Mandatory Flu Vaccination In New York State Essay Example


Mandatory flu vaccination in New York State aims to reduce the prevalence rate of infection in the state. Therefore, realizing and sustaining optimal vaccination coverage among public members and healthcare workers helps to protect patients, general members, and healthcare staff and minimize infection burden and associated healthcare costs (Trish et al. 2019). Besides a mandatory influenza vaccination, New York State has equally rolled out compulsory immunization of diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, rubella, hepatitis B, and mumps.

Mandatory influenza immunization in New York State has significantly improved infection control. The state witnessed major steps in reducing influenza prevalence and enhancing public health outcomes. For instance, the mortality rate associated with influenza has diminished. Most healthcare workers have also enjoyed quality health, evidenced by reduced hospitalizations. Additionally, the New York Department of Health implemented and emphasized a public health policy, calling upon public members to ensure that children six months and above receive influenza vaccination by December 31, 2022.

Literature Search

The New York state’s health department enforced the mandatory flu vaccine policy to ensure all children receive adequate health protection and improve public health outcomes. Besides children’s vaccination, the state has encouraged adult vaccination to protect the adult population (Trish & Thomas, 2019). Similarly, mandatory influenza vaccination of healthcare workers has enabled the state’s healthcare department to protect its healthcare workforce effectively. Previous studies indicated that immunization would minimize infection transmission. Also, it will protect healthcare workers from contracting the virus from patients. Alternatively, some patients could also contract the virus from healthcare workers. Therefore, mandatory vaccination was a public health policy intended to protect everyone from the virus and enhance public health outcomes.

The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology recommended a mandatory of healthcare workers as a strategy to prevent flu infection. Therefore, different states carried out vaccination to their entire healthcare workforce. Not only were the employed healthcare workers affected, but also the incoming employees had to produce a flu vaccination vaccine as one of the job qualifications. Studies indicated that this new intervention would significantly help to curb the spread of respiratory disease. Therefore, it would help healthcare workers operate without fear of contracting the virus (Megan et al., 2020). Similarly, healthcare workers would provide services to patients without developing a fear of infecting the patients or getting the virus from patients. Also, the healthcare policy required healthcare workers with flu-like symptoms to stay away from the rest, including patients, till they get the appropriate vaccination or treatment.

Disease control organizations such as the Center for Disease Control have also emphasized the need for mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers. Consequently, states like New York have upgraded the initial measures to ensure disease prevention and control become a priority. Implementing compulsory vaccination will benefit healthcare workers, patients, and public members (Edmond, 2019). It limits disease spread between the healthcare workforce, patients, and other general members. Vaccination has helped to improve healthcare workers’ performance in care settings due to low absenteeism (Megan et al. 2020). Lastly, it has greatly helped to improve mortality and morbidity rates in healthcare settings. Healthcare workers who have not received the vaccine must wear protective masks when attending to patients to prevent virus transmission (Edmond, 2019). Even though there have been several critiques of the move requiring proof of mandatory vaccination during the employment of healthcare workers, the policy has helped a lot.


Implementing mandatory vaccination has gained momentum and propelled public health goals in the sector. For instance, vaccinating healthcare workers has greatly enabled American states like New York to achieve excellent health outcomes (Trish & Thomas, 2019). The healthcare workforce can operate effectively and achieve more productivity. The healthcare workers can interact freely among themselves and with the patients, knowing that they are adequately protected. Similarly, mandatory vaccination of children and public members has helped to reduce disease prevalence and morbidity and mortality rates in the state.

Healthcare Setting

Implementing a mandatory vaccination of healthcare workers in New York State will benefit the healthcare workforce. It directly impacts the healthcare staff since it will adequately protect them from the disease and enhance their productivity. The disease threatens the health of healthcare workers and patients (Edmond, 2019). Healthcare workers must get the vaccination to protect themselves and their fellow workers. Also, healthcare workers must conduct vaccination for public members and patients in care settings. These measures will help to reduce the disease prevalence and minimize death and morbidity rates.

