affecting a financial crisis may threaten the success of any contingency measures taken during that period (Baxter et al., 2013). Otherwise, a crisis period could also have too little information, which affects the clarity for effective decision-making. Mostly, crisis periods affect productivity through their volatile factors. There is a significant fluctuation in factors such as stock prices, which can cloud the clarity of financial investments during this period.

Productivity is also dependent on ease in decision-making. Uncertainty periods may have inadequate information for the required decision-making. Uncertain events may present new challenges which demand innovative solutions. For instance, the Covid 19 period caused uncertainty in the organizational management policies, which required work-from-home solutions (Afrianty et al., 2021). The work-from-home model had not been actively implemented recently and thus required intensive research on optimization mechanisms. For some employees, the mechanism would pose distractions at first, working close to family. The model further was further not optimally productive due to connectivity challenges (Afrianty et al., 2021). Information inadequacy can also lead to bias. Bias can occur in several forms, such as overestimating the pandemic’s outcome. Organizational productivity can be disrupted by overestimating a disaster on financial portfolios or a country’s economic performance. These factors might be extremely challenging to determine during a crisis. Organizational management may also rely on data from adverse economic downturn scenarios such as the Great Depression to predict outcomes of less severe uncertainty. The results obtained in such an estimation will be inaccurate. Individual motivation further challenges organizational decision-making during a decision-making process (Cortez et al., 2020). For some, the decision-making process is motivated by the urge to meet a personal need or motive. This approach is a selfish move that will compromise production efficiency. These crisis response strategies should reduce risk and uncertainties in line with organizational goals. Each manager should synchronize their decision-making during the crisis period to increase productivity.

Uncertainty, however, offers an opportunity for organizational development. It demands reforms in organization practices and restudies of the existent. For example, uncertainties call for plans to optimize value, improve team collaboration, and minimize waste. Situations such as imminent market risks have propelled organizations to intensify their development methods which will eventually guarantee the product’s success. These uncertainties compel companies to conduct market research and testing campaigns parallel to the product development process (Bundy et al., 2017). Undesired market conditions make companies step up their online surveys, develop test websites and enroll an active sales team interacting with the target market. Uncertainty improves team collaboration by increasing adaptability. Organizations must create mechanisms to maneuver through the disaster while maintaining a desirable production performance (Bundy et al., 2017). Most companies during the Covid 19 had to adhere to the regulations hastily. These timely responses prevent effects on stalled production. Uncertain situations improve organization production practices by emphasizing a data-driven approach in the operation culture. These principles command an overall improvement in the organization’s productivity.

Organizations respond to uncertainty by restructuring their management and management techniques. This presents an opportunity for the organization to improve its future productivity through enhanced management techniques. Uncertain occurrences may cause a shift in the organization’s short-term goals. This demands a shift in the management framework. The management shift is essential for improved organizational productivity during uncertainty (Karahan, and Karasioglu, 2014). An organizational crisis is perceived to threaten the organization’s goals and the relationships within its management. This crisis period will offer a space for developing better management techniques. Intense analysis of the organization’s position enables the management to plan a contingency plan effectively. Here, uncertainty enables the organization to understand its operation principles better. Karahan, A., and Karasioglu (2014) attribute organization restructuring to streamlining operation systems. The management will identify the internal and external factors shaping the change in operation structures. This prompts the improvement of organizational factors such as improved communication among its leaders to improve its survival during the uncertainty. Crises periods provide a chance for learning and development. The management and personnel will acquire skills and experiences to improve overall productivity. More so, they will be able to experiment with new response techniques, which might be beneficial. An unfamiliar crisis will demand a new contingency or risk aversion strategy. The management will analyze unfamiliar factors which affect production planning, safety or quality


Uncertainty may present undesirable circumstances. It may impair the risk assessment methods because of the fluctuating aspects or inadequate data for efficient decision-making. This situation possess a risk of financial losses from the investment and operation decisions taken. Crises periods severely impact the organization’s performance by affecting employee welfare. This period may cause fear due to expected layoffs. Fear affects employee concentration which may lead to injuries. The injuries are costly and also reduce staff availability which reduces productivity. Furthermore, the salary cuts that may be incorporated as a response strategy to the cost-cutting might demoralize the employees. Among the motivating factors for increased organizational performance is competitive remuneration. This crisis period affects decision-making effectiveness partly due to the unfamiliarity with the situation. Organization heads may over or under-estimate the effect of the crisis regarding previous occurrences. Such situations reduce the practicality of implemented strategies. Crisis durations, however, present an opportunity for organizational development. It prompts an organization to revise its operation strategies and develop more efficient techniques. Companies achieve this development during the crisis through immense industry research and frequent surveys. More so, these uncertain situations demand management techniques and reforms that are beneficial in the long run. Improved management techniques brace the organization for future crises.


