Maritime Logistics: A Proposal On The Way Forward Essay Sample For College

Part A

Introduction

Common business practices require that any business entity base its strategies on the exact nature of the operational environment thus the evaluation of the operational environment is key to operations in any industry.  Factual decision making is an aspect that has been integrated in principles that have to be mastered for any organisation to consider itself quality conscious (Monks & Minow 2008).  The nature of most industries and markets is so dynamic and the variables that affect their behaviour are so many that basing decisions on the perceived environment is no longer professional and can be considered courting problems (Armstrong 2008).  It is therefore on this basis that decisions made have to be based on a thorough analysis of the environment to develop strategies that will not only be relevant to the actual situation but will also be applicable to the challenges faced by organisations thus be relevant to their needs.  Analysis of the environment and some factors that affect the environment forms a key part of strategic planning and should therefore be stresses on by all organisations keen on improving their conditions and being relevant to changing dynamics in their operational environment.  It is on this basis that the paper seeks to examine the nature of the maritime industry so as to establish factors that are influential in its operations to established a framework that will ensure organisations reap the most out of their operations.

Critical Success Factors

The maritime industry has grown over the years and is currently one of the most developed industries in both developed and developing economies (Sakhuja 2007).  The role played by the maritime industry in the import and export sectors is seen as one of the factors that has led to its growth.  The increase in commercialisation and globalisation of business processes are factors that have collectively led to increase in the levels of activity in the maritime industry.  Since commercialisation and globalisation have been firmly integrated into the social system and are expected to continue in breadth and scope, the maritime industry is expected to continue growing though the growth may be limited by factors within the industry and some that are without (Chesbrough, Vanhaverbeke & West 2006).  Currently, the global financial environment is faced with crisis that resulted from a combinations of factors which include poor financial practices, increase in prices of crude oil and the collapse of global financial markets.  The resultant is immense pressure at the industry level that has reduced a number of financial powerhouses to oblivion.  Many industrial players are currently fighting for survival as high rates of inflation and decrease in business activities have led to increase in pressure on business entities to try and perform above par.

Logistics is definitive of operations that involve exchange of information resources and other operational inputs or outputs from the source to areas where they are required.  Maritime logistics are therefore operations that involve exchange of process and other operational inputs from one area of operations to another in the maritime sector (Shim, Siegel & Dauber, 2008).  Since operations are definitive of an organisations activities the following factors must be put into consideration as they are critical to operations in the maritime sector:

a)      Money

One of the most important factor that determine the nature of operations in any industry is the availability of financial capital.  Money determines the nature of operations and the levels of diversity that an organisation can afford.   The current operational environment is largely capitalistic and the levels of competition between different industry players is so high that industrial entities are forced to develop proper financial strategies and system for example mergers and acquisitions to ensure they stay afloat by acquiring additional resources.  Thus, resources intensity is definitive of the current operational environment and since every resources can be quantified, the availability of financial resources and the ability to meet set standard by financial resource providers is a critical aspect to the development of any business entity.  The financial crisis that the global economy is currently in has led to a credit crunch.  Few financial institutions are willing to lend to business entities for fear of losing their cash when the entity sinks.  The financial downtime is characterised by decrease in activity of capital markets which have over the years established themselves as the premier source of working capital for a number of marine industry players.  An increase in the cost of fuel which is one of the most important input in the transport and marine sectors has led to increase in cost of operations.  High rates of inflation have also contributed immensely to the current economic crisis by increasing the cost of operations.  It is clear that the current operational environment has put considerable pressure on financial resources in the maritime sector as the environment is not only experiencing scarcity of financial resources but also has limited financial sources from whom businesses can acquire additional capital.

b)      Future

Every business entity that has been developed with the aim of making profits and reaping benefits out of its operational environment will always have its future as a key factor in determining the strategies that it will adopt.  Good product development and market oriented strategies are adopted by organisations to ensure they develop their market base to ensure their development at present times and therefore the future of the organisation.  It is therefore under this consideration that both short and long terms threats have to be amicably addressed and measures put in place to ensure that threats and opportunities are detected early and measures put in place to either deal with the threat or harness the opportunity.  The current economic downtimes has already led to the failure of a number of financial powerhouses, some have managed to survive due to intervention from their respective governments.  It is worth noting that though a capitalistic environment is characterised by reduced government intervention, governments often come to the rescue of business entities that are viewed to be too big to fall (Soros 2008).  This goes in line with the development of a level playing ground as the failure of a major industry players often leaves a gap affects the nature of the industry in as negative manner especially its effect on the markets (Soros, 2008).  Organisations are therefore left with little options but to deal with the current financial crisis and ensure they develop proper mechanisms that will ensure they are not caught on a wrong footing should there be a another financial crisis.  Capitalist operational environments are characterised by high levels of uncertainty which develop slowly to crisis.  The number of variables that affect the operational environment are so varied and in some cases outside the control of industry players and therefore the best approach to operations is to ensure that business entities are well prepared for any eventuality.  If financial statistics are anything to go by, the levels of volatility in the current economic environment are high and financial recession is an aspect that must be accepted as being part of daily operations.  The volatile nature of the US financial markets gives a clear indication of the nature of the operational environment which translates to economic conditions.

c)      Customer Satisfaction

One notable challenge that businesses in a capitalistic operational environment are faced with is developing a market base.  The levels of competition from other industry players is often high and customer requirements more demanding.  Meeting the needs of the customers is important in ensuring relevance to operations and creating a reputations in the market which are aspects that are of great importance in a capitalistic environment.  Relevance to customer needs and adoption of a quality conscious approach to delivery of services are some strategic approaches used to ensure customer satisfaction.  Quality management practices are quite costly and have a large demand on organisational financial and skill resources.  Research plays a central role in ensuring relevance to market needs and is therefore an integral part of  any system put in place to ensure customer satisfaction.  In the current financially constricted environment, meeting the needs of the customer may be constrained by lack of financial resources.  Furthermore, decrease in transactional volumes expected to result from increase in cost of living and therefore decrease in level of luxury imports which forms a large volume of transactions in the maritime industry may lead to decrease in profitability and therefore organisational ability to be innovative and commit more to meeting the expectation of then market as opposed may be limited.

d)     Strategic Relations

Just as the development of a reputation is of importance to operations, strategic relations play a great role in ensuring sustainability of business processes irrespective of the financial conditions.  In times of financial crisis, some developed links may be severed by strategies developed by an organisations or others in the link.  It is worth noting that maintaining the available market is of key concern in times of financial crisis and ensuring relevant strategic relations are not severed is central to ensuring sustainability of business operations.  The current economic crisis is of a global dimension though the levels of influence it has on the financial and economic environment varies from one nation to the other.  Though politicians have been quoted stating that the crisis is inconsequential, global supply chains clearly show that each and every county is either affected directly or indirectly.  For instance, decrease in the volume of transnational cargo directly affect the amount of transaction at the national level.  The capitalistic economy is characterised by globalisms which gives business processes a global perspective and therefore any factors that affect the variable either positively or negatively effectively influences the global operational environment (Donaldson & Williams 2005).  Though some strategic links may be severed, it is upon maritime industry players to develop systems that will minimise loss of strategic relations and ensure the development of relations that will ensure their recovery from the affect of the global economic crisis.

