Marie Curie A Pioneering Physicist Research Essay Sample For College

Aspirations come from hopes and dreams merely a dedicated individual can raise up. They can run from go throughing the 3rd class to doing the local high school football squad. Marie Curie ’ s aspirations, nevertheless, were much greater.

Life in late nineteenth century Poland was unsmooth. Bing a female in those yearss wasn ’ t a walk in the park either. Marie Curie is recognized in history by the name she took in her adoptive state, France. Born in Poland in 1867, she was christened Manya Sklodowska. In the twelvemonth of her birth, Poland was ruled by the adjacent Russia ; no Pole could bury it, or at least anyone involved in instruction, as both Manya ’ s parents were. Manya ’ s female parent was a headmistress of a misss ’ school. The Russians insisted that Polish schools teach the Russian linguistic communication and Russian history. The Poles had to learn their kids their ain

linguistic communication and history in secretiveness.

Manya enjoyed larning but her childhood was ever overshadowed by depression. At the immature age of six, her male parent lost his occupation and her household became really hapless. In the same twelvemonth of 1873, her female parent died of TB. As if that wasn ’ t adequate calamity for the household already, two of her sisters died of typhus every bit good. Her oldest sister, Bronya, had to go forth school early to take attention of the household. Despite all these adversities and reverses, Manya continued to work hard at school.

Although her sister Bronya had stopped traveling to school to move as the household ’ s housekeeper, she urgently wanted to travel on analyzing to go a physician. This was about impossible in Poland, nevertheless. In Poland, adult females were non allowed to travel to college. Many Poles took the option to fly from Russian regulation and live in France ; this is precisely what Bronya did. She had set her bosom on traveling to Paris to analyze at the celebrated Sorbonne University ( The University of Paris ) . The lone job now was that she had no money to acquire at that place.

Manya and Bronya agreed to assist each other attain their instructions. Manya got a occupation as a governess and sent her net incomes to back up Bronya in Paris. Then, when Bronya could afford it, she would assist Manya with her schooling and instruction in return. Manya went to populate in a small town called Szczuki with a household called Zorawski. Aside from learning the two kids of the household for seven hours a twenty-four hours, she organized lessons for her ain benefit as good. Manya spent her eventides, late eventides, and even forenoons devouring books on mathmatics and scientific discipline.

Bronya finished her surveies and married a Polish physician, Casimir Dluski. They invited Manya to populate with them in Paris while she went to college. Manya didn ’ t want to go forth her state and most significantly, her household. Her avidity for the quest of cognition overcame her fright of the unknown, however. She travelled to Paris in an unfastened railway auto on a trip that lasted three yearss in the Polish winter. She arrived safely to her long-since- childhood dream, the metropolis of Paris. Manya Sklodowska rapidly became Marie.

While Marie improved her Gallic, she stayed with Bronya and her hubby. They lived more than an hr off from the university. Marie wanted to be close to her work, so she finally ended up traveling out of her sister ’ s place and into a individual cold moistness room, eating merely plenty to maintain her alive. Fortunate plenty for a scholarship, Marie was able to travel on analyzing until she had completed two classs. In her concluding exam-inations, she came in first in the topic of mathematics and 2nd in natural philosophies. By 1894, at the age of 27, Marie had acquired non one, but two grades from France ’ s top university and besides became a wholly fluid talker of the Gallic linguistic communication.

Marie had ever ruled love and matrimony out of her life ’ s plan. She was obsessed by her dreams, harassed by poorness, and over driven by intensive work. Nothing else counted ; nil else existed. She did, nevertheless, run into a immature adult male every twenty-four hours at Sorbonne and at the research lab. Marie and her destiny really met on happenstance. Marie needed someplace to carry on her experiments for research ordered by the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry. The lab at Sorbonne was excessively crowded with pupils, in add-on to non holding the right equipment. A friend of hers suggested a friend ’ s research lab. His name was Pierre Curie. Marie shortly completed her committedness to her adoptive state by get marrieding this Frenchman.