Management Techniques

Healthcare management plays an instrumental in enforcing mandatory vaccination against influenza. First, the management has to select and recruit competent healthcare workers who can implement the public health policy across all care settings. Healthcare workers must understand the need for mandatory vaccination. They must set health goals, including the rate at which they intend to reduce disease prevalence, courtesy of vaccination (Edmond, 2019). Similarly, the healthcare management must set additional public health policies or guidelines supporting mandatory immunization. For instance, it must focus on public health needs, death rates, and influenza-related morbidity. The management must then formulate and implement effective mitigation guidelines such as wearing face masks, wearing masks absenteeism in case of flu-like symptoms, and minimizing contact with patients.

Ethical/Legal Dilemma

There are different ethical considerations in implementing a mandatory flu vaccination. First, implementing mandatory vaccination must consider the employment needs of workers. For instance, there is a need to apply evidence-based assessment to know whether or not to implement the policy in the recruitment process or to qualify potential workers. Secondly, certain people’s side effects or drug reactions must be considered to minimize adverse outcomes. For example, some people’s immune system reacts spontaneously to certain vaccines or drugs, yielding more complications.

Suggestions for Future Studies

Future investigations should assess the response of healthcare workers to the mandatory vaccination against influenza. For instance, while some people may welcome the application of the policy to the employment process, others may object to the procedure. The response will affect the nature of policy implementation among healthcare workers. Also, the assessment will pave the way to apply more practical approaches to roll out the health policy through the relevant suggestions by healthcare workers.


The study focused on mandatory flu vaccination, as the New York State’s health department suggested. The health policy helps to reduce disease prevalence and improve overall health outcomes. The study thus incorporated a literature search of previous scholarly resources or materials. Also, the study evaluated the impact of health policy on healthcare workers and management. Healthcare workers and management thus have a significant role in implementing the policy to reduce influenza prevalence and minimize mortality and morbidity. Lastly, the paper assessed the ethical dilemma and suggested areas for future studies.


Edmond, M.B (2019). Mandatory Flu Vaccine for Healthcare Workers: Not Worthwhile. Open forum infectious diseases, 6(4), ofy214. https:/

Gallagher, M.C., Haessler, S., & Babcock, H.M. (2020). Influenza Vaccination and Healthcare Personnel Compliance. Curr Team Options Infect Dis, 12, 71-76.

Trish, M., & Thomas, R. (2019). Universal Influenza vaccination among healthcare personnel: yes, we should. Open forum infectious diseases, 6(4), ofz096

Medical Specialties Review Sample Essay

There are hundreds of medical specialties and subspecialties as doctors always get expertise in one type of medicine or another, but we call all of them doctors. The specialty of a particular doctor may be focused on a defined group of skills, diseases, patients, and philosophy. According to Galen, the modern specialty has evolved from the 19th century and even existed before the formal legal system. Specialties are of different types, such as organ-based and diagnostic versus therapeutic. Still, in this paper, I shall focus on the specialties depending on the age range of the patients. This is with a particular concentration on the pediatrician, family doctor, and gerontologist.

Pediatrician handles medical conditions that affect infant children and young people and hence have a wide range of patients. These complaints in these children commonly do not require surgery; however, there is a sub-specialty of pediatricians who handle pediatric surgery. The pediatrician may also have sub-specialties similar to the organ-based specialties that tackle symptoms and diseases from a particular organ in adults. Some of the subspecialties of pediatricians include palliative medicine, neonatal intensive care, pediatric emergency medicine, child mental health oncology, and community pediatrics. A pediatrician is responsible for diagnosing and treating ailments in children; they are also responsible for monitoring the health and development of children and documenting them. They also administer vaccinations to encourage preventive care and do follow-ups of children from birth in wellness visits. They effectively monitor and communicate their patient’s fitness, nutritional, and health needs to their parents and recommend patients for further treatment and to different specialties when need be (Dickson-Swift et al.., 2020).

