By happenstance, on May 14, 1984, the same year that Apple Inc. released its revolutionary Mac computer, Mark Elliot Zuckerberg was born. It was clear to everyone close to him that Mark was exceptional from his early years. Nowadays, his name is written in history as the youngest billionaire or, more commonly, the founder of Facebook.
At his 28th birthday, just 8 years after conceiving the idea of Facebook, he managed to ring the NASDAQ bell to signal the start of a trading day on Wall Street and successfully take his company to the stock market for the very first time. In 2012, Facebook’s market valuation was $104 billion.
Mark’s quote was included along with Facebook’s registration statement: “We don’t build services to make money; we make money to build better services” (Mark Zuckerberg, 2012). By the time Facebook entered the stock market, Mark was considered a very smart person who was studying at Harvard University, a hacker, an innovator, bizarre, lonely, and very focused on his tasks.
While he was struggling to be successful, he gained a lot of experience through different situations, enabling him to develop himself from both a managerial and personal point of view. Nevertheless, he acquired, developed, and improved a variety of skills and traits that helped him manage the colossal company called Facebook.
However, there is one very important element that forces a particular person to be successful: the person’s personality. “Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments” (Larsen & Buss, 2005, p. 4).
It can be shaped by the influence of heredity or early childhood experiences. Undoubtedly, a person’s personality can be changed due to major life events and the gradual maturing process, and so on. Over the years, many scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have worked on various models and theories of leadership. Some theories have been developed, others have been refuted, and some new ones have been discovered.
Some of them are the Great Man’s Theory (1900), the Trait Theory (30s), the Behavioral Theory (40s and 50s), the Contingency Theory (60s and 70s), the Transformational Theory (80s up), etc. The five-trait theory is an old one, preceding the scientific survey of leadership and dating back into antiquity across several early civilizations (Bass, 1990; Zaccaro, in imperativeness).
There are assorted and multiple illustrations to support this quotation mark, and they can be found in the Chinese, Italian, ancient Greek, Babylonian, and Egyptian literature.
Allport (1961) defined a trait as a “neuropsychic construction holding the capacity to render many stimulations functionally tantamount and to originate and guide equivalent (meaningfully consistent) signifiers of adaptive and expressive behaviour” (p. 347). Personality traits, which seem to be the most widely recognized manner to sort personalities, will be used to describe the personality of Mark Zuckerberg.
This theoretical model has been divided into five major dimensions: Surgency or Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism or Psychological accommodation, Conscientiousness, and Openness to see. The Surgency personality dimension includes leadership and extroversion traits such as more specific traits like chatty, energetic, and self-asserting.
Mark showed his strong Surgency as he wanted to be the person who led the team and definitely did not want to be a subordinate. When he was asked to work for the Winklevoss brothers, he never truly accepted the inquiry to design the dating social network so-called Harvard Connection.
Mark demonstrated on numerous occasions his assertiveness and his energy while he was building Facebook, as much in the court when he was standing alone supporting himself against the attorneys of his enemies and his ex-friends.
Furthermore, his talk ability and his communication skills are unchallenged since he argued down a lot of people while he was defending his concept around Facebook, although he impressed a lot of people with his presentation and persuasion skills.
Until recently when Mark was on a business trip in China – the only country in the world that Facebook is banned by federal law – he dazzled everyone when he started speaking Chinese fluently during his address in Beijing. The brawny extroversion led Mark into prosperity, wealth, and prosperity.
Ricky Griffin and Gregory Moorhead (2010) argue that agreeableness refers to a person’s ability to get along with others. Agreeableness causes some people to be soft, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and good-natured in their dealings with others. But it also results in others being cranky, choleric, uncooperative, and generally counter toward other people.
It is said that Mark was not always an easy-going person, particularly during the period that he was programming Facebook. Back then, he was more of a manager because Facebook was his idea and not a leader as he developed himself later on.
There were many contentions all these years about his determinations, how he treated his friends and co-workers, as well as how he was addressing diverse issues regarding the improvement of the house. Although later he became a true leader, according to his co-workers, he stood up and led his house to the top.
Neurosis, sometimes reversed and called emotional stability, includes traits like tension, moodiness, and anxiety. Costa and McCrae (1992) suggest that “the general inclination to experience negative affects such as fear, sadness, embarrassment, anger, guilt, and disgust is the core of the neurosis domain” (p. 14).