Part B

Organisational ability to come out of a crisis is an indications of the the relevance of its strategies and robustness of its activities.  The levels of customer and investor confidence on strategies adopted by any business is highly reliant on the business’s ability to pull out of crisis.  The management of crisis and development of relevant strategies that will ensure the occurrence of crisis is predicated and mechanisms put in place to deal with threats and harness the opportunity that come with the crisis is of great importance in a volatile environment.  Survival and growth are two factors that organisations have in mind in times of financial crisis.

Money

Knowledge and experience are critical to recovery from financial crisis as they play a role that cannot be accomplished by other factors.  Realizing the existence of crisis is important to ensuring recovery.  The assumption that any business entity is not affected by the crisis is unrealistic and fails to take into account the global and dynamic nature of the operational environment.  Management of crisis relay a lot on the success that organisations achieve in coming out of the bad financial times and may also influence the levels of success with which they harness opportunities presented in harsh operational environment.  Most organisations fail in the management of crisis as they adopt strategies that can only be described as reflex reactions to unwelcoming financial times (Dooley 2006).  The reaction approach is as a result of the pressure placed on the management to preserve the face of the organisation and pride.  The effects of such poor approaches are cited as factors that lead to poor recovery and may impact negatively on the recovery time.  One of the most common misconception is the sale of assets to get off creditors in time of crisis, this should be avoided unless the remaining will be manageable.  Extortion is common in times of crisis thus organisations have to arm themselves with the required legal information and skills in seeking additional resources.  Cost cutting approaches are quite common and are the most preferred approach to management of crisis.  The approach to cost cutting determines the level of success that will be attained in the management of crisis.  Organisation in cutting costs reduce their operational costs and therefore their production capacity.  The nature of processes in any organisation is such that there are some processes that are critical and therefore influential on the performance levels.  The complexity in cost cutting is reducing the costs as much of possible while minimising the effects of the reduced cost on performance levels.  Cost cutting should be well structured and must involve professional analysis of organisational processes to determine areas that are critical and operations that are less critical.  Minimal changes should be made on resource allocation to critical processes as major changes are made in less critical processes.  This calls for thorough research into organisational operations to determine processes and their interaction.  One of the most common mistake is determination of cost that will be cut before determining the nature of processes.  The correct and effective approach to cost cutting is where analysis of processes determines the levels of cost that can be cut and therefore operations.  This is a more objective approaches as compared to the previous where costs that will be cut are subjected on the processes.

Another common misconception is the assumption that crisis is static.  In truth, the nature of a crisis is so dynamic and variables that are influential of its manifestation are quite complex.  There is therefore needs for continuous monitor of the crisis as it unfolds.  Each event has a bearing on the direction of the crisis and therefore relevance of the strategic direction taken in dealing with the crisis.  Though crises affect the business environment they have minimal effect on existing communication and information systems and therefore the availability of information.  Approaches that focus on reducing the number of research workers due to the wrong perception of their costliness should be avoided.  If an organisation is to gain any advantage in the management of its financial resources, a research approach to the management of challenges caused by the economic crisis is advised.

Future

            The future of an organisation should always be considered in operations irrespective of the dynamics of the operational environment.  Organisational strategic development should ensure that the future of an organisation is guaranteed by determining the long term effect of strategies and their relevance to operations.  One of the  most important factor that helps in showing where an organisation wants to be in is the vision.  Each and every organisation must have a vision that depicts where the organisations wants to be at and the directions that will be employed in ensuring the vision is arrived at.  It should be noted that the vision acts as a platform for strategic planning and development.  If an organisation does not have a vision it is of important that it develops a framework representative of the organisation that will act as the theoretical basis for their strategies.  Though the operational environment may demand a lot from organisations, the future as relayed in the vision or whatever strategic framework an organisation uses should be adhered to (Dooley 2006).  Adherence not only helps in providing a frame of reference for strategic actions but also ensure that the organisation drives at its goals irrespective of the operational conditions without necessarily incurring additional costs.

Many organisations fail to incorporated their future into strategies in times of crisis. This can be blamed on a number of factors which include:

l  A poor planning approach that does not include other stakeholders in the organisations.

l  Event driven planning where event determine strategies that will adopted and therefore the strategies are subjective and lack in objectivity.

l  Poorly developed strategic visions that do not put into account the nature of employees and operational environment.  A vision that does not acknowledge the fact that there always will be hard times is irrelevant to the development of strategies aimed at surviving hard times.

l  Though the importance of a strategic vision as a platform for the development of operational strategies is an aspect that has been discussed and accepted in business circles, some organisations have been slow in developing strategic visions while others have developed poor vision.  In either case, strategies that have a basis on these strategic visions pose a number of problems in their implementation and even lead to failure in some cases.

Customer Satisfaction

Meet of customers’ expectations is important in ensuring continuance of business processes.  It is the general objective for any business to meet or even surpass the expectations of their customers hence strategies will always try to come up with ways and means through which customers’ needs and expectations are addressed.  It should be noted that for any business enterprise, the retention of customers and attracting others is a motto ingrained in their operations.  The balanced scorecard approach considers customer satisfaction as one of the most important indicator to performance levels that a business entity is attaining.  Customer satisfaction is a complex state attained by a combinations of a number of psychological and physical variables that interact to produce a state of satisfaction.  In tough financial times, customers tend to be stingy and therefore the meet of their expectations is of great importance.  Moreover, the current economic crisis that has greatly affected the maritime industry has also led to an increase in inflations and therefore the general economic environment is under strain.  It is imperative on organisations to either gain high levels of delivery if they have been delivering under par or maintain their high levels of delivery that they have attained.  There are a number of approaches that have over the year been used to ensure quality and meet the needs and expectations of customers.  It is worth noting that for a company or organisations to meet the needs and expectations of customers, they must be aware of these needs and develop and implement strategies to ensure they are met.  Therefore, customer satisfaction involves aspects of research, strategic planning and implementation of strategies which basically is a summary of operations in any organisation.   The limitations on finance and the credit crunch currently being experienced limits the financial intensity that customer satisfaction strategies can exhibit.  However, a number of less resource intensive improvements can be made to ensure increase in the levels of customer satisfaction:

l  Personalised Services:  Most organisations adopt a formal approach to business interaction where customers and business representatives rarely interact at a personal level.  It is human for one to find it easy to relate an experience to someone he has seen than a virtual entity. Therefore, face to face approaches are more effective in developing customer confidence of the services and products offered by a given organisation.  Quick response to queries and development of mechanisms that ensure customers are promptly informed on developments made in their queries is important in ensuring their psychological well-being which impacts on the perception they have of the business and its activities.  Customers are not the easiest of people to deal with thus when dealing with customer there is need to ensure one keeps a clear head and maintains a friendly tone irrespective of the customers’ demand.  The development of a well phrased customer service policy that ensures customers are served quickly and in the best way possible is also helps in the development of customer confidence.  Though bureaucracy has its advantages in the management of customers needs and requests, the levels of bureaucracy should be reduced to prevent putting the customer under stressful conditions.

l  Opportunities exists everywhere and one does not necessarily have to undertake a massive research to identify one.  Attention to customers may help in identifying areas that they lack in and also identify avenues through which the customers’ perception of a business’s offerings can be improved.  Promises are made to be kept and the sooner a business realises this rule the better its image in the market will be.  If an organisations has a poor record of honouring promises then it is best if it never makes any.  Customers are human and their needs can therefore be anticipated.  Anticipation of customers’ needs is an art than should be mastered by any entrepreneur.  It is important that businesses master the art of anticipating the needs of their market and go out of their way to help both their customer and non-customers.  The cost that may be incurred from such is offset by gain in recognition and reputation of both the organisation and its services.