To qualify as a pediatrician, one must attend a medical school for pediatrics after their bachelor’s degree. The largest association of pediatricians is the American Academy of Pediatricians for qualified pediatricians. It contains all subspecialties of pediatricians and runs continuing medical education for pediatricians. Pediatricians require several qualities that exemplify their practice. This includes they should effectively communicating with the parents, they should have incredible amounts of patience, they should be committed to the relationships they build, and they should be transparent and trustworthy. Moreover, pediatricians should make the kids feel valued and safe. They should genuinely care, and they should also go the extra mile for the benefit of the children. Pediatricians focus on the holistic nature of the child as they cannot express themselves for effective treatment. Pediatricians can be found in various places, including outpatient clinics, health maintenance organizations, offices, and general and children’s hospitals, and many work in private practices.

A family physician cares for the whole family, including the elderly, adults, and children. They manage all ongoing conditions, including the check-up and screening tests for all the family members (Kidd, 2020). They are also involved in giving flu and other immunization shots. They provide care despite the health problem, sex, or age to the entire family. They are general practitioners coordinating comprehensive healthcare services addressing a family’s social, psychological, and physical needs. Family doctors may also serve as part of a primary healthcare team and ensure coordinated, continuous, and comprehensive care to the patients and their families, hence essential in delivering healthcare services. They do not require any further medical specialty after medical school and hence differ from the general doctors. The similarity between a family doctor and a pediatrician is that they must undergo routine education and training to provide the best healthcare quality to their patients. A family doctor specializes in treating patients of all ages, while a pediatrician specializes in treating children.

The scope of practice of family doctors includes serving as clinicians, leaders, advocates, and teachers, providing acute, emergency, and long-term care, and they manage all illnesses from “womb to tomb .”After their undergraduate and medical school, most family doctors require an additional three-year residency. However, there are several challenges that family doctors face, including unsafe care, misdirected care, fragmented care due to excessive specialization, impoverishing care, and inverse care. This is because of the complexity of managing different comorbidities and the current medicines expanding knowledge (De Sutter et al.., 2020).

Geriatric medicine specialties are involved in specifically treating the elderly. They are found in several areas, including hospitals, assisted living centers, nursing homes, doctors’ offices, and even patient residence homes. ( E. Gaugler, 2023) Gerontologist is experts in human aging and care for the elderly. A gerontologist’s responsibilities include fostering collaborative care and combating stigma to enable the well-being and wellness of the elderly individual; they provide high-quality medical care to the elderly, consult on the accessibility, housing, and psycho-social needs of the elderly, and work with other healthcare specialist and researchers to comprehend age-related trajectories.

Moreover, they write and investigate aging across contexts of race, different social backgrounds, and other diverse features, and they continuously learn about developments in their chosen sub-specialty. Gerontologists qualify for gerontology before practice and must demonstrate expertise in caregiver training. Some challenges gerontologists face include coping with ethical and legal issues, facing death and loss, being sensitive to the aging process, promoting a healthy lifestyle and social inclusion, and understanding common mental health issues for the elderly. A difference between the family doctor and the gerontologist is that a family doctor is geared to general practice, while a gerontologist is specialized in the needs of the elderly. A similarity is the overlap of roles as they both are involved in patient care, and even the family doctor also manages the elderly in the family.

In conclusion, as discussed above, medical specialties may be categorized based on age. Pediatricians deal with infants and children, while gerontologists deal with the elderly. On the other hand, family doctors may be regarded as general practitioners as they deal with every age group within the family. Moreover, with the specialty, there are subspecialties where a pediatrician may focus on a specific organ. Therefore the medical field is wide and rapidly changing, and passion for a particular specialization is important as it builds who you are as a medical practitioner.


Kidd, M. (2020). The contribution of family medicine to improving health systems: a guidebook from the World Organization of Family Doctors. CRC Press.

Gaugler, J. (2023). Introductory Editorial: Cultivating the Formidable Legacy of The Gerontologist. The Gerontologist63(1), 1-2.

De Sutter, A., Llor, C., Maier, M., Mallen, C., Tatsioni, A., van Weert, H., … & Stoffers, J. (2020). Family medicine in times of ‘COVID-19’: A generalists’ voice. European Journal of General Practice26(1), 58-60.