Watson and Tellegen (1985) specify this sphere of personality as negative emotionalism, negative affectivity, or negative disposition. Although the broad trait of neuroticism/anxiety includes other negative emotions, such as depression, guilt, and ill will, and character traits such as low self-esteem, neurosis and anxiety are virtually identical as traits (Zuckerman, Joireman, Kraft & Kuhlman, 1999). Mark’s reactions in various situations indicate that he does not have pleasant emotional stability and he acts irrationally.
An example of this is that before he conceived the idea of Facebook, he had a fight with his girlfriend, and they broke up. He was so furious about it that he decided to write about her on his public blog, and then he hacked all the houses of Harvard University because he wanted to create FaceMash. FaceMash was a software that compared students to different farm animals, which seemed unethical to the majority of students and the school board.
Nevertheless, that software was an important step to recognition since it made him famous among the students of Harvard. Conscientiousness includes traits like being organized, thorough, and planning. Ricky Griffin and Gregory Moorhead (2010) suggested that conscientiousness refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses.
People who focus on relatively few goals at one time are likely to be organized, systematic, careful, thorough, responsible, and self-restraining. The high degree of conscientiousness that Mark had led him to success. He was the one that always wanted to put in extra effort and extra time. For example, when he created FaceMash, he worked eight hours straight in the middle of the night.
In addition, when he created Facebook, he spent numerous hours, days, and weeks working on this project. Therefore, when he led a team of coders to help him make Facebook, he guided them to work focused, carefully, responsibly, and consistently, just like him. Openness in experience reflects a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
People with high levels of openness are willing to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas, beliefs, and attitudes in response to new information. They also tend to have broad interests and to be curious, creative, and imaginative (Ricky Griffin, Gregory Moorhead, 2010).
Mark was not always an easy-going person, but he was willing to change his attitude and his way of thinking in different occasions. For example, he was the creator of Facebook, and obviously, he had his own ideas and way of working, but he changed a lot while he was working because he was influenced a lot by his co-workers. Facebook would never be possible if Mark was not open to new experiences.
There are many definitions regarding leading because an assortment of psychologists and sociologists worked on this leadership theories undertaking. Therefore, there are multiple theories based on leadership.
Some of them are singular such as: “Leadership is the ability to measure and/or calculate a long-term program or policy and act upon the followings towards the accomplishment of the said scheme” (Adeoye Mayowa: A Leadership Manager in Nigeria, 2009). ”
A leader is best when people hardly know that he exists, not so good when people obey and acclaim him, worst when they despise him. ‘Fail to honour people’ they fail to honour you.’ But of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his purpose fulfilled, they will all state, ‘We did this ourselves.’” (Lao Tzu, Chinese founder of Taoism, writer, sixth Century BC) “Leadership (according to John Sculley) revolves around vision, ideas, direction, and has more to do with inspiring people as to direction and goals than with daily execution.
A leader must be able to leverage more than his own capabilities. He must be capable of inspiring other people to do things without actually sitting on top of them with a checklist” (Bennis, W. ‘On Becoming a Leader’ Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1989, p. 139).
It is a fact that there are a lot of traits, abilities, and styles, and based on them, a leader can be categorized into managerial constructs or managerial styles. Mark, like every other leader, has certain abilities, traits, and a managerial style that differentiates him from every other leader and makes him loved or hated by his co-workers and subordinates.
Ceci and Liker (1988) state that work-related knowledge and skills obtained as a result of experience are more important to job performance than cognitive ability or general intelligence. That is what makes Mark so special; when he was just a college kid when he invented Facebook, he worked his own way up and gained his traits and abilities from on-work experiences separately or working with others.
Therefore, he developed a variety of skills for himself, as well as he adapted a certain managerial style which was fit for his house according to him. For Zuckerberg, leadership as a concept is about producing focus.
It is about finding the right people for the right job, staying focused all the time, dedicated, careful, and stuck to the goals. From the way he is doing things, it is said that Mark is more of a democratic style leader.
“He does not truly act like a dictator as he is open to taking into consideration others’ sentiments and thoughts. One day, an incident occurred and Facebook’s employees started to despise their leader until Mrs. Reed stepped in and showed Mark the way.