Strategic Relation

It is a social construct that humans are in a better position unified than as single entities.  This is also applicable to business operations in some way as development of strategic relations is key to ensuring growth in certain segments and helps in the development of better strategic framework that can deal with stormy financial times.  Well developed strategic relations are associated with increase in efficiency as business processes pass through channels that have been time tested an well reviewed.  It is therefore upon organisations to ensure they develop mechanisms and strategic relations that will ensure they benefit in certain areas that they lacks in.  Most strategic relations are developed to provide a balance of resources and cover areas in which an organisations is lacking in.  The choice of a strategic partner is therefore critical in determining the levels of success and synergy developed as a result of cooperation (Merna & Al-Thani 2008).  Strategic relations may be between businesses and in some cases be between a business and its customers.  While some business are going down, a well assessed and analysed merger may be the way forward for an organisation and may even prove to be beneficial in ordinary financial times.  In developing strategic relations during financial downtimes, the relevance of the relations to the survival of the business and  in the long run are some of the factors that have to be considered.

Part C

Innovation is one of the most important attribute that any entrepreneur should display.  Innovation is both an art and a science and should therefore be included in all areas of operation.  To ensure innovation some aspects of creativity have to be integrated into the innovation process though the academic aspects of corporate management are of equal importance (Melewar 2008).  In general, business operations are often complex and there are a number of strategic directions that a business entity can choose from.  The development of strategies  requires high levels of creativity since the options that an organisations can choose from are many and exhibit differential success levels.  It is therefore upon organisations to develop mechanisms that will not only ensure high levels of innovation but also ensure that the products of the innovative processes are analysed and applied to daily operations.  The levels of competitions that are currently being experienced in the maritime sector and the complications that are a result of the economic crisis are just some of the typical challenges that maritime industry players should expect of their operational environment.  Expecting a smooth operational environment is self deceptions and should never be tolerated as it goes against the principle of realism in business operations.  Organisations should therefore ensure they are aware of dangers and threats that exist in their operational environment and develop mechanisms that will ensure they are well placed to deal with challenges present in operations (Kao 2007).  Innovation is highly dependent on organisational structure and the culture that has been adopted by the organisation with regards to the need for and application of innovative processes.  Therefore, if any development is to be successful there is need to ensure that the organisation is well prepared for crisis and ensure proper management of the crisis.

Preparations for crisis is one of the most challenging things that an organisation goes through its lifetime.  Any crisis can be predicted, but the mechanics it employs and its manifestation are aspects that take on a completely abstract approach.  It should however be noted that being prepared is better than having no idea on what is happening in the operational environment.  To ensure management of crisis and success in unwelcoming operational environment, organisation must ensure they develop good customer and industrial reputations during normalcy periods (Hazell & Fitzpatrick 2006).  Most organisations put more effort in harnessing opportunities and averting threat present in their environment only when they are under threat of extinction.  This is a poor approach as an organisation should always aim at its vision regardless of the trends in its operational environment.

The first step to ensuring a long term solution to financial uncertainty that characterise the present day business environment is the development of a strategic vision. The development of a strategic vision is an organisational issues that should include all stakeholders (Fletcher 2006).  The vision which is brought out in the organisations’ vision statement should inspire hope, be representative of the organisation, show the organisation’s values and set high goals that appear achievable to all in the organisation.  Creativity plays an important part in summarising the vision in a manner that preserves meaning and achieves  the desired effect in a vision statement.  It is upon this vision that all organisational goals are developed irrespective of the environment.  The vision is important in providing a basis for the development of strategies by presenting a framework through which the environmental factors can be addressed by the organisations while maintaining the objectives of the organisation.

The development of a crisis management plan is also important.  Accepting the fact that crisis are part and parcel of operations and acknowledging the difficulties associated with operations during such times is core to the development of an ‘all environment’ operational approach (Groves 2005).  Multiple opportunities exists in times of crisis and preparation and high level of organisations differentiate losers from winners in time of crisis.  The development of a crisis management plan should involve all in the organisation as crisis is managed by all members of the organisation.  The development of a crisis management plan requires the implementations of policies and systems that will aid proper management of crises.  It is worth noting that mastery of the operational environment is of great importance if the threats and opportunities associates with the crisis are to be dealt with precisely.  The operational environment of any maritime sector player is complex and is filled with a number of variables.  Multinational maritime companies and transnational  have a more complex environment as compared to the local companies.  It is therefore upon organisations to ensure they have in place relevant systems that will ensure that variables that affect operations are determined and continuously monitored (Fletcher 2006).  Changes are determined and their effect on the processes determined.  The operational environment though complex can be predicted and therefore the predictions of poor economic times is possible.  It is therefore quite clear that research into organisational processes and nature of the operational environment is paramount in preparation of a crisis management plan.  Research must be allocated considerable resources and incorporated into the organisational culture which may also include the development and implementation of proper communication strategies to ensure efficiency in carrying out the research process.  Professionalism and continuous staff appraisal are aspects that must be included not only in the research department but must be extended to other areas of operations.

Though research is important in defining the nature of the operational environment and therefore predicting changes, identification of opportunities and threats requires not just properly developed analytical skills but also high levels of innovation.  The development of strategies to ensure organisations reap the most out of opportunities while minimising the threats posed requires high levels of creativity.  Innovation is important in ensuring efficiency in normal operations as it plays an important part in cost reduction and development of more effective approaches to operations.

To ensure high levels of innovation, it is upon organisations to adopt innovations by allowing for experimentation within a defined framework.  Development of proper communication and interaction framework where members of the organisation are free to express and discuss their views is important in developing an experiment friendly environment (Griffin 2008).  Appropriate resource must be availed: for instance, recent research results and research resources should be readily available for innovative teams, to tenure efficiency in innovation.