Afrianty, T. W., Artatanaya, I. G., & Burgess, J. (2022). Working from home effectiveness during Covid-19: Evidence from university staff in Indonesia. Asia Pacific Management Review27(1), 50-57.

Baxter, R., Bedard, J. C., Hoitash, R., & Yezegel, A. (2013). Enterprise risk management program quality: Determinants, value relevance, and the financial crisis. Contemporary Accounting Research30(4), 1264-1295.

Bundy, J., Pfarrer, M. D., Short, C. E., & Coombs, W. T. (2017). Crises and crisis management: Integration, interpretation, and research development. Journal of management43(6), 1661-1692.

Cortez, R. M., & Johnston, W. J. (2020). The Coronavirus crisis in B2B settings: Crisis uniqueness and managerial implications based on social exchange theory. Industrial Marketing Management88, 125-135.

Govindan, K., Fattahi, M., & Keyvanshokooh, E. (2017). Supply chain network design under uncertainty: A comprehensive review and future research directions. European journal of operational research263(1), 108-141.

Karahan, A., & Karasioglu, F. (2014). Strategies for crisis management of enterprises and after crisis management restructuring. In Proceedings of 10th international conference of ASECU (pp. 257-263).

Markovits, Y., Boer, D., & van Dick, R. (2014). Economic crisis and the employee: The effects of economic crisis on employee job satisfaction, commitment, and self-regulation. European Management Journal32(3), 413-422.

Narayanamurthy, G., & Tortorella, G. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on employee performance–moderating role of industry 4.0 base technologies. International Journal of Production Economics234, 108075.

Seliverstov, Y. A., Seliverstov, S. A., Malygin, I. G., Tarantsev, A. A., Shatalova, N. V., Lukomskaya, O. Y., … & Elyashevich, A. M. (2017). Development of management principles of urban traffic under conditions of information uncertainty. In Creativity in Intelligent Technologies and Data Science: Second Conference, CIT&DS 2017, Volgograd, Russia, September 12-14, 2017, Proceedings 2 (pp. 399-418). Springer International Publishing.

Needle Sticks Among Healthcare Workers: Addressing Safety Issues


Problem Description

Among healthcare workers, needle sticks are a common problem that poses excellent safety risks. Accidental punctures with sharp medical tools can result in the transmission of severe diseases, including HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. A lack of sufficient training, improper sharps disposal, and unsuccessful safety-engineered devices contribute to this issue. The danger of needle sticks affects the physical and mental welfare of healthcare professionals, such as technicians, nurses, and physicians.

Missing Aspect of Quality Care

Providing quality care includes ensuring a safe environment for healthcare workers. One hazardous occupational factor that needs addressing is needle stick injuries. Both the well-being and productivity of healthcare workers depend on their safety. Providing safe, effective, timely, equitable, and patient-centered care requires addressing needle stick issues (Alfulayw, 2021). With a safety-conscious culture and preventative measures, healthcare organizations can lessen the risk of needle stick incidents and safeguard the safety of both patients and staff.

Problem Analysis

Population Affected and Frequency of Occurrence

Healthcare professionals from various specialties, such as physicians, nurses, technicians, and support personnel, are among the group afflicted by needle sticks. These occurrences pose a considerable work hazard because they happen so often. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate 385,000 needle stick injuries in only the United States each year (CDC, 2021). This high frequency emphasizes the urgent need for a comprehensive solution.

Risk Posed to Patient Care

Not only can needle stick injuries affect healthcare professionals, but they also put patient care in danger. A healthcare worker’s injury may have both short- and long-term effects on them and the patient (CDC, 2021). The main worry is the possibility of spreading infectious illnesses, including bloodborne infections, to the patient.