She suggested that since he had problems managing his employees, he should take lessons or seminars on leadership and human resources management. Nevertheless, Mark is one of the people-oriented types of leaders. He asked for help from Sean Parker, who is a very talented man and the one who invented Napster, although he was known for his controversies in his personal life with drinking problems, women, and the law.
Zuckerberg did not care about his bad reputation but wanted Sean Parker’s talent, who is also described as a business entrepreneur. Parker did help Zuckerberg with a lot of things to achieve the success of Facebook with the talent that Parker had. Zuckerberg is a good leader who leads Facebook to a greater and more successful way.
It is obvious that Mark implements a managerial theory in his company, which is the situational theory.
The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory was created by Dr. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. The theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they are leading and the details of the task.
Using this theory, leaders should be able to put more or less emphasis on the task and more or less emphasis on the relationships with the people they are leading, depending on what is needed to get the job done successfully. Therefore, in every situation, Mark was able to adapt his style in order to manipulate and determine the outcome of every problem.
Besides that, Mark Zuckerberg is a perfect example of the path-goal theory, which was developed by Robert House. House (1996) suggests that the path-goal theory is a dyadic theory of supervision. It concerns relationships between formally appointed superiors and subordinates in their daily operations. It is concerned with how formally appointed superiors affect the motivation and satisfaction of subordinates.”
It is a dyadic theory of supervision in that it does not address the effect of leaders on groups or work units, but rather the effects of superiors on subordinates. Consistent with the dominant leadership paradigm of the time, the path-goal theory is primarily a theory of task and individual-oriented supervisory behavior.
The more common mark is to provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals. Furthermore, Mark has to clarify the path to the employee’s goals, and in this situation, he can demonstrate multiple leadership styles depending on the situation.
This can be achieved by being participative, directive, supportive, and achievement-oriented. Mark meets all criteria. Although the growth and prosperity of his company were expected and uninterrupted, he managed to change his leadership style several ways.
First, after he created Facebook, he acted as a directing leader and provided the necessary guidance and psychological support to his employees to ensure constant expansion. Later, when Mark was certain that his company was on the right path, he could finally take a more supportive role.
He is an excellent example of a participative leader in the present day, where Facebook is finally sustainable, and a hardheaded leader is not required among the ranks of the company. This can be proved by looking at Zuckerberg’s Facebook personal page, where he is trying to inspire and attract self-motivated individuals such as himself to join his company.
Additionally, as a leader, Zuckerberg has a place in the managerial grid theory (diagram 1 in appendices), which demonstrates the relationship between productivity and people. Mark shows extreme interest in both productivity and people because he is looking for good quality as well as employee satisfaction.
That would put him on a score of 9.9 in the leadership grid theory. Furthermore, if Zuckerberg were judged based on the Leadership Continuum Theory (diagram 2 in appendices), it would be evident that Mark falls somewhere around the sixth defined trait. He has received a colossal approval rate from his employees, and they have said that they love working at Facebook because what they say and think is considered and it matters to their leader.
Every decision taken at Facebook is a group decision. Zuckerberg has showcased a variety of traits based on the trait theory that makes him an effective leader. The trait theory of personality best explains the notion of emotional intelligence.
Traits are underlying tendencies to act in a consistent and typical manner, and they describe the frequency or strength of a person’s feelings, thoughts, or behaviors (Nilanjan Sengupta, 2009).
Some of Mark’s traits are authority or dominance, passion or high energy, intelligence, focus, confidence, self-awareness, fearlessness, integrity, shared vision and actions, and he is also empowering, collaborative, communicative, and genuine. The outcome of this mixture of traits shows that Mark Zuckerberg knows where he is going and has a strong stated mission to lead people. He has a strong focus and stays on course. He is very passionate about what he is doing.
He has stated that he lives, breathes, eats, and sleeps for Facebook. He definitely believes in himself. He is honest and committed. People want to work for leaders and companies that genuinely care about their employees and the communities in which they operate.
They want to be a part of the dream and feel that they are productive and important. Mark makes his co-workers feel empowered and powerful. True leaders share their vision or strategy frequently with those around them, and Mark does.
