Mapping And Monitoring Of Leachate Plume Migration Writing Sample

The journal article on a survey carried out in Zaria, Kaduna state on pollution of water by open waste disposal uses qualitative research method, since the research aims at characterizing the physical qualities of the subsoil, from which the level of pollution by leachate from the open landfills can be determined (Jegede et al., 2012). The survey is qualitative because it is aimed at determining characteristics that cannot be numerically measured such as soil saturation and thickness, bedrock depth, and the distribution and location of conductive fluids (Creswell, 2009). Quantitative analysis is unsuitable for this study as it involves using measurable numerical data that is impossible to collect for this study.

The qualitative data for the study is collected by carrying out a geophysical surface survey of the soil at the municipal waste dumping location. This was done using two techniques namely; the Electrical Resistivity Imaging which involved inserting steel electrodes into the soil sample and the 2D Induced Polarization Profile. Both of these methods were used to measure the electrical sensitivity of the soil (Jegede et al., 2012). After observing the soil characteristics, a decrease in resistivity was attributed to the contamination of the groundwater by leachate from the open landfills. The changeability of the soil although not measured in this survey, is another characteristic that can be used to determine contamination, as an increase in soil chargeability is attributed to an increase in salinity of groundwater due to contamination by leachate.

Another characteristic used to determine contamination is the color change of water collected from the soil from deep blue to light blue which is caused by changes in leachate concentration across the different soil layers. The study also measures the different rates of contamination plume that is determined by the rainfall during different months. It was noted that the plume concentration was higher in dry months such as March and December and lower during the wet months of April to August (Jegede et al., 2012). In conclusion, it is only a qualitative analysis of the geophysical characters of the soil from the dumpsite using the geo-electrical imaging that would have successfully determined the vertical and horizontal leachate concentration, by measuring the resistivity of the contaminated area. This qualitative approach is the only one that fulfills the survey objective of detecting soil pollution in the Zaria area.


Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Jegede, S. et al. (2012). Mapping and monitoring of leachate plume migration at an open waste disposal site using non-invasive method. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 4 (1), 26-33.

Marketing And Advertising In Online Communities

Communities are areas online where consumers who share interests gather and interact. Several virtual areas function as a community through discussion lists, chat rooms, and message boards. The unique properties of online communities offer marketers several opportunities to reach their customers in ways that never existed before.

Amazon website community

Communities on the internet trigger site visitors’ enthusiasm. Amazon website utilizes the reference groups as an interactive form of advertisement since potential clients can seek advice from others at this comment options. The site has irresistible advertisements to capture the attention of potential clients and attract them towards discussions on the latest product offers, thus ensuring that clients have high chances of making online purchases.

Amazon also uses the community marketing strategy to offer the remarkable easiness of client participation through interaction. The support for diversification ensures that marketers can discuss the offers and assist each other in adjusting quickly to a new market or make decisions through a built relationship with experienced clients.

Advertising and sponsorship in the WebMD community

Some of the benefits of community advertising include convenience, ability to supply extensive information within a short time, and direct. Online engagement with potential virtual clients means that few or no strains are associable with to need for buyer persuasion. The buyers persuaded each other through communal analysis of a product. WebMD online communities provide the company with a chance for diversification of its market niche and profitable opportunities for marketing both internationally and locally.

Web sponsorship entails the implementation of strategies that offer clients extra benefits such as discounting or sale services, while advertisements are aspects placed on a site to capture the attention of clients to maximize profits.

GM’s Owner Center as a community at the GM Web site

By viewing the interactions, profiles, and comments, the online marketers can note significant aspects of the products such as local and international preferences and purchasing powers thus engage strategies that would elevate sales. The online communities are a substitute for the traditional face-to-face form of advertisement, which was initially the most effective method of selling. Social interactions, therefore, enable the product owners to note the weak or strong points as indicated by those with product experiences.

Today the brands and trademarks of companies are garnering popularity due to the online communities. When someone visits a good site, they are often keen to advise a friend and the participation make the site or the products more popular. A good example is the GM website, which provides a forum for people to participate and share experiences to market car types or enhance sales.

MG Rover Group’s Car Production And Business Ethics

MG Rover’s car production and loss reduction

MG Rover business was a very important economic pillar in the motor industry in Britain, contributing greatly to employment opportunities, governments’ revenue, and the company’s continuity. It is unfortunate therefore that despite all the efforts the company and the government put to safeguard the interests of the company, it finally collapsed. At the time of the collapse, the stakeholders of MG Rover included, the government in safeguarding employees’ interest, the employees for getting their livelihood, and the then investor; Phoenix group.

Despite the phoenix efforts to diversify the variety of motor vehicle production and reducing the losses the company was incurring earlier, they were not able to make any profit, and therefore the remedy was to get a buyer which they succeeded in selling the intellectual property rights of two of its models to the shanghai Automotive Industrial Corporation to help in marketing it in China. These efforts were futile and the company was stopped production in 2005. The management and the government were in a position of rebranding and strategizing the business to avert the closure.

MG Rover’s Corporate Social Commitment Rovers

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the adherence by a company to carry out a business that is profitable economically, abide by the laws of the land, and support the ethical and social responsibility of the stakeholders. Rovers upheld part of the corporate social responsibilities though not to the expected levels. The legal responsibility was foregone when the company could not heed the governments’ plea to continue in production to safeguard massive employment opportunities.

The company’s top government is also said to have paid themselves massive salary amidst the economic situations of the industry. The economic responsibility was partly upheld when the company was geared towards the profitability of the company through diversification and looking for new investors to boost investment in the firm though this did not fully rejuvenate the company’s economic performance.

This however is not the only line of economic responsibility since they did not consider the larger picture of its contribution to the overall economy of the nation through job opportunities. Social responsibility was one of the areas which had loopholes in the company since there was no enough effort to promote the living standards of the involved parties instead emphasis was given to profitability only and that is why the company sparingly reduced its labor force.

Furthermore, the company did not involve in any philanthropic activity to help the society, and therefore it is evident that MG Rover was shot of the corporate social responsibility as expected of them. There was a potential for the company to motivate the employees ethically through incentives and better working conditions and as a result, the economic output of the company would have increased.

MG Rover’s fight against the government

MG Rover had gained immense power as a multinational and had outdone the government; therefore, their decisions were independent of the government’s wishes and advice. This was evident when the government decided to support the company by paying wages through loan awards. The company therefore had amassed great powers and went ahead to stop production and thus exposing the government to the critics.

MG Rover saving jobs in Longbridge

The company directors in conjunction with the government and the involved investors are responsible for the preservation of jobs at Longbridge. This is because they are responsible for making decisions that lead to the sustenance of the company in operation. The employees therefore finally face the responsibility of losing jobs in such situations of industrial restructuring which is ethically wrong but have no choice since the responsible individuals have failed.

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