History of the Problem

For years, healthcare facilities have suffered from needle stick injuries. Despite implementing safety precautions and educational programs to curb the problem, it persists (CDC, 2021). Multiple factors contribute to this continued issue, including apathy, protocol noncompliance, improper training, and lack of a solid safety culture.

Relevant Process

Preventing needle stick injuries requires safe needle handling, disposal, and utilization of safety-engineered devices in a series of crucial steps. Such steps involve adherence to protocols, proper placement of sharps containers, correct disposal techniques, and use of safety devices (CDC, 2021). Developing targeted interventions necessitates recognizing gaps and challenges within this process so healthcare worker safety can be improved overall.

Perspectives and Stakeholders

Perspectives of Disciplines Affected

In order to tackle needle stick injuries, it is essential to gain insights from different disciplines that are impacted by or involved in the issue. The fields that need to be considered are nursing, medicine, infection control, occupational health, and administration. When each discipline weighs in, it brings in a unique perspective and specialized knowledge, providing a comprehensive outlook and successful solutions (Assen, 2020). Nurses are at the forefront, highlighting areas that need attention. Physicians provide valuable clinical insights and safety advice for patients. Infection control specialists guide top practices and protocols, while occupational health experts assess the potential risk. Meanwhile, administrators delegate resources and establish a safe environment.

Benchmarks and Best Practices

In addressing needle stick injuries, it is vital to identify best practices and benchmarking. Assessing gaps and opportunities can be achieved by comparing the present scenario with established benchmarks and best practices (Assen, 2020). Significantly reducing needle stick injuries involves implementing evidence-based interventions and adopting best practices.

Patient and Family Perspective

Tailoring interventions to incorporate the patients’ viewpoints is essential when recognizing how needle stick injuries impact them and their families. Engaging in discussions with the patients and their families assists in decision-making processes, leading toward more patient-centered care and improved quality of care (Assen, 2020).

Relevant Stakeholders

Involving stakeholders such as healthcare professionals, administration, regulatory agencies, occupational health departments, infection control teams, and unions is crucial. This collaboration fosters accountability, effective implementation of interventions, and safety culture. Including all stakeholders guarantees lasting and harmonious interventions (Assen, 2020).

Team Composition

The Rationale for Team Members Selected

Contributing unique skills and perspectives to the project is essential when selecting a team to address needle stick injuries (Makeen, 2022). Each team member should be chosen based on their expertise and project role.

System Leader

Including a high-ranking executive or administrator in the team is a crucial step toward implementing changes at the organizational level (Makeen, 2022). System leader has the sway and power to drive necessary adjustments. Their participation secures the resources, policies, and support required to tackle the issue efficiently.

Clinical-Technical Expert

Incorporating an infection control practitioner or occupational health specialist with clinical-technical expertise is integral. They harbor vast knowledge about needle stick prevention, protocols, and optimal techniques (Makeen, 2022). These professionals provide guidance based on empirical evidence and guarantee adherence to regulations. In addition, their interventions are recommended for implementation.

Day-to-Day Leader

In order to achieve successful project implementation, it is vital to have a team leader who has extensive knowledge of the healthcare system and can guide the team day by day. This leader should have intimate knowledge of the system’s inner workings and be able to identify obstacles and opportunities for change (Makeen, 2022). Their hands-on involvement in the project will allow them to engage frontline staff and manage daily activities. Moreover, their involvement is crucial for ensuring that interventions are implemented, and improvements are sustainable over time.

Aim Statement

This project aims to reduce needle stick injuries among healthcare workers by adopting thorough preventative measures, enhancing safety procedures, and promoting a safety culture within the healthcare organization.


Feasibility and Effectiveness

To tackle needle stick injuries, a strategy must be picked that is both practical and impactful. Its feasibility must be evaluated by considering the healthcare outfit’s resources, infrastructure, and potential obstacles. The strategy must also suit the outfit’s abilities and be extensible to various healthcare settings. For that, it is critical to choose evidence-based interventions and practices, ensuring they have succeeded in settings comparable to the present one.

Consideration of Balancing Measures

Monitoring and evaluating balancing measures is essential when implementing a strategy to avoid unintended consequences or trade-offs that might harm other systems. Careful evaluation of these measures will help accomplish the desired outcomes without adversely affecting different healthcare aspects (Sriram, 2019). It is essential to consider how the potential impact on other systems in the organization will affect the implementation of the strategy.