Certainly, he is not afraid to try new things, take risks, and he knows his strengths and weaknesses, as well as those of his team. At this point, it can be said that Zuckerberg has emerged and evolved as an employee-centered CEO with a democratic style. He has come a long way to reach this point by bringing a lot of changes in himself and to others around him. When it comes to personality traits, without any doubt, his strongest trait would be his openness to experience and willingness to always try something new.
In conclusion, Mark Zuckerberg is considered my role model since from a very young age he managed to become popular and provide the world with the best social network, and the most recognized one. Additionally, the leadership traits that Mark possesses are very similar to my personality traits.
His achievements are very hard to be attained by someone in the foreseeable future. His way of leading, however, is the most important aspect for me because it is very similar to my way of thinking and acting regarding leadership and human resources management.
Since in every type of business in the world, the human factor is the most important and plays the most significant role in production, sales, customer & employee satisfaction, which are the key elements for a company to continue to thrive and succeed, I believe that the democratic style of leading and the path-goal theory that motivates employees is the best for a company.
Bibliography and Mentions
- Asserting the Definition of Personality. John D. Mayer (2007) Phosphorus: The Online Newsletter for Personality Science. Issue 1. Spring 2007. Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2005). Personality psychology: Spheres of knowledge about human nature (2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
- Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Ricky Griffin, Gregory Moorhead (2009) Cengage Learning. 9th edition. ISBN 0547167334, 9780547167336.
- Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal. (Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa Jr. National Institute on Aging. May 1997).
- Business Essentials. 9th edition. Ronald J. Ebert, Ricky W. Griffin. 2013. ISBN-13: 9780132664028 (taken from Scribd).
- Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
- Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219-235.
- Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior edited by Mark R. Leary and Rick H. Hoyle. December 2013. ISBN: 9781462514892.
- Leader Traits and Attributes. Stephen J. Zaccaro, Cary Kemp, Paige Bader. (2004).
- Pattern and Growth in Personality. Allport, G. W. (1961). Beacon Press, New York.
- The Psychology of Personality: Perspectives, Research, and Applications. Bernardo J. Carducci. John Wiley & Sons. Mar 9, 2009.
- Srivastava, R. (2014). Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors. Retrieved (01-08-15) from http://psdlab.koregon.edu/bigfive.html.
- Emotional Intelligence: Myth or Reality. Nilanjan Sengupta. Jan 1, 2009. Excel Books India.
- Path-Goal theory of leadership: lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Robert J. House. The Wharton School of Management. Vol. 7 No 3. 1996.
- Bennis, W. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing. 1989. p. 139.
- Personality and Individual Differences. Zuckerman, Joireman, Kraft & Kuhlman Volume 26, Issue 3, 1 March 1999.
- Mark Zuckerberg: The Face Behind Facebook and Social Networking. Daniel Alef. Titans of Fortune Publishing. Oct 17, 2010. http://www.forbes.com/
- Some of the facts used in the essay were taken from the film Social Network (2010).
Marriott Research Paper
These features created an outstanding backbone for a great company using tactics discussed in Built to Last by Jim Collins. These ideas implemented years ago are holding true, keeping Marriott International two steps ahead of their competitors in all aspects of business. J. Willard Marriott founded Marriott International in 1927 ground by quenching people’s thirst during Washington D. C. ‘s hot, muggy summers. Their original guiding principle was “Good food and good service at a fair price. ” Within two years J. W. Grew from a concession stand to three restaurants, including the first ‘drive-in’ restaurant on the east coast.
These restaurants were known as ‘Hot Shoppe’. By 1937 they had expanded their company to a growing market, the airline industry. J. W. Began selling in-flight boxed lunches to on planes traveling through the Hoover airport in Washington. In 1953 Hot Shoppe Inc. Went public. Their shares were sold out within 2 hours of trading. The company’s innovation continued to into the second half of the century with their introduction the hotel industry. In 1957 the Twin Bridges Hotel opened in Arlington, Virginia, with 365 rooms. It was the first ever ‘motor hotel’ which had a drive-though check-in.
Jaw’s son, Bill Marriott, was the manager of this new establishment. In 1965 the company entered another thriving industry, fast food. Hot Shoppe Jar. Was opened in Maryland selling fifteen-cent hamburgers. Two years later, the company expanded into the international hotel market by opening a five-star vacation resort in Acapulco, Mexico. In 1972, JAW again saw a thriving new potential business in the cruise liner industry. Seeing this undeveloped industry, Marriott partnered with Sun Lines, a cruise ship based in Greece. Ten years later, J. W. Once again saw a high potential in another aspect of the tool industry, the business traveler.