A major problem in innovation is loss of objectivity; though freedom is key to ensuring effectiveness in innovation, some limit and framework have to be developed to ensure objectivity (Drucker 2008).  A team approach is an effective approach to management of innovation and ensuring relevance to organisational needs.  Each teams is tasked with specific tasks and innovation within  teams promoted by setting an operational environment that is conducive for innovation.  Leadership within teams an at the organisational level is important in ensuring high level of coordination and proper management of conflicts (Drucker 2006).  It is worth noting that if an organisation is serious about innovation, conflict are addressed in the right spirit as they are seen as an opportunity to develop problems solving skills rather than a manifestation of organisational discrepancies.

Conclusion

As long as the business environment is capitalistic; liberalisation, globalisation and technological development will continue being influential on the nature of the operations environment.  Globalisation and liberalisations are associated with high levels of volatility which is made more complex by developed technology especially in the area of information.  Thus, unless capitalisms is done with crisis will allays exists in the any industry.  The role played by the maritime sectors in the economy especially the import and export subsectors is of importance. Increase in levels of globalisation is expected to lead to an increase in transnational trade and therefore increase in the volume handled by mariners.  Therefore the marketability of the marine industry is not in questions development in trade directly translates to increase in transactions volume.  There is therefore need for any industry players to ensure the it develops mechanisms that will ensure it survives the short term crisis and implements a plan that will ensure early detections of threats and opportunities associated with crisis and therefore ensure threat diversions and exploitation of opportunities.

Organisations should ensure they work hard in normal times so that thy can reap the benefits of their labour when the times get hard.  It is therefore necessary for organisation to ensure they develop a good market bases and reputations by ensuring quality in their process.  Acquirement of a sound financial base for working capital is also important in ensuring survival and growth in harsh financial times.  Therefore organisations should ensure they adopt and integrate research and innovation into their operations.  Research not only helps in making the right choice of a strategic partner but also helps in determining the threats and opportunities and therefore places an organisations in a better position in times of operations.  Innovation on the others hand helps in devising methods that will ensure customers needs are expectations are met.  Moreover, innovation is central in ensuring the adoption of operational models that are both cost effective and relevant to organisational goals and therefore its future.

Appendix

A United nations report indicate that the levels of marine trade record an all time high in 2007 but have since dropped for because of the global economic crisis.  According to the UN report the volume of freight was over 8 billion tones 2007.  The Baltic index which is a key indicator of future economic environment and utilises measures on the demand and supply of shipped good indicated that there was a record decline in freight volume in May 2008.  The official rates are slightly over 90% decline, its is worth noting that the effects of the crisis were more noticeable in May.  The decline is a sure display of how the industry is volatile as the threat of recession is blamed for the drop in transactional volumes.  The shipping industry is grew in 2007 by 7.22% and 2008 saw the productions of 10000 new ships, a record in the age old ship making industry.  It is quite clear therefore that the marine industry is growing and the levels of competition are quite high.

References

Armstrong, M 2008, How to be an Even Better Manager: A Complete A-Z of Proven Techniques & Essential Skills, London, Kogan Page Publishers.

Chesbrough, HW, Vanhaverbeke, W & West, J 2006, Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Donaldson, J & Williams, A 2005, Understanding Maritime Jurisdictional Disputes: The East China Sea and Beyond, Journal of International Affairs, 59, 32-34.

Dooley, EE 2006, International Maritime Organization, Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 48-52.

Drucker, PF 2006, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles, Location, HarperBusiness.

Drucker, PF 2008, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Piscataway, NJ, Transaction Publishers.

Fletcher, S 2006, Managing Britain’s Marine and Coastal Environment: Towards a Sustainable Future, The Geographical Journal, 172, 62-65.

Griffin, A 2008, New Strategies for Reputation Management: Gaining Control of Issues, Crises and Corporate Social Responsibility, London, Kogan Page Publishers.

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Hazell, LC & Fitzpatrick, SM 2006,  The Maritime Transport of Prehistoric Megaliths in Micronesia, Archaeology in Oceania, 41, 73-76.

Kao, J 2007, Innovation Nation: How America Is Losing Its Innovation Edge, Why It Matters, and What We Can Do to Get It Back, New York, FreePress.

Melewar, TC 2008, Facets of Corporate Identity, Communication and Reputation, London, Routledge.

Merna, T & Al-Thani, F 2008, Corporate Risk Management: an organisational perspective, London, John Wiley and Sons.

Monks, RA & Minow, N 2008, Corporate Governance, New York, Wiley_Default.

Sakhuja, V 2007, Maritime Security in Southeast Asia, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 29, 19-23

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Bibliography

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The Globalisation Of The Maritime Industry

Introduction

It cannot be denied that the maritime industry plays an important role in today’s financial system and commerce. It holds key areas in the complex networks that operate worldwide economy. But is it truly a globalised system? This paper will attempt to answer this question and show that the maritime industry has become a key component of trade worldwide. It will also show how the issues affecting this industry add to its global characteristic.

The Maritime Industry Amidst Globalisation

Globalisation affects many aspects of today’s trade and commerce. To determine how the maritime industry has become closely interlinked with globalisation, one must look back into history. During the early years, trade was done only in small areas (Geyer, 2006, p.4). It was done by merchants travelling by foot or by using four-footed animals or by riding small ships. It was a time-consuming activity. However, advances in technology during the 1800s led to a fast evolution and development in the maritime industry. This, in turn, made trading a much more lucrative and noticeable activity. The spread of globalisation was not far behind. It can be said that globalisation began through international pioneering activities such as the start of trade between countries. The maritime industry even became a tool for colonization, when countries managed to subjugate other cultures through their advanced maritime technologies. The end of World War II ushered in the start of globalisation by persuading countries to follow specific financial structures and societal standards. The use of computers became popular in the latter part of the 20th century. Innovative technologies for communicating progressed in leaps and bounds during this time as well. Because of these globalisation became a by-word in many studies. It became practically synonymous with maritime activities, which made it easy for cargoes and information to pass through any channels all over the world. Globalisation also became more visible as financial systems all over the world became more connected.

To continue a smooth operation, businesses worldwide rely heavily on the maritime industry to carry materials across international channels. These multinational companies rely on the industry’s special nature of providing vehicles and services that can reach any point in any country in the whole world (Lerda, 2002, p.57).

Thedoropopoulos (2006, p.8) surmises that it is this viable character of the maritime industry that ensures that its key role in the world’s economy will only continue to intensify as finances and commerce become even more globalised and companies become even more united. This is because the maritime industry is a continuously expanding industry in the global trade necessitating a wide variety of pertinent manufacturing methods for its services so it can continue its operations.

Thedoropopoulos (2006, p.9) points out that the maritime industry has eleven key areas and activities that are essential to its operations. These are transportation of goods through shipping, construction of ships, maritime apparatus, overseas activities, routes within a country, searching measures, harbours, nautical services, catching fish, boating, and naval activities. Thedoropopoulos adds that the World Marine Market has categorized secondary areas such as marine explorations, handling of products from the sea, reusable power from the oceans, teaching and instruction related to marine life and activities, studies and expansions, safety measures against insurgency or hijacking acts, tools used for deep explorations, ocean life.