Marie and Pierre Curie got married in 1895. The two of them combined likely made up the best squad of scientists of all time. Pierre had made of import finds about magnetic attraction. Marie decided to follow this up by looking at the magnetic belongingss of steel. In the same twelvemonth of their matrimony, a German scientist by the name of Wilhelm Roentgen made an inadvertent find. He found that certain substances produced beams of energy that would go through through soft stuffs as opposed to difficult stuffs. Due to the fact that scientists frequently use the symbol “ x ” to stand for anything unknown, he called his cryptic find the “ x-ray. ” The X ray was more than an amusive mystifier. By directing X raies and photographic movie at a solid object that consisted of both soft and difficult substances a positive image can be made of the difficult substance. A premier illustration would be the human organic structure. This find now made it possible to look inside the human organic structure without executing surgery. Within the few yearss of the findings, X raies were used to turn up a slug in a adult male ’ s leg. The universe of medical specialty had acquired a major new tool for analyzing the sick and injured.

The twelvemonth after Roentgen ’ s find, a Gallic research worker and a friend of the Curie ’ s, Antoine Henri Becquerel found that a rare substance called uranium gave off beams that seemed to be really much like the X raies that Wilhelm Roentgen had described.

In 1897, the twelvemonth of Roentgen ’ s find, Marie Curie gave birth to her really first girl, Irene. Despite being caught up in household life, Marie was still determined to travel on with her scientific work. She decided to follow up Becquerel ’ s find and do particular research on the survey of U and the beams it produced.

Elementss are the natural stuffs of our existence. Everything is made up of these basic substances. Scientists are able to interrupt things down into their assorted elements and trials can be made to detect its array of belongingss.

In the little moist research lab in the dorsum of Sorbonne ’ s School of Physics and Chemistry, Marie began a long, boring and painstaking series of experiments that tested every component known to adult male. She found that merely the two elements uranium and Th gave off beams. “ Radioactivity ” was the name Marie gave to this belongings. Marie shortly once more made another of import find about a mineral called allied pitch-blende, a black substance, slightly stiff like that of pitch, which contains bantam measures of U but absent of Th. Pitchblende gave off eight times more beams than the U that it contained. It was, using Marie ’ s new term, more radioactive. Marie figured out that uraninite must therefore contain another component, which was besides radio-active that no 1 had discovered as of yet. Pierre was so overwhelmed with this find, he quit his ain work to fall in in his married woman ’ s research and happen out more on this new component. The Curie squad decided to name it Ra.

Marie realized that the new component within the uraninite was in minute measures merely, hence, to insulate any respectable sum to prove and mensurate big parts of uraninite were needed. To divide the Ra from the uraninite, it would hold to be heated, which purifies the substance. While working with the uraninite, another component was discovered which wasn ’ T radioactive, hence non Ra. Marie named this component Po, in award of her native fatherland Poland.

Marie ’ s experiments were now being conducted in an abandoned wooden shed, furnished with merely old kitchen tabular arraies, a cast-iron range and a chalkboard. One eventide, in 1902, after four long old ages of wash uping work, Marie decided to travel back to their lab and look into on the experiments they had done earlier in the twenty-four hours. When Marie and Pierre got to the research lab, they saw a “ swoon blue freshness ” in the darkness ; it was the Ra.

Radium proved to be one of the universe ’ s most of import finds, particularly for its marvelous medical utilizations. Radium was measured to be two million times more radioactive than U. The smallest sum of Ra was capable of giving off huge radiation. Radium is highly powerful and, unless used with attention and in a controlled environment, really unsafe. Unfortunately, this was non known in the yearss of the Curies. While working with radioactive stuffs, both Pierre and Marie suffered from many unwellnesss and strivings. They encountered hurting weaponries and legs, sores, colds and blisters that ne’er seemed to travel off. They frequently pinned these jobs to their deficiency of remainder due to being in the research lab. Merely subsequently did the two connect their betterment in wellness with their absence from the Ra. The Curie’s great find prompted scientists and physicians to work and farther develop its utilizations. It was found that radiation could be used to destruct unhealthy growing in the human organic structure, therefore assisting to halt malignant neoplastic disease. Besides being able to bring around, Ra can besides kill. Managing and commanding the Ra is the first and first quandary. The Curie’s found this out the difficult way…