The courtyard Marriott hotel chain was opened to cater to the traveling businessman. The hotels are designed to have a homey feeling for businessmen who needed to be away from home for an extended period of time. At this point in time Marriott innovated its name in the travel industry to one that had “A bed for every traveler. ” From pioneering the extended-stay business to launching distinctive brands geared toward the business traveler to increasing its presence overseas, Marriott International had broken new ground in its new mission. They wanted to become the top hospitality organization in the world.
In 1987 Marriott introduced two new kinds of hotels to the world, the Fairfield Inn and Marriott Suites. The Fairfield Inns offer a simplistic setting aimed at guest staying only a night or two. They have minimum amenities but offer very quick services. Fairfield offer the lowest price in the Marriott family and are commonly found around airports. The Marriott Suites, currently known as Springtail Suites, are designed for a longer stay in mind. The rooms are priced substantially higher than Fairfield because all rooms are duties and the amount/quality of amenities is much higher.
In 1987 Marriott Pioneered yet another new aspect to the industry, the extended stay lodging business. These hotels do not have hotel rooms; instead they have one to three bedroom apartments, equipped with a full kitchen, dining area, and living room. In the mid sass Marriott acquired forty-nine percent interest in Ritz Carlton Hotel Company. This move gave Marriott an even more powerful name in the industry. In 1997 Marriott purchased the rights to Renaissance Hotel Group, an international hotel chain that focus on upscale travelers seeking to experience the culture of wherever they are visiting.
The purchase of this chain doubled Amorist’s presence in the international hotel industry. In the following years Marriott International purchased a number of other hotel chains, all were in the upscale end of the industry. They now have nineteen hotel brands in their family including: The Ritz- Renaissance, Marriott, AC Hotels, Fairfield Inn & Suites, Courtyard Marriott, Springtail Suites, Residence Inn, Townspeople Suites, Ritz-Carlton Destination Club, Marriott Executive Apartments, Executers, Marriott Vacation Club, and Grand Residence. The sweet edition to the Marriott family is Gaylord Hotels.
Marriott bought out Gaylord Hotels for 210 million in October of 2012. Marriott has been at the top of the industry for decades and continues to push itself to become more and more powerful, and respected. In Just the last year, Marriott has opened 150 new hotels worldwide. Their stock value has gone up 32. 52 percent in the last year and 290. 06% in the last five years, a clear sign that this company is stable and maintains constant growth. How is this company able to stay so strong for so long? The answer is not complicated; J. W. Marriott and Bill Marriott both understood the value of a vision. From the beginning J.
W. Had his vision set right. “Good food and good service at a fair price” is simple and clear. Jim Collins Defines a visionary company as “a premier institution in their industries, widely admired by their peers and having a long track record of making a significant impact on the world around them. ” When looking at Marriott International, it is clear why Collins believes Marriott is a visionary company. J. W. Started his empire by looking for what the people needed and continued that idea through many successful ideas before landing on the hotel industry. He had no intention of being in the hotel industry at first.
All he wanted was to be in an industry that he could provide people with a good product and service at a fair price. J. W. Understood that he did not have to stick with one industry; rather he knew that he could take his vision to any industry that was booming at the time. His airline catering business and the cruise line industry are great examples of this. Collins also states in his book that there is never such thing as an “over-night success”, instead true success comes from small great company that found a great idea. In the case of Marriott, they found multiple great ideas in the early years of the company.
The difference between Marriott and other companies is that once Marriott found some great ideas, they didn’t stop. Marriott continued to look for the next great idea. Collins also states that there is no ‘right’ ideology but a great core ideology should include one or more of the following: customers, product/service, employees, risk taking, and innovation. In Amorist’s case, they incorporate all of these into their vision. Below is a diagram oaken from Amorist’s Annual report. It is labeled OUR VISION. Amorist’s vision put into a visual diagram Their vision is a BAG that can be achieved but requires constant improvement to maintain I. . A perfect vision statement. Purpose: “We open our doors too world of opportunities for our people, customers, owners & franchises, investors, business alliances, and communities. ” Values: Their long lasting core values set them apart from the competition because Marriott puts the people first. They believe that keeping all associates happy will, in return, keep customers happy. Their constant pursuit of excellence shows their dedication to the customer. Their statement regarding change is very powerful. “Embrace change- success is never final” Strategy: They have a six- part breakdown to describe their strategy.