Human Science Design Principles

To optimize its potency, the plan must integrate human psychology design tactics. Such strategies involve simplification, systematization, implementation of constraints and compulsory requirements, duplication, avoidance of dependence on memory, capitalizing on habits and routines, enhancing competent team cooperation, and dynamic mechanization (Sriram, 2019). By applying these techniques, the plan could streamline procedures, minimize the probability of mistakes, support stable adhesion to safety measures, and stimulate the collaboration of medical personnel.


Assessing the Change

A thorough evaluation process will be carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in curbing needle stick injuries. This will entail scrutinizing pertinent data, measuring pre and post-implementation metrics, and closely monitoring key performance indicators. To determine the effectiveness of the strategy, assessments will be made on its impact on needle stick incidents, compliance with safety protocols, and how the staff views safety measures.

Plan for Data Collection

The evaluation process is heavily reliant on the collection of data. Our method for collecting data entails figuring out how many patients to study in each cycle and implementing the Five Times (5x) Rule to ensure an adequate sample size (Naqvi, 2015). Numerous approaches, such as electronic health records, incident reporting systems, and surveys, will be employed when gathering data. The parameters for data collection are well-defined and precise, including the analysis methods, data sources, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and frequency. Our meticulous data collection process will give us invaluable insights into the strategy’s impact, paving the way for more effective improvement efforts.

Data Cycles

Number of Patients Studied in Each Cycle

It is advisable to adhere to the Five Times (5x) Rule to achieve statistical significance, meaning that every cycle analyzed should have at least five bits of data collected from several patients (Naqvi, 2015). To guarantee dependable and significant findings, appropriate sample sizes will be established based on the healthcare organization’s breadth and data accessibility. The quantity of patients measured is subject to variation.

Data Collection Details

Various methods will be utilized for data collection, including surveys, incident reports, and the examination of electronic health records. To better understand safety protocols and perception of safety, healthcare workers may be asked to participate in surveys (Alfulayw, 2021). Incident reports will be utilized to gather information on needle stick occurrences and any related factors. Data collected from electronic health records will be scrutinized to determine needle stick injuries, patient outcomes, and adherence to safety protocols.

Analysis of Data

Depending on the research inquiries and data type, statistical techniques like chi-square tests, descriptive statistics, or regression analysis may be employed to examine the gathered data. The analysis will focus on identifying trends, patterns, and correlations related to needle stick injuries and the interventions used. The results will assist with continuous quality improvement efforts and aid decision-making processes.


Healthcare worker needle stick injuries require a thorough approach encompassing different viewpoints, incorporating patient and family perspectives, and looking to industry standards for guidance. In essence, an all-encompassing strategy that takes into account the interests of multiple parties is necessary. To promote a safety culture in healthcare organizations, we recommend building a team comprising a system leader, clinical-technical expert, and day-to-day leader with their respective knowledge to drive evidence-based interventions. The chosen strategy must be feasible and practical, with the potential impact on other systems within the organization being considered. Data collection and analysis are crucial in assessing effectiveness, monitoring progress, and guiding continuous improvement efforts. Ultimately, the goal is to secure the safety of healthcare workers and patients, reduce needle stick incidents, and promote a safety culture within healthcare organizations.


Alfulayw, K. (2021, October 9). Factors associated with needlestick injuries among healthcare workers: Implications for prevention. BioMed Central.

Assen, S. (2020). The magnitude and associated factors of needle stick and sharps injuries among health care workers in Dessie city hospitals, northeast Ethiopia. PubMed Central (PMC).

CDC. (2021, June 21). Sharps safety for healthcare settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Makeen, A. (2022). Needlestick and sharps injuries among secondary and tertiary healthcare workers, Saudi Arabia. PubMed Central (PMC).

Naqvi, I. (2015). Applying the Collaborative Improvement & Innovation Network (CoIIN).

Sriram, S. (2019). Study of needle stick injuries among healthcare providers: Evidence from a teaching hospital in India. PubMed Central (PMC).

Nurse Practitioner In Mississippi

This paper aims to present a comprehensive understanding of the steps and prerequisites involved in becoming a nurse practitioner (NP) in Mississippi. It aims to enlighten readers about the educational qualifications, certification criteria, professional boundaries, prescription permissions, ongoing learning obligations, practice hour mandates, and leadership proficiencies pertinent to NPs practicing within Mississippi.

