Marijuana Is A Psychoactive Drug Sample College Essay

The controversy of whether or not marijuana should or should not be legalized started in 1996 when California passed Proposition 215. The proposition made marijuana medically available in California. Although not a lasting solution, it does provide a defense in criminal instances.

If marijuana were to be legalized throughout the United States, would it be more harmful or helpful to the patient? Both sides of the argument have very strong cases for what they believe. On the anti-legalization side, there are concerns of health and mental hazards, the problem of marijuana being a stepping-stone drug, and the risk that the use of marijuana incites violence.

While advocates of marijuana believe it is a more effective drug, it is more cost-efficient, and there is a concern of how it will be obtained once it is legalized. Both sides of the argument will be presented and supported reasonably and in an unbiased manner.

First, a brief description of what marijuana is, its past uses, and what it has become will be presented. Marijuana is a psychotropic or mind-altering drug obtained by treating the hemp plant. There are three types of the plant which include Cannabis sativa, indica, and ruderalis. (Sussman 2) In the 1600s, hemp was a major product used in the fabrication of many things, and it did not begin its recreational use until the 1900s when it was brought from Mexico to replace alcohol. (Sussman 1)

Now I will begin to present the arguments brought forth by those opposing the legalization of marijuana. In the conflict against the legalization of marijuana, the major argument is the adverse effects of marijuana on both the mind and the body. The most well-known harm done to the body is lung cancer. When compared to a normal tobacco cigarette, a joint contains five times as much carbon monoxide, four times the amount of tar, and it does ten times as much harm to the lining of your respiratory system. (Sussman 3)

One would think, why would you want to do this to your lungs? It is because tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, the strongest psychoactive portion of marijuana, relaxes and takes away your pain very quickly and effectively. Another physical hazard is that your immune system will not be as effective when using marijuana. (Sussman 3) Which is a very good point.

You are a sick individual and you want to get better. Would you want to take something that would shut down the very thing that is fighting your disease? It is a complete contradiction as to what you are trying to accomplish. Another major problem found with the use of marijuana is it can cause problems in the mind. Use can cause confusion, disorientation, and hallucinations. (Sussman 3)

There are, besides, other mental effects created by the usage of marijuana. When coverage of the mental effects users have stated, they can’t halt utilizing the drug, loss of self-confidence and memory, household and fiscal jobs, and withdrawal symptoms. (Sussman 6) A psychological consequence also known in the battle is that marijuana has been studied as a stepping stone drug.

Approximately 60 percent of adult users use other drugs. While it is not clear how one affects the other, it is believed that using enjoyable drugs supports the usage of other drugs. (Sussman 4) This is an effect that would cause many more problems for those who are contending to halt the spread of drug usage.

The concluding argument I will discuss is the US Secret Service’s link between marijuana and violence. Many early studies said that marijuana was not linked to violence, but recent studies show quite the opposite. Twenty-seven percent of perpetrators had smoked marijuana 24 hours before committing the offense, and 25 percent say that marijuana was related to the crime. (Sussman 9) Violence has also occurred in order to obtain the drug. They include the offenses of larceny and drug dealing. (Sussman 9) These have been merely a few of the arguments to keep marijuana illegal.

While there are many good arguments to keep marijuana illegal, there are also very many to assist in legalizing it. There are many advocates in the battle to legalize marijuana. Some include the Wo/Men’s Alliance for Marijuana, Jerome P. Kassier, who is the editor in chief of the New England Journal of Medicine, and Kevin B. Reese, the lawyer and president of Common Sense for Drug Policy.

Right now, marijuana is a Schedule I drug, which means it has no medical value. Advocates wish for it to be reclassified as a Schedule II drug. An example of a Schedule II drug is morphine. If marijuana were to be reclassified, it could prove helpful medically in many ways.

THC has been shown to assist patients in many areas. Its greatest contribution may be to chemotherapy patients. THC can guard off the effects of nausea and vomiting brought on by chemotherapy interventions. (Fackelmann 2) Richard Gralla, director of the Ochaner Cancer Institute in New Orleans, says that drugs available today offer many cancer patients complete freedom from nausea and emesis. (Fackelmann 2)

On the other hand, Kevin Zeese says many patients can’t take these drugs that are required to be taken orally. (Fackelmann 2) Pro-marijuana legislators say that inhalation delivers quicker relief, which would enable the patient to regulate the amount they receive. (Fackelmann 2)

Which would be best for the patient because they could maintain the pain relief and still regulate how much they will receive. The usage of marijuana may help in other areas as well. One is glaucoma, a disorder in which there is extreme pressure in the eye. One study, which took place over a period of twenty-one years, showed that the pressure was relieved. (Fackelmann 3)

With the aid of a glaucoma prescription and marijuana, the subject was able to ward off the pressure. (Fackelmann 3) Neither approach worked alone, which is why it makes many scientists uneasy to prescribe this treatment. This is a perfect example of why I believe that the government should fund research to help find out why this happens. The more people know, the less they will have to fear.