Part 1, Next Generation Travelers: They are attempting to look into the future to see what their customers will desire. At the at a hotel. Attracting the younger generations as soon as possible will assure future guest satisfaction. Part 2, Brand Distinction: They are attempting to continuously create distinction and innovation within the industry. Keeping themselves different from the competition. Marriott wants to always have their customers thinking of Marriott hotels as Marriott hotels, not Just another room to sleep in. Part 3, Portfolio Power: They strive in having a very strong customer loyalty relation.
Marriott Rewards is a very compelling system that really solidifies the bond between Marriott and their frequent customers. When a customer approaches the front desk they are greeted with “Good afternoon Mr.. Morning” there is an immediate attachment with that camaraderie. Part 4, Technology Leadership: Being up to date with social media outworking is yet another way to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Part 5, Owner Preference: Marriott treats the individual franchise owners with great care. They do anything they can to assure the hotel owners are given an increase in value every period.
Part 6, Global Growth: Marriott aims to expand further and further into the growing markets around the word. Starting in 2010 Marriott has set a near impossible goal of having 300 new hotels up and running by 2015. Over 150 of them are to be built in India and China. If you want a Job at a Marriott, move there. With heir constant push to grow their company value grows steadily as does their stock. Success: Marriott has three very clear ways of calculating their success. First is loyalty, how many customers they have participating in their rewards program is an easy way to keep track of their customers numerically.
Second is Profitably, keeping the numbers up high and striving to get higher numbers in upcoming periods. Third is Growth, how many new hotels are going to be up and running soon. Are they buying out another high end hotel chain? J. W. Marriott was never the CEO of his company, nor was he ever president. Instead, he allowed his son to take the ranked position. At an early age, Bill Marriott developed a passion for the business and worked in a variety of positions in the Hot Shoppe restaurant chain during his time in high school and college.
He began work full-time in 1956 and soon afterward, took over management of Amorist’s first hotel. From there he became Executive Vice President of the company, then President in 1964. He was elected Chief Executive Officer in 1972, and Chairman of the Board in 1985. Bill’s ability to lead and the company grew at an amazing rate. Bill was a level-5 leader. When he stepped down from his position as CEO on March 31, 2012, he appointed Earn Sorenson as the new CEO and President.
Although Sorenson has not been in the seat long, it is clear that he was the right man for the Job. He had been with Marriott International for almost twenty years and has a long list of achievements and committees he as been apart of. Some of his accomplishments and participation prior to becoming CEO include: chairman of Amorist’s Global Diversity, Inclusion Council, “which complements the efforts of the Marriott Board of Directors’ Committee for Excellence to monitor and evaluate the progress of our Meany’s strategy to promote an increasingly diverse workforce”.
He is also on the Committee for Excellence, He co-founded Amorist’s Global Sustainability Council, and he launched Amorist’s rainforest’s preservation partnership with the Amazons Sustainable Foundation in Brazil. Sorenson is on Marriott Internationally board of College, President’s Export Council and Brand USA. Putting all that together, he knew this company and its core values very well before becoming CEO. In conclusion, Marriott International is an ideal visionary company that is going to main great far into the future.
They have a very well thought out core ideology and vision that is well implemented into every aspect of the organization. Marriott has had level-5 leaders throughout its existence. The company has continuously pushed forward trying to keep up with its vision and constantly sets Abash to keep the energy high in the workplace. They keep a constant focus on their gauges of success: growth, profitability, and loyalty. Most importantly, they keep pushing themselves to improve and don’t get caught up with how successful they currently are. Marriott
International is the greatest company of our time. References Marriott International. (2013, November 17). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://finance. Yahoo. Com/charts? s=MAR Shari=on;alehouses=o;logical=off;source=undefined; Fortune 500– Marriott International. (2012, May 21). Commonly. Retrieved November 1 7, 2013, from http://money. CNN. Com/magazines/fortune/fortune/2012/snapshots/ 10664. HTML http://www. Marriott. Com/ Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (Harper Business Essentials) (08 August 2002) by Jim Collins, Jerry l. Operas
Anticipation Of Discrimination Against People In India
Sexism is the belief that rights and functions in society should be governed by one s sex. Throughout history sexism has been male- driven accompanied by the belief in the lower status of adult females. The State of World Population Report 2000 provinces that each twelvemonth adult females undergo an estimated 50 million abortions, 20 million of which are insecure, ensuing in the deceases of 78,000 adult females and the agony of 1000000s more. At least one in three adult females has been beaten, forced into sex, or abused in some manner.