Requirements for the Nurse Practitioner in Mississippi

To become a nurse practitioner in Mississippi, one must fulfill the obligatory educational and training prerequisites specified by the state guidelines. As per the regulations set forth by the Mississippi Board of Nursing, an individual must possess a current registered nurse (RN) license and complete an accredited graduate-level program for nurse practitioners recognized by authoritative accrediting institutions (Buppert, 2020). This program should encompass courses and practical clinical experiences concentrated on their chosen area of expertise. In most cases, it is also necessary to hold either a master’s or doctorate in nursing.


Becoming an NP necessitates a critical emphasis on education. In Mississippi, NPs must complete a graduate-level program accredited by an acknowledged nursing authority to meet the requirements. This education equips NPs with the advanced expertise and capabilities to offer thorough healthcare services. By acquiring extensive knowledge in crucial areas like health assessment, pharmacology, and clinical management, NPs are ready and capable of delivering exceptional care for their patients of top-notch quality.

Type of Practice

In Mississippi, nurse practitioners are granted the autonomy to practice independently or in partnership with a physician. They possess the power to make diagnoses, provide treatments, and oversee patients’ overall health conditions (Nembhard et al., 2020). Nevertheless, their scope of practice might be subject to modifications based on their specialized field and specific constraints established by collaborating physicians.

Prescription Privilieges

Nurse practitioners in Mississippi possess the authority to prescribe medications as deemed appropriate within their professional boundaries. Nevertheless, they might encounter restrictions or limitations on controlled substances and prescribing permissions for specific groups of patients.

Continuing Education

Maintaining and enhancing knowledge and skills is vital for nurse practitioners in Mississippi, necessitating the pursuit of continuing education. The state mandates that NPs fulfill designated hours dedicated to ongoing learning during each licensure renewal period. These educational endeavors are indispensable for ensuring NPs remain up-to-date with healthcare advancements while preserving their competence within their practice.

Practice hour requirement

Nurse practitioners in Mississippi are obligated to meet specific practice hour prerequisites. Buppert (2020) posited that to ensure their clinical competence and ongoing involvement in patient care, the Mississippi Board of Nursing mandates that NPs accumulate at least 720 hours of current clinical practice within two years.

Certification for Nurse Practitioners in Mississippi

Gigli et al. (2019) argued that in Mississippi, nurse practitioners (NPs) have two choices for certification: the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) and the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP). Both organizations offer exams to evaluate aspiring NPs’ knowledge and skills. The ANCC exam is most suitable for me because it covers many topics and holds high regard within nursing. To apply for this examination, individuals must meet ANCC’s eligibility requirements and submit all necessary documentation and applicable fees.

 Leadership Skills

I possess three leadership skills that are valuable assets to potential employers: proficient communication, problem-solving proficiency, and adaptability. These abilities hold significance since they encourage teamwork, stimulate creativity, and facilitate swift adjustments in the ever-changing healthcare landscape. However, I acknowledge my need for improvement in two areas of leadership – delegation and conflict resolution. I will actively pursue mentorship opportunities and attend workshops to improve my ability to delegate effectively. Additionally, I will devote time to practicing assigning tasks in real-life scenarios. Regarding resolving conflicts, I plan to participate in training programs specifically designed for this purpose.


To summarize, one must accomplish several key steps to become a nurse practitioner in Mississippi. Firstly, completing a graduate-level nurse practitioner program is necessary; obtaining national certification and adhering to the state’s guidelines is necessary. Once certified, nurse practitioners can work independently or alongside physicians while possessing the authority to diagnose illnesses, administer treatments and prescribe medication. To ensure excellent care provision and contribute effectively towards healthcare systems improvement, NPS must undertake ongoing education initiatives and nurture their leadership skills.


Buppert, C. (2020). Nurse practitioner’s business practice and legal guide. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Gigli, K. H., Beauchesne, M. A., Dirks, M. S., & Peck, J. L. (2019). White paper: Critical shortage of pediatric nurse practitioners predicted. Journal of Pediatric Health Care33(3), 347-355.

Nembhard, I. M., Burns, L. R., & Shortell, S. M. (2020). Responding to Covid-19: lessons from management research. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery1(2).