Dickson-Swift, V., Kenny, A., Gussy, M., McCarthy, C., & Bracksley-O’Grady, S. (2020). The knowledge and practice of pediatricians in children’s oral health: A scoping review. BMC Oral Health20(1), 1-10.

Music Place And Identity: Music Scenes Free Writing Sample

The development of the internet and digital media has significantly impacted the music business and how music is produced, enjoyed, and distributed. YouTube has become more crucial as streaming services like Spotify and Apple Music have grown in popularity for helping artists gain exposure and connect with fans. In particular, the 21st century’s most well-known and significant music platforms are YouTube ( Cotter, 2018). It has a large effect on the music business and is particularly relevant to discussions about music, place, and identity. With its ability to instantly transmit information and ideas to a wide audience, YouTube has been a crucial venue for creating both underground and mainstream music scenes worldwide.

The growth of music scenes on YouTube affects how we perceive identity, place, and music. First of all, technology has made it possible to create music settings that are not constrained by conventional conceptions of location. For instance, YouTube has been primarily credited for the emergence of Reggaeton music in the US since it made it possible to share music from Latin America with a worldwide audience (Lombardi, 2019). Second, it has allowed music scenes to grow, representing various identities and cultures. People can express their personalities and musical preferences on these music scenes and make music scenes representative of their personal histories. For instance, the “Cavetown” YouTube channel has grown to a sizable online fanbase that communicates with one another globally and exchanges and debates the singer’s music.

Additionally, YouTube has given independent music scenes a platform to grow by making it easy for DIY musicians to upload their work. This has allowed local music scenes to flourish and grow naturally, frequently without the help of established infrastructure for the music business (Chun, 2019). For instance, the platform has enabled unsigned artists to create fanbases and make money using services like Patreon and Bandcamp. This has made it possible for various musical styles and genres to emerge that might have yet to be able to succeed in the conventional music industry.

Furthermore, via vlogs and music videos, YouTube has developed into a space where people can express their identities. As a result, music scenes centered around a particular identity or group of individuals, like the hip-hop scene, have emerged (Barrett, 2020). These scenes have established their aesthetics and styles while giving marginalized voices a forum to be heard. For instance, the platform has made it possible for musicians like Le1f and Mykki Blanco to engage with their fans and get visibility in ways that were not feasible before the development of streaming platforms.

In addition, YouTube has allowed people to produce and disseminate musical situations that go against conventional ideas of style, class, race, and nation. By exploring music in various contexts, people can now discover musical scenes representing their experiences and viewpoints. This has made it possible for music scenes to arise that question conventional ideas of difference and taste while also giving people a forum to express their own identities and tastes. It has also made it possible for musicians of all social classes, racial backgrounds, and nationalities to be respected and recognized. The platform has also enabled various diverse music scenes to emerge, aiding the industry’s promotion of the concept of “taste and difference” (Cruikshank, 2020). For instance, YouTube has received much credit for the rise of K-Pop because of the global appeal of the genre and the emergence of K-Pop music scenes across the globe. With the help of YouTube, the UK’s “Bedroom Pop” culture has expanded substantially, bringing together local musicians and enabling them to share their music with a large audience.

In conclusion, YouTube has established itself as a crucial tool for the growth of music scenes all over the world. It has enabled the establishment of global music scenes, the expansion of independent music scenes, and the development of music scenes based on identity by granting access to music from all over the world. As a result, YouTube has become crucial to the larger discussion surrounding music, location, and identity.


Barrett, E. (2020). Music, Place, and Identity: Exploring YouTube’s Impact on Music Scenes. International Journal of Communication, pp. 14, 4794–4817.

Chun, S. (2019). YouTube: An Important Player in the Music Business. In The Routledge Companion to Music, Technology, and Education (pp. 124–134). Routledge.

Cotter, D. (2018). The Role of YouTube in the Music Industry. Music Business Journal, 6(1), 1–14.

Cruikshank, J. (2020). How YouTube Changed Music. Harvard Business Review, 98(11/12), 30-37.

Lombardi, J. (2019). How YouTube is Changing the Music Industry. Forbes. Retrieved from