One in four is abused during gestation. At least 60 million misss, largely in Asia, are listed as “losing,” as a consequence of infanticide, disregard or other factors and “every bit many as 5,000 adult females and misss are murdered each twelvemonth in alleged ‘ honor’violent deaths by members of their ain families.” In add-on, the study said, some 2 million misss aged 5-15 articulation the sex trade each twelvemonth. Girls and adult females all over the universe are still rountinely denied entree to instruction and wellness attention. The study by the U.N. Population Fund said that favoritism and force against adult females remain steadfastly rooted in the civilizations around the universe, halting many from making their full potency.
Sexism in India
Passed down from one coevals to the following, thoughts about existent work forces and a adult female s topographic point are instilled at an early age and are hard to alter. ( State of World Population Report 2000- World Health Organization, World Bank and U.N. bureaus and studies ) Sexism and favoritism against adult females are found preponderantly in the traditional, male-dominated Hindu India. About 80% of adult females in India live at or below a minimum subsistence degree. Indian adult females strive non for gender equality, but unhappily for their exclusive endurance.
Women development is outstanding in most of rural India because of the present caste system and biass between the rich and hapless. Dalit adult females ( In the Hindu caste construction, Dalits are considered low-born and are besides known as the Untouchables ) suffer the severest torments, subjugation and unfairnesss in this patriarchal society. Kidnappings, pack colza, and physical maltreatment are common in these rural countries. Many Hindus have been infecting the Dalit adult female by coercing them to hold sex, under the belief that sexual intercourse with adult females belonging to the lower castes was a definite remedy for pox.
India is among the few states in the universe where life anticipation at birth is shorter for females than males. Compared to boies, girls are more likely to be malnourished, receive unequal wellness attention and/or be neglected. Girls are brought up to be given away later on in life for matrimony and incorporate herself into her hubby s household. Arranged matrimonies are really common due to fiscal grounds, maintaining the wealth in the household, keeping position in the caste system and happening the right adult female for their boies to wed. Dowries are demanded by the groom s household from the bride s household as portion of the excessive nuptials ceremonial in India. A good dowery is a great position symbol for the whole household of the bride.
The roots to the jobs of female favoritism, high female infanticide, female selective abortions, bride combustion and suttee or widow combustion are based on this dowery system. Male childs are valued because they bring in prosperity and wealth into the household as opposed to the misss who merely cut down the profusion of the household, therefore an addition to female selective abortions and higher female infanticide. Cases of bride firing frequently occur when the household of the groom is non wholly satisfied with the dowery given by the bride. Widowed adult females are encouraged to decease along with their hubbies and made to perpetrate self-destruction by leaping into the fire with her dead hubby. Selling girls into matrimony and into the sex trade is common among low-class Indians. It is frequently the hapless, less educated adult females who suffer and experience the worst.
Influences of Hinduism in Sexism in India
Peoples do non cognize how nature is working. If you kill, you must be killed. If you kill the cow who is your female parent, so in some future lifetime your female parent will kill you. Yes. The female parent becomes the kid, and the kid becomes the female parent. – Srila Prabhupada, Abortion is Bad Karma: Hindu Positions
Hindooism is the dominant ancient faith in India with the belief that all life is sacred, to be loved and pattern ahimsa or non-violence. All life is sacred because they are created by the Supreme Being. The Hindu pattern of passive resistance is connected to a belief in reincarnation: the perennial re-embodiment of psyches in different species of life. The karma generated in one’s present life determines whether one enjoys a higher or suffers a lower being in the following reincarnation. Hindu Bibles and tradition have ever condemned the pattern of abortion, except when the female parent s life is in danger. Hinduism teaches that the foetus is a life, witting individual necessitating and meriting protection. In society, abortion is non openly discussed because no adult