The find of Ra did, nevertheless, conveying the Curies something they were proud of. In 1903, Marie Curie was awarded the grade of Doctor of Science. At the awards ceremonial, Marie showed how thankful she was by have oning a new frock. The Curies were so showered with awards and awards from so on. That same twelvemonth, Pierre was invited to London to give a talk on Ra. In

November of that twelvemonth, the Royal Society, Britain ’ s taking association of scientists, presented Pierre and his married woman with one of its highest awards, the Davy Medal. Not a month subsequently, they heard from the Academy of Sciences in Sweden that the Nobel Prize for natural philosophies was to be awarded to the Curies along with Henri Becquerel. Marie and Pierre felt excessively sick to do the journey to Sweden to accept the award in individual, so Becquerel accepted the decorations for them. The Nobel Prize included a instead big amount of money … 70,000 gold francs. The Curies accepted the money finance for their experiments. This released Capital of south dakota from his learning so that he could concentrate on research and to refund to kindness and back up they had received from their friends and household over the old ages. They besides gave gifts to hapless Polish pupils and made a few betterments to their little flat.

One new comer that the Curies didn ’ t head was Eve, their 2nd girl, born in December in 1904. Her arrival didn ’ t interrupt the Curies research and instruction, as their first kid Irene had threatened. The Curie ’ s lecherousness for scientific discipline still lingered.

In the twelvemonth of 1905, Pierre was elected a member of the Gallic Academy of Sciences and became a Professor of Physics at the Sorbonne. Early in the undermentioned twelvemonth, tragedy struck. Traversing the route in a shower of rain, Pierre stepped out from behind from a cab directly into the way of a heavy Equus caballus drawn waggon. The driver tried to halt the waggon, but all was in vain. The weight of his burden was excessively great for him to halt, and the left back wheel crushed Pierred as he lay stunned in the route. Pierre Curie died immediately.

Marie was shattered by the intelligence of her hubby ’ s decease but shortly recovered the finding to transport on with her work. The Gallic authorities proposed to acknowledge Pierre ’ s work to the state by allowing Marie a pension for herself and her kids. She refused stating, “ I am immature plenty to gain my life and that of my kids … ”

The Sorbonne agreed with her because The Faculty of Science voted nem con that she should win Pierre as Professor. It was a alone testimonial, for she became non merely the first adult female professor at Sorbonne but the first at any Gallic university.

Marie had felt it was her responsibility to win her hubby. He had ever said he would hold liked to see Marie learn a category at Sorbonne. Marie at last showed her concluding feeling on the affair by the manner in which she gave her first public address talk to a packed crowd.

In the twelvemonth of 1910, four old ages after Pierre ’ s decease, Marie published a long history of her finds of radiation. This led to her being awarded a 2nd Nobel Prize. Not for another 50 old ages would anyone carry through such a singular award. This clip, Marie went to Stockholm in Sweden to accept her award in individual. 1911 should hold been a twelvemonth of victory, but it turned out to be a atrocious twelvemonth of torment, nevertheless. The awarding of Marie ’ s 2nd Nobel Prize was controversial because many say it was given to her out of commiseration of her hubby. That same twelvemonth, Marie failed by two ballots to be elected to be in the Academy of Sciences. Worse yet, some newspapers said that her close friendly relationship with the scientist Paul Langevin was incorrectly because he was a married adult male with four kids.

Marie received many vindictive letters and became distressed. A enchantment in the nursing place and a trip to England helped her to retrieve. Marie ’ s existent remedy for her jobs was decidedly her work. The Sorbonne at last decided to give her what she needed to make it decently – a particular institute for the survey of Ra, newly-built on a route renamed in award of her hubby, “ Rue Pierre Curie. ” Marie was thrilled with this new undertaking and gave it, as her ain personal gift, the cherished Ra she and Pierre had prepared with their ain custodies. This Ra was cherished in every sense. It was critical for farther scientific research. It was indispensable for it ’ s usage in medical specialty and it was worth more than a million gold francs.