About 90% of trade worldwide is made possible only through the efforts of the maritime industry (Anderson 2008, p. 12; Väyrynen, 1999, p.55). This number will probably go up as countries worldwide develop even more mutually dependent policies of trade. If schemes such as the unobstructed transfer of information through modern technology are put into place to solve the glitches the industry faces, then the maritime industry may play an even bigger part in the operation of the financial systems in the near future.

For Chua (2006, p. 29-32), maritime industry is the backbone of the financial system worldwide. It is a clear representation of what a successful international industry is today. It is such a key component of today’s international market that if any insurgent organization manages to suspend any areas of this industry’s operations, the financial system of the whole world will be thrown into chaos. For example, if pirates strike a segment such as leisure travel tours, which carry thousands of people from different countries, or even ordinary harbours, which are business centres will cause many deaths and will have financial consequences.

Chua (2006, p. 29-32)points out that cargo ships that deliver goods are usually owned by conglomerates, staffed by workers from different countries, transporting merchandise from another country while passing through the seas and channels of still another country, heading for the harbour of a country totally disconnected from all the others. This shows just how global one cargo ship is. What more if one looks at the bigger picture and traces the complicated international system used by the maritime industry.

Shipping has developed a very strategic place in the world market today. Various companies now have international dealings. Because of this, these companies rely on shipping to maintain their operations and to keep the international partnerships strong. And it is not just companies that rely on shipping. Stopford (1997, p.2) notes that the maritime industry has become a medium for trade between many countries. This has led to an astonishing development of trade and commerce. Shipping today is among the most successful businesses worldwide. He points out that if one examines the financial aspects of the maritime industry, the examination will inevitably lead to an examination of the financial and political systems of the whole world. One needs to recognize that there is an interconnection between events in the international economy and politics sectors and the growth of the maritime industry. Looking at commerce done via the oceans of the world, one can surmise that this industry is at the top level of the financial system of the whole world.

For example, companies dealing with ships have only one thought when they hear of some even that has international impact, for instance the Chernobyl explosion in Russia or another hike in the prices of petroleum products. The leaders of these companies will immediately gleefully think about how this international event will influence shipping. If one looks at history, one can see that a lot of shipping companies became rich because of some of these international events. Events in politics have especially resulted in bringing in the money to shipping companies. One can deduce from this that there has always been a correlation between the political events in the world and the rise of the maritime industry (Stopford, 1997, p.2).

According to a report by the International Labour Office or ILO (2001, p.22), shipping is regarded as an international industry because of its especially singular work of transporting goods from one country to the other. Despite this important characteristic, shipping is still plagued by the problems brought about by the internationalization of the financial system worldwide. These problems have led to the many modifications from the 1970s to the 1990s, which have affected and changed shipping as a business worldwide.     A key transformation is the development of an international need for workers employed for maritime jobs. The ILO considers this as a symbol that shipping is truly a pioneer international business.

The maritime industry is affected by international issues and, in turn, affects a fair number of global issues as well.

Regarding regulations and issues of safety, Väyrynen (1999, p.55) points out that the United States Law of the Sea was the conference that created the standards and regulations of authority in shipping activities. These standards and regulations allowed liberty for ships to sail through any big oceans and through the waters of all countries involved in the maritime industry. This important conference resulted in unblocking the routes used by maritime transportation. Because of it, ships can now transport cargoes through the seas anywhere in the world.

Meanwhile, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is the governing body that devises regulations on damage to vehicles and goods, issues of pollution. The two key regulations used by the IMO are the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Väyrynen, 1999, p.55). These regulations, which are implemented worldwide, are needed to control the access to ports anywhere in the world and to standardize the prices for maritime activities so that all shipping companies are guaranteed the same rights.

Lerda (2002, p.60) agrees that without these universal regulations ventures in the world market would only show and fuel the harmful facets of globalisation.

Despite all these efforts, Creel (2000, p.13-14) points out that many players in the maritime industry are still worried about the practice of competition and issues of safety. Businesses need to implement efficient international procedures if they want to sustain an advantage in the world market. This is in response to the escalating internationalization in shipping activities worldwide. If businesses do not implement such procedures, then they must content themselves with playing only in small markets. The worst case would be is that businesses which do not implement innovations to meet the changes in the maritime industry will be forced to close their operations. Some countries even want to impose extreme regulations to safeguard and improve the maritime companies based in their own territories. This perhaps is a response to the changing systems used by the maritime industry today. The industry is now moving away from the use of the established method of conferences that would decide on the duties and rates used by players in the maritime industry. The more popular method is to solicit the allegiance of members to the treaties development through dialogues across the trades within the industry. This method entails working on larger issues and volunteerism from the members. This method has its own economic and safety issues, however.

According to a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005, p.51), at present, the economy of the production of ships is reaching astonishing heights. Even countries with developing economies in the construction of ships have grown to be extremely good players in the global scene.

According to the Equipment International Labour Organization (2000, p.136), Asian countries like Japan and the Republic of Korea have become the primary builders of new ships now sold in the market. Japan is also one of the leading countries buying new ships. Other countries include those from Western Europe and the United States. These countries have the playing power to have ships built according to their country’s specifications. Whether ships will have recyclable materials or safety instructions will depend on these powerful players.

However, despite this apparent good news, shipbuilding is still facing challenges among which are constant congestion in the world’s waters, assistance from various organizations of authority including governments, and costs of materials worldwide (OECD, 2005, p.51). These foreseeable problems can only be solved through strong collaboration between nations which construct ships. Bodies that design regulations in countries which have developing and developed economies need to look for ways to maintain a level playing field for competing businesses while implementing the essential changes that will respond to the problems stated.

Another international issue facing the maritime industry is that of environmental protection and sustainable development. Tsinker (2004, p.5-6) points out that globalisation will only lead to the expansion and upgrading of harbours that are existing today and to the creation of even more stations and ports all over the world. The marine industry must pay attention to the programmes that will prevent pollution and damage not only to the marine ecosystem, but to land and seashore ecosystems as well.

Employment of maritime workers is another issue that has become global in scope. According to the report of the Equipment International Labour Organization (2000, p.136), besides direct hiring, many companies under the maritime industry contract out and make use of outsourcing for their employment needs. For example, in the construction of ships, majority of the mechanism and gears come from companies of different countries but the finishing work is done in another country. This means, from start to finish, the construction of one ship is done by employees from different parts of the globe. Another example would be Polish and Romanian companies constructing apparatus for bridges and then shipping these initial materials out to Hamburg where outsourced employees will put together the final product. Many companies are also taking advantage of the lower labour charges of countries like Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and China. Compared to these countries, wages of workers from Europe and the United States are high.

Fisher and Ponniah (2003, p. 73) point out that the maritime industry follows an international regulation on key stipulations for employment. However, considering the harsh and extremely competitive and global nature of the industry, these stipulations are quite moderate and minor.