Many people have a great fear of how they will obtain the drug if it were legalized. When Proposition 215 was passed, the DEA interpreted that law so that only people with prescriptions and those that look after them could grow marijuana themselves. It also stated that they could not get it from “pot clubs”. (Saccamano 1) This leaves them to deal with drug dealers and exposes them to danger.

The cost of marijuana is also a good basis to legalize marijuana. The cost would be twenty to thirty dollars an ounce or 30 cents a cigarette. Zofran, a commonly used drug, would cost a patient 30 to 40 dollars a dose, about a hundred times as expensive as marijuana. (Grinspoon 4) These have been a few of the main arguments presented by marijuana advocates.

Meaning Of Social Security In Employment

What is mean by Social Security in Employment can be defined in different ways. Social Security is not a new concept to the world t begins form the very early stage even not from the thought of human rights but started from Natural Rights. “The most perfect system of government is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness, the greatest amount of social security and greater amount of political stability”. -Simon Bolivar (1819) Social security in Employment is admire as a basic human right involves access to health care and income security, particularly in cases of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, work injury, maternity or loss of a main income earner The structure of the Social Security maintained by respective states through Social Insurance Programs. Only 20 per cent of the world’s population has adequate social security coverage and more than half lack any coverage at all.

We can divide the social security schemes as contributory and non contributory schemes. Contributory schemes means the employee ( Beneficial Owner) Should contribute a monetary contribution to assure his future and sudden benefits. Non Contributory Benefits are relied on employer’s contribution for employees and largely depend on state’s contribution. The developed states forward this method and promote the Social Security schemes in Social Security mostly in ease of Unemployment benefits. Social Security Scheme Contributory Scheme Non-Contributory Scheme.

Regardless of where they live everybody needs a minimum level of social protection and income security, according to their society capacity and level of development. This will not happen automatically. Each country must develop through social dialogue a national social protection system that addresses the needs of all its people, Particularly those of women and of the excluded groups working in the informal economy. Although Sir Lankan has a reputation for providing its citizens with a higher level of social protection, mom gaps remain in this area.

The absence of an unemployment protection scheme and the large informal sector that is not covered by any form of social security scheme is a major concern. Given the trend of increased labor market mobility and flexibility within a globalizes economy, it has increasingly become necessary for countries to have adequate social protection mechanisms in place to ensure that such flexibility is balanced with adequate security. Among other things it includes unemployment and redundancy benefits, pension and provident fund schemes and measures to safeguard occupational health and safety. The ILL is concerned with decent work.

The goal is not just the creation of jobs, but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality. The quantity of employment cannot be divorced from its quality. All societies have a notion of decent work, but the quality of employment can mean many things. It could relate to different forms of work, and also to different conditions of work, as well as feelings of value and satisfaction. The need today is to devise social and economic system which ensures basic security and employment while remaining capable of adaptation to rapidly changing circumstances in a highly competitive global arrest.

All those who work have rights at work. The ILL Constitution calls for the improvement of the conditions of labor, whether organized or not, and wherever work might occur, whether in the formal or the informal economy, whether at home, in the community or in the voluntary sector. The primary goal of the ILL today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. This is the main purpose of the Organization today.

Decent work is the converging focus of all its four strategic objectives namely the rumination of rights at work, employment, social protection, and social dialogue. The ILL consistently maintained that economic and social development is two aspects of the same process which sustain and reinforce each other. The linkages are well illustrated by the four strategic objectives of the ILL. Principles and rights at work provide the ground rules and the framework for the development, employment and incomes are the way in which production and output are translated into effective demand and decent standards of living.

Social protection ensures human security and civic inclusion, and enables economic reform. Social illegal links production with distribution, and ensures equity and participation in the development process. Social protection systems transfer income to the sick and others who cannot earn their living. Labor and employment policies seek to increase the number of decent jobs. These two sets of policies should be complementary. A country that offers adequate social protection will be reducing open unemployment as well as easing necessary adjustment in the labor market.