The Radium Institution was finished on July 13, 1914. Less than a hebdomad subsequently, World War I broke out. Marie gave up all idea of scientific work in her new institute and threw herself behind the cause of her adoptive state. Before giving herself to the war, Marie made a particular trip to Bordeaux, in western France and put the cherished gm of Ra off in a bank vault.

Marie donated all her money toward the war attempts including her ain personal nest eggs in gold to be melted down. She even offered her decorations, but the bank refused them. Marie rapidly saw that there was one service that she could make for France that no 1 else could – form a mass x-ray service for the intervention of hurt soldiers. During the class of the war, Marie, along with voluntaries, equipped 20 autos as nomadic x-ray units and put up more than 200 infirmary suites with x-ray equipment. Over a million work forces were x-rayed, which saved 10s of 1000s of lives and prevented an untold figure of amputations. Between 1916 and 1918, Marie Curie trained 150 people including 20 American Expeditionary Force members in x-ray engineering of radiology. After the war ended, Marie continued to develop radiotherapists for another two old ages.

Marie disliked newsmans and maintain off from journalists. One American newsman, Mrs. Marie Melaney was relentless. Marie eventually gave in to her and agreed to an interview. The two rapidly became friends. Mrs. Melaney understood how Marie had put aside her scientific work during the war and knew that in the whole of France there was merely one gm of Ra that Marie had presented to the newly-established institute. Mrs. Melaney went back to the United States and asked the state for a amount of $ 100,000 for another gm of Ra for Marie ’ s research. Marie was widely known and 1000000s dutifully complied. In 1921, Marie was invited to the United States to have her Ra. After stepping out into the public merely one time, the universe fell in love.

She became kind of and embassador for scientific discipline, going to other states, educating every bit good as still having awards. In 1925, the Polish authorities erected another Ra institute, this clip in her award – The Marie Sklodowska/Curie Institute. The President of Poland laid the first corner rock while Marie laid the 2nd. The adult females of the United States acknowledged her a 2nd clip and collected adequate money to bring forth yet another gm of Ra to be presented to the Polish Institute for its research and intervention plan.

In may of 1934, Marie Curie was stricken to her bed due to the grippe. Being excessively weak to contend against the virus, she died in a sanatorium in the Gallic Alps. She was softly buried on July 6, 1934 and laid to rest following to her hubby Pierre.

Marie Curie was a adult female of the ages. She represented true humanity in the chase of flawlessness. Marie found humanity ’ s flawlessness in chemical science and her work. Loving what she did and giving herself to the scientific disciplines is what made her happy in the sense that true flawlessness was found.

Unleavened Bread Of Jewish Culture Research Paper

In the Jewish culture, unleavened bread is usually eaten during Passover. The important of unleavened bread to Jewish people is how it represents Christ. In addition, it speaks of sanctification, in a way it also represents how a person is pure of no evil. The most common unleavened bread eaten on Passover is matzah. This bread is usually eaten with bitter herbs and sometimes with fruit.

This bread can also be made with herbs in it, such as cilantro. The unleavened bread is baked without yeast for the Passover. This is by how to the Jewish culture believes that leaven symbolizes error or evil. Matzah at the Passover represents how Christ’s physical body would not experience the ravages of death. Unleavened breads have been around since ancient times, they started out of Egypt. When the Jewish slaves left Egypt, it is said that they ate unleavened bread by how they did not have time to let the bread rise before baking.

To make Jewish style unleavened bread, you need a few ingredients. These ingredients are bread flour, water, sunflower oil, cilantro, and salt. There are no leveling agents; this is so the bread won’t rise. When kneading the dough, do so lightly then bake it off. Then take out of the oven and cut into triangles and bake for another few minutes. When it is done, the bread will be like crackers in texture. The Passover is usually takes place in March or April, and runs for seven days.

During those seven days, there are the first and seventh day is spent as a meeting between man and Christ. A common tradition is to sprinkle leavened (yeast) bread crumbs throughout the house and then sweep them all up. After doing so they take them outside to burn them, by doing so they believe they are getting rid of the evil or error. Passover also commemorates the exodus of the Jewish slaves from Egypt during ancient times. By the Passover, Jewish people get to celebrate the freedom of their ancestors from Egyptian bondage.