Christodoulou-Varotsi and Pentsov (2007, p.10) enumerate the risks that maritime employees face. Some of these are brought about by nature, by technology and by society. The sea as a force of nature brings with it fluctuating and intense temperature and humidity. These may have an unfavourable effect on the health conditions of workers. There are also risks of ships sinking in the middle of voyages due to typhoons and huge waves. The living and working conditions of employees on board ships also affect their health. The number of hours that employees must work, the state of equipment given to them, accommodations, general health conditions—these all have an impact on a worker’s condition. There are also risks brought about by technology. There have been reports of disasters brought about by faulty machines and equipment. Some workers have developed severe and life-threatening diseases because they were exposed to toxins and other caner-inducing substances from faulty machineries. Deaths due to these risks have also been reported.

This is why Christodoulou-Varotsi and Pentsov (2007, p.10) advocate for the provision of protective equipment for all workers, the establishment of fair regulations regarding working hours and safety of all maritime workers.

Fisher and Ponniah (2003, p. 73) suggest the development and implementation of a more significant agenda for employment of seafarers. This agenda should involve a more international standard of negotiation for salaries and compensations of workers. Moreover, groups supervising the rights of workers must on an international level must be set up to monitor and offer assistance to all seafarers worldwide.

Conclusion

Looking at the history, features, and issues regarding the maritime industry, one can see that it is one of the truly globalised industries today. One can see that the growth of the maritime industry is a consequence of and a precondition for the growth of international trade. The growth of the maritime industry comes from the increasing demand for goods. Meanwhile, the increased demand for goods to be shipped across the world has come about because of the innovations in and services of the maritime industry (Parameswaran, 2004, p. 22-23). This mutually exclusive relation is active and visible across the world. When one studies the companies behind the maritime industry, one must look into small enterprises, but into multinational conglomerates and economies of various countries. This is because this industry provides service to countries of all the continents in the world. Because of this inherent international capacity for service, the maritime industry enjoys a vital role in the operation of the world’s economy and in the relations between countries.

References

Anderson, D.A. (2008). Oil Security and the Necessity for Global Cooperation. Small Wars Journal, p.12

Christodoulou-Varotsi, I. & Pentsov, D.A. (2007). Maritime Work Law Fundamentals: Responsible Shipowners, Reliable Seafarers. Berlin: Springer, p. 10

Chua, S.P.H. Maritime Security: Possibilities for Terrorism and Challenges for Improvement. Pointer Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces; 32, 2; pp.29-32

Creel, H.J., Jr. (2000). Maritime Services: Staying Competitive in a Global Market. Economic Perspectives. USA: Diane Publishing; 5, 3; pp. 13-14

Equipment International Labour Organization (2000). The social and labour impact of globalization in the manufacture of transport equipment: Report for Discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on the Social and Labour Impact of Globalization in the Manufacture.  Geneva: International Labour Organization, p. 136

Fisher, W.F. & Ponniah, T. (2003). Another World is Possible: Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the World Social Forum. London: Zed Books, p. 73

Geyer, H. S. (2006). Global Regionalization: Core Peripheral Trends. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 4

International Labour Office (2001). Review of Relevant ILO Maritime Instruments. Geneva: International Labour Organization, p. 22

Lerda, V.G. (2002). Which “Global Village”?: Societies, Cultures, and Political-Economic Systems in a Euro-Atlantic Perspective. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, pp.57-60

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation. Paris: OECD Publishing, p.51

Parameswaran, B. (2004). The Liberalization of Maritime Transport Services: With Special Reference to the WTO/GATS Framework. Berlin: Springer, pp. 22-23

Stopford, M. (1997). Maritime Economics. UK: Routledge, p. 2

Tsinker, G.P. (2004). Port Engineering: Planning, Construction, Maintenance, and Security. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 5-6

Väyrynen, R. (1999). Globalization and Global Governance: Medical Ethics in Conflict with Religious Freedom. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 55

Thedoropopoulos, S. (2006). Cluster Formation and the Case of Maritime Cluster. Paper Presented at the International Conference “Shipping in the era of Social Responsibility”. Argostoli, Cephalonia, Greece, 14-16 September 2006, pp. 8-9

Chapter 13 Of Lord Of The Flies Short Summary

The boys have stayed on this island for almost 3 months with no adults at all. Ralph was sitting on a burnt tree trunk thinking while the navy officer was waiting for the cruise ship to come close to the island. The rest were standing together half naked on the beach and in the sun. For a moment, Ralph felt the tears well up his eyes as a thought crossed his mind about the time he spent with the boys on the island. 0Whenever Ralph looked at Jack and the boys with painted faces and long hair, it reminded him of his loyal friend named Piggy who was killed many days ago.

He couldn’t believe things would have gone this far and the boys have fallen within a few months, Ralph also blamed himself for not being a good chief and allow the boys to lose all reverence for the rules of a civilization and become savages. Right now, Ralph was crying out the pain within him when the navy officer came nearby him, gave him pat on the shoulder and said “Fear no more my son, we’re here now. We shall have you cleaned up and get you some rest. Then once we’ve reached our destination in the Great Britain, we shall help you find your relatives and all of you can rejoin your families again. The littluns, who were sitting with Jack and Roger, came running to the British officer and hugged him joyfully, except the older kids.

The navy officer went to those kids and interviewed them: “What’s your name lad and how long have you been on this island? ” asked the navy officer. “My name is Jack, sir? ” A boy with red hair and a cap on his head responded first and followed by Roger and Samneric. “We’ve been on this island for a while now sir. We’re not sure how long we’ve been here. ’’ “Why have you lads all painted your faces and why hasn’t that boy with fair hair? ” the officer continued asking.

At that point, Jack and the other boys were speechless. Later, they want to say something but words died at their lips. Finally, a voice comes out among the silence: “Because I’m not one of them, sir. ” answered Ralph from the back. “Okay, then. ” said the officer doubtfully, “let’s get you lads ready for departure. ” Without any further questions, at last the ship came closer to the island and picked up passengers. One by one the boys lined up in queue and got on the ship. The navy officer was the last one to get on the ship because he was checking around to see if there were still some kids left behind.

After that, the ship starts to move onward into the blue horizon. The island gradually vanished but the smoke from the burning forests was still visible from the distance as a signal for rescue. The littluns were arranged to occupy the room near the stairs which was big enough for them to stay while the older boys wanted to stay outdoor for a while. Ralph, who was feeling exhausted, joined the littluns to the room for some rest after a long day of running. As they were walking along the corridor, Ralph heard a bumping noise from the distance.