A country that pursues a full employment policy will be reducing the demands on its system of social protection. But there can also be negative forms of feedback. As an example if labor market policies encourage early retirement or offer generous invalidity conditions, they will also increase dependency ratios and pension costs and may overstraining social protection budges. These and many other interconnections demand that labor market and social protection policies be considered together.

International Human Right Instruments on Social Security The right to social security is recognized as a human right. Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( JIHAD ) states that, Articles 22 “Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled o realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 23 “(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration insuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article 25 “(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. In the Article 9 and 10 of International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (SERVICES) covers the right to social security. Article 9 of the SERVICES states that, aha States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance” The right to social security is also recognized in the Article 5 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ( CEDAR ) ensure the right to social security for women in article 1 1 .

The Convention on the Rights of the Child ( CRY) enshrines the right of children to social security in article 26. ILL Conventions on Social Security Ratified by Sir Lankan Social Security protection was established as a basic human right in the Olio’s Declarations of Philadelphia Andean its Income Security Recommendation of 1944 No 67. There are eight Fundamental Conventions and Sir Lankan has ratified all of them. They cover subjects that are considered fundamental principles and sights at work. The eight Fundamental Conventions are: 1. CHIC 2.

CHIC – Forced Labor Convention, 1930 (No. 29) – Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87) 3. CHIC 4. Cool 5. CHIC 6. Chill – Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98) – Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100) – Abolition of Forced Labor Convention, 1957 (No. 105) – Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111) 7. CHIC years 8. CHIC – Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)Minimum age specified: 14 – Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Life Span Development

In the book, “Curious George rides a bike” by H.A. Rey, George receives a new bike from his friend. His friend tells him to be careful with his new bike and to keep close to the house while he is gone. George does not listen to his friend and decides to go exploring away from the house. While exploring, George sees two boys playing with their toy boats and then decides that he wants to play with a toy boat. George made a plan (how to make the boat) and then he carried out the task. George made himself a boat out of newspaper. This is an example of stage two, 1-3 years, Erikson. “In stage two, children express their growing self control by climbing, touching, exploring, and try to do things for themselves.” (Dennis Coon) Though most children in stage two would be exploring their kitchen floor, or ceiling, not a river!

I also read the story, “Curious George gets a medal” by H.A. Rey. In this story George makes a mess in his friends house. George is anxious to clean up the mess before his friend gets home. The reason that he is so eager to clean up the mess is because he is thinking about the possible consequences of his actions. If this were an actual little boy, he would be thinking, “ I don’t want to get punished, so I will clean up the mess.” Or, “Oh, No! I’m going to get into big trouble!” This is an example of Stage 1 the preconventional level, Kohlberg. If his friend weren’t coming home would George work so vigorously to clean up the mess? I think not.

In the second half of the book, George is asked to help a professor in a somewhat dangerous experiment. The professor that has asked this of him says, “Of course everything will be forgiven if you are willing to go.” (George got into a bit of trouble while he was there.) George agrees to this request because he wants to please others. George wants to be nice. Why would a child want to please others? It’s because they are trying to avoid disapproval. This is an example of Stage 3, the conventional level, Kohlberg.

The last book that I read was “Curious George” by H.A. Rey. George is taken from his home in Africa, to a big ship. His friend tells him to “ run along and play but don’t get into any trouble.” George promises to be good. George found some sea gulls on the deck, and saw that they could fly. He wanted to fly too. George tried to fly, and fell into the ocean instead. Obviously, George is not thinking logically. He does not realize that he can not fly. This is an example of the preoperational stage, 2-7 years. Piaget.

I have another example of the preoperational stage not related to the book. My little sister, Zoë, is 4 years old. My mother recently bought her a personalized song tape. In the beginning of the tape it asks her to yell out her name. She screams, “Zoë!!”. Then it says “Zoë?! That’s a nice name!” Throughout the tape her name is included in all of the songs. She thinks that the person talking can really here her!

Now, getting back on track…. After falling into the ocean George is rescued and once again promises that he will not get into any more trouble. Why would an actual child decide this if he/she were in the same situation? They would act this way because they would be thinking about their own needs. They wouldn’t want to fall into the water again or be upset in any way. This is an example of stage two, the preconventional stage, pleasure-seeking orientation.

In conclusion, I have found these stages to hold true, in my own personal life, and in children’s storybooks. It’s really great to finally understand why my little sister acts the way she does!