During the Passover, they also remember the last supper and what Christ said to his disciples. Christ told them the bread represented his body and to eat it in remembrance of him. The Jewish culture believes commemorating liberation from slavery has matzah as a primary symbol for the holiday. Thus, unleavened bread is a major symbol of freedom to the Jewish people and their past. Unleavened breads are also important to many other cultures, for different reasons. An example would be unleavened bread being used at communions.

Therefore, many denominations use unleavened breads for several religious ceremonies. Several types of unleavened bread can be made, but it is always brittle flat bread. The bread is usually almost like a cracker and served with herbs, salsa. It can also be served with bitter herbs; these represent the bitterness of slavery in Egypt.

Work Citied

  1. http://www. ehow. com/how_2127140_make-unleavened-bread-passover.html
  2. http://www. christcenteredmall. com/teachings/feast/unleavened-bread.htm
  3. http://www. jewishvoice. org/site/docserver/feast_of_passover_tend_cared. pdf? docID=1901

Chemistry And Biology Of Humans Body

About 40% of the body’s sodium is contained in one, some is found within other organs and cells and the remaining 55% is in blood plasma and extracurricular fluids. Sodium is important in proper nerve conduction, in aiding the passage of various nutrients into cells, and in the maintenance of blood pressure. Chloride ions also help to maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of body fluids. Chloride is the major extracurricular anion and contributes too many body functions including the maintenance of blood pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity, and the movement of water between fluid compartments.

Chloride ions are secreted in the gastric juice as hydrochloric acid, which is the naturally-produced acid that is essential for the digestion of food. One of salt’s major functions is to regulate blood volume and pressure including the flexibility of the blood vessels. When the heart contracts, it forces blood through the arteries of the circulatory system; the pressure required to pump this blood is called “systolic,” the “top” number of a blood pressure reading. Between heartbeats, the heart relaxes and the pressure maintained is called “diastolic,” the “bottom” number.

When the blood volume increases or the blood vessel walls don’t expand enough, blood pressure increases. Normal blood pressure is less than 130/85 mm Hug according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. In any given population, blood pressures are considered to be a relatively good indicator of the incidence of cardiovascular events like heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure can be affected by many things. Above all else is the genetic predisposition to high blood pressure, just like there are certain groups that have a genetic predisposition to low blood pressure.

Blood pressure can be affected by stress, age, exercise and diet. People who consume a Mediterranean-type diet, with lots of fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products are the least susceptible to high blood pressure. For certain individuals who are salt sensitive, excessive consumption of sodium can increase blood pressure. This tendency can be minimized by eating a balanced Mediterranean-type diet. In an average populations consuming and American-type diet, when salt intakes are reduced, about 30% will experience a drop in blood pressure between and 4 mm Hug while about 20% will experience a similar increase in blood pressure.

The remaining 50% of the population will show no effect at all of salt intake reduction. Nevertheless, the entire debate on salt and health has almost exclusively focused on the issue of blood pressure, with little regard to any other risk factors or boomers resulting from a variation in salt intake. The kidney is a complex and vital organ, regulating the electrolyte and fluid status of the human body. As hemophilia’s (HAD) and peritoneal dialysis (PDP) are forms of anal replacement therapy and not an actual kidney, they do not possess the same physiologic regulation of both fluid and electrolytes.

Precise regulation of fluid and electrolytes in the HAD and PDP population remains a constant challenge. In this review, fluid status of both HAD and PDP will be examined, as well as sodium, potassium, phosphorous, and calcium. Each electrolyte will be analyzed by its physiological significance, the complications that will occur when a proper balance cannot be maintained, and methods to correct these imbalances. An overview of the fluid compartments and volume of distribution thin the body will be discussed.

Alliteration, a modality used in both forms of renal replacement therapy, will be defined, along with its impact on fluid status. Fluid assessment will be addressed, along with proper maintenance of fluid homeostasis. By having an understanding of the pathologically behind the fluid and electrolyte abnormalities that occur in end-stage renal disease, one can direct proper management with medications, diet, and alterations in dialysis to provide patients with the most optimal form of renal replacement therapy available.