The littluns heard it too but they were too tired to go off and see, so they decided to get into the room and go to sleep. Ralph went on alone to see what was happening and he saw Jack and Roger were having a fight. Without any words, Ralph engaged the fight and tried to separate the two boys from each other. Roger was trying to punch Jack but he hit Ralph in the face instead. After that, the duel stopped and there was a dead silence among the three boys. Suddenly Roger shouted out loud: “Why are we here on this cruise ship?! We supposed to be on the island, having fun and hunting pigs!! he paused then continued, “We supposed to kill this guy standing right here who was trying to ruin our fun on the island!!! ” “No, it’s over. We have got to return to the real world now, to our home. ” said Jack with tears in his eyes, “It’s where we belong! Don’t you understand? ”

“Fine, serve yourself then! ” said Roger and he ran away afterward. Jack turned to Ralph and tried to speak out a word but he couldn’t spit it out. He felt awkward and a little shy to talk to Ralph now as if both of them had just known each other for the first time. If you have anything to tell me, you can tell me tomorrow because I need to go to my room and have a rest now. ” said Ralph. Jack nodded and he went outside straight to the deck of the cruise ship. Ralph went back to his room, his face was in pain from the bunch and slept with the littluns. After about half an hour later, someone rushed into the room like a mad cow and shouted for help. “Who was that!!?? ” cried Percival as he was half awake. Ralph stood up straight from his bed as if he was about to sprint. He looked at the stranger at who rushed in and he saw Eric catching his breath.

“What’s wrong?! ” asked Ralph in a loud voice. Quick, Roger wants to jump off the cruiser!!! ” cried Eric, “I have no time to explain; Sam is holding him right now by the fan tail of the cruise ship!!! ” “I have to go and stop him now,” said Ralph, “you go and inform the officer immediately” The two boys ran off quickly in different directions. Ralph sprinted as fast as he could to the fan tail of the ship to stop Roger from jumping off. “I dare you to get your hands off me and let me return to the island!!! ” demanded Roger madly at Sam. Sam kept holding on to Roger waiting for Eric to go and call somebody for help. Later Ralph came and shouted to Roger: “Wait a minute!!! “You can’t tell me what to do, Ralph. Not ever again! ” shouted Roger from the distance. “Please, listen to me. You’ve got to calm down. ” said Ralph, “If you jumped now, you will die for sure! ” At the moment, Roger found himself shaking after he heard Ralph says that he would die if he jumped.

He slowly turned away from the blue horizon and back to Sam; suddenly he slipped off the railing, took Sam with him as he fell but Ralph held Sam’s hand immediately and tried to pull them back with all his strength. “Don’t let go of my hands!!! ” exclaimed Ralph. “My hand is sliding off your hands, Ralph. wailed Sam. Sam was not thinking about being rescued now. He understood clearly that the probability for him to live is very low because Roger was holding Sam’s hand and Sam was holding Ralph’s hands. Sam feared that if he continued to hold Ralph’s hands, he would also pull Ralph down with them. That’s why he decided to let go of Ralph’s hands and greet death. As Sam slowly let go of Ralph’s hands, he felt extra hands on his wrist which pulled him and Roger up in a few seconds. When they got up on the cruiser’s fantail again, Sam saw Ralph, a navy officer and Eric.

“What do you think you’re doing?! asked the officer in a strict tone, “you two almost get yourself killed!!! ” “My apology, sir” said Sam, “We were running too fast and we accidentally fell off the ship as we tried to turn. And Ralph saved us. ” “Be more careful next time or else I will have to keep you in a room until we’ve reached England. Understand? ” said the officer. Sam nodded but Roger didn’t. He seemed to be sad and disappointed about not being able to get back to the island. “Good job, lads” said the officer as he turned to Ralph and Eric, “now off you go. Don’t stay too close to the fantail. ” Ralph, Roger and Samneric headed back to their room quietly.

Roger faced down as they walked away from the officer by the fantail. When they entered their room, there was a dead silence inside. The littluns were staring at Roger and Ralph. “There’s nothing to stare at. You guys go and have a bath now” said Ralph, “supper will be at 6 o’clock. ” One after another, the littluns disappeared from the room and went to have a shower. By 5:30 at dusk, all the boys were cleaned up and really hungry. They gathered together in the big room waiting for someone to come and lead them to the dining room. Jack was shocked when Percival told him what happened this afternoon between Roger, Ralph and Samneric.

He wanted to ask Ralph if this true but he couldn’t because Jack knew that Ralph’s hatred for him was still unforgivable. Therefore, he asked Samneric who was sitting in front of him quietly: “Is it true that Roger wanted to jump off the cruiser? ” “It is true indeed. ” replied Sam, “I was the one to interrupt while Eric went to call for help. ” “Oh, I see. ” said Jack, “That’s explain why Roger is so quiet. ” While Jack and Sam were talking and the littluns were playing, there was somebody knocking on the door. Ralph ran to the door and opened it, he saw three officers standing on their feet.

One of them was holding a big stock pot, another officer was occupied by spoons and bowls, and the last officer was holding a big bottle of fresh water. “I’m afraid that you lads have to stay in your room tonight and eat your supper,” said one of the officers, “it’s raining cats and dogs outside. ” “It’s okay sir and thank you for bringing us food. ” said Ralph politely. The officers smiled at Ralph and hand over the dinnerware, the stock pot and a big bottle of water, the boys received them carefully into the room. “We’ll be having potato soup tonight. ” proclaimed Jack, “I haven’t eaten it for a while now. “Everybody, get your bowls and come. ” said Ralph, “Get your potato soup. ” Although there’s heavy rain and thunder going outside, the boys ate their potato soup happily together without any worries at all. Even Roger joined the supper but he still remained silence.

After they had finished with their supper, the boys put the dirty bowls and spoons aside then they went to sleep because it was getting late now. At midnight, one of the littluns named Henry had to go the bathroom. Henry asked other littluns to come along because he scared to go off by himself but no one seemed to make any moves t all, so he had to force himself to go. As he opened the door, the cold wind rushed into the room and awakened some of the boys. “Where are you going? ” asked Ralph in a soft voice. “I have to go to the bathroom,” said Henry, “and I would be glad if you could come along. ” Ralph jumped from his bed, yawned for a bit and went with Henry to the only bathroom he knew on the cruiser which was about five blocks away from their room on the way to the deck. Ralph waited outside while Henry was using the bathroom, then they went back to the room along the corridor. It was cold and dark.

The heavy rain made it barely impossible for the sailors to see one was going in the middle of the ocean; small waves hit the cruiser followed by the tidal waves which caused the ship to constantly make motions to the right and left. Ralph and Henry had not reached their room yet because the way back was getting darker than plus the cruiser did not move in motion so they had to walk slowly and cautiously on the wet floor. Suddenly the rainy storm caused a loud vibration of thunder which horrified Henry to run very fast, Ralph was chasing after him recklessly and he slipped over, hit his head and fainted on the wet floor.

The next morning, Ralph woke up and found himself lying on a bed in the room where the boys had slept last night. He saw the door was opened and Percival came in slowly. “You’re awake now. How are you feeling? ” asked Percival. “I’m feeling better now but my head still aching,” said Ralph, “What happened to me last night? I remember that I was taking Henry to the bath room and that’s all. ” “I’m not sure what really happened,” said Percival “All I knew was that Jack came in the room carrying you on his back. I saw he laid you down on a bed then he went back to his bed to sleep. I think you’re fainted or something. “That’s right! ” cried Ralph, “I was running after Henry and I slipped and banged my head on the floor. ” Ralph was surprised to hear that Jack was the one who helped him when he fainted on the floor in the middle of the night. He wondered why Jack decided to save him. So Ralph got off his bed, went looking for Jack and he found him by the bow of the cruiser. Ralph walked awkwardly toward Jack and tried to speak a word but he did not know what to say, after all Jack had done to him and his friends on the island. First, Ralph went toward and stood by Jack silently on the bow looking at the blue horizon.

The sun was shining bright and the sky was clear; the weather seemed be normal and peaceful. Finally, Jack broke the silence. “I’m so sorry, Ralph. ” Ralph was shocked to hear such a confession from Jack. He was not sure what to respond and usually Piggy was always there to give him suggestions and advices but he’s not here anymore so Ralph was left to say the only thing he could think of: “You’re apologizing about for what? ” “For everything that I’ve done to you, Piggy and Simon back on the island. ” Ralph was speechless at the moment. He had never heard Jack would have said something so expressive.

In fact, it reminded him the time on the island when Jack had apologized to him once for letting the fire out but Ralph also realized that he never accepted that apology. He felt shameful about that mistake he made, plus Jack had helped him last night in order to pay for his mistakes. Therefore, Ralph decided to let go of the past, all the hatred he had for Jack and instead he forgave Jack. “It’s okay, Jack. I accept your apology,” said Ralph, “after all you are not the only one who made mistake, and I also made a mistake on my own. I also contribute to the destruction of the island society. “Only if I had been a better chief, we wouldn’t have fallen this much. ” “Why did you say like that, Ralph? It’s because of you that we all get rescued? ” said Jack, “It’s me who had brainwashed the boys and turn them into savages like me. I should have listened to you, to Piggy. ” Ralph and Jack stood on the bow for a while, looking at the blue horizon in a memory of Piggy.

They were both thinking the same thing that if they both listen carefully to Piggy’s advice. Not only the boys would enjoy staying on the island together but the boys would be rescued faster. “I regretted about the death of Piggy. said Jack “Yes I did too. But then why did you decide to kill him? ” asked Ralph. “Yes I do contribute to the death of Piggy but I didn’t kill him,” proclaimed Jack, “It was Roger who did it. He’s the one who pushed the huge boulder to crush Piggy! ” “I had never thought of dropping boulder on a person. All I ever wanted to do was to threat you guys so that you would be frightened of me and then joined my tribe. But Roger, he was insane and more aggressive than me. He told me that we had to hunt you down so that there wouldn’t be anyone to struggle the position of chief from me.

So I decided to follow him and went hunting for you. Roger regretted so much that we didn’t get the chance to kill you. ” After hearing all the truths that Jack told him, Ralph felt even more sad and depressed to the fact that Jack who used to be his enemy didn’t try to kill him. But instead, it turned out to be Roger whom Ralph thought to be innocent killed Piggy and tried to hunt him down. “You two, please come with me. The captain wished to see you. ” announced the voice from the back of Ralph and Jack. When they turned back, they saw an officer was calling them by the door.

Ralph and Jack did what the officer said and followed him to see the captain. They walked along the corridor, climbed the stairs to the next level and beyond the stair about two rooms away, there’s a room with a label on the door illustrated “Captain Benard Peter. ” They entered that room and in there stood a man in a navy uniform and brown mustache. “Please come in. ” the captain welcomed the boys, “Thank you officer for bringing them to me. ” The officer saluted the captain and he went outside and closed the door behind Jack and Ralph. “Make yourself comfortable. ” said the captain, “I have some questions to ask you two.

But let us begin by introducing ourselves. ” “My name is Benard Peter, you can call me Peter. ” “I am Ralph and this is Jack. ” Introduced Ralph. “One of my crews have informed that you boys were on the island by yourself without any adults at all. Is it true? ” “Yes indeed. Sir” “Then who was the one to be responsible for all the boys. ” “I am, sir. ” Ralph said, “We had a vote and I won the election. ” “He is our chief indeed. ” clarified Jack. “I have also heard that there are two boys who were killed on the island. Who were those boys, do you know their names. ” “The two boys’ name were Piggy and Simon.

They’re my good friends. ” answered Ralph with a sad tone. “Do you also know the reason why they died? ” The captain continued asking. “For Simon, we accidentally killed him because it was a dark and rainy night. And we can see Simon well while he was walking in the forest. We thought he was a beast therefore we killed him. ” explained Ralph. “For Piggy… I…er. ” said Jack as he was trying to admit that he was the one to responsible for the death of Piggy. “Piggy was killed by a boulder that accidentally rolled down by itself while we were exploring by the rocky part of the island” Ralph interrupted.

Jack was speechless. He looked at Ralph doubtfully and wondering why Ralph decided to excuse him? Does this mean that Ralph really forgive Jack? “I see. ” sighed the captain pitifully. “You are a group of English boys, my expectation for you is way better than this. But it’s too late for blaming now, just be more careful next time. ” The captain had been questioning the boys for the whole afternoon. And they had lunch in the office then continued with their business until the sun barely sink down into the blue horizon. “Alright, that’s all I want to know.

Thank you two for attending to my office and answered my questions. ” said the captain, “off you go now. ” “You’re welcome, sir. ” replied Ralph. The two boys got off the seat and walked out of the room and they headed back to their room and rejoined the rest of the boys for supper. That night, Jack felt himself in the cloud nine, walking in the air because Ralph finally lay down his hatred toward Jack and instead he accepted Jack’s sincere apology. The next day early in the morning, one of the navy officers announced that the cruiser almost reached its destination in the Great Britain.

The boys were so excited for their arrival in England that they woke up and rushed to the bow of the cruiser at dawn, even the littluns were also running half awake with the older boys. They gathered together at the front of the cruiser, some of them were standing on the bow and some were sitting on the deck. Almost one hour had passed; the sun was climbing to the blue sky. The boys who were standing on the bow decided to have a seat on the deck first except the little boy who was still standing on the bow; suddenly he saw something on the blue horizontal line then shouted out: “I saw something!

Look! ” All the boys stood on the feet quickly and looked into the sea and they saw like a dot on the blue horizontal. As the cruiser moved closer and closer, they saw an island, a big one. It took quite a long time for the cruiser to reach the London Port in England. A navy officer advised the boys to have a bathe, eat breakfast and get ready. At around ten o’clock in the morning the cruiser finally reached the London Port, all the boys got off the ship with smiles on their faces, a few even cried because they’re too excited to return back to England.

The navy officers organized a truck to pick the boys up to London, the boys lined up and one by one they got on the bus. Ralph was the last person in the queue but before he climbed into the bus, he observed the environment that was damaged bombs then looked back to the blue sea and imagined the burnt island floating on the blue horizon. Ralph gave a long sighed and said: “The society in the adult’s world and the society on the island are not really different at all. Both are having wars and conflicts because of power and money. At the end, the ones who will suffer the consequences are the innocent people like Piggy and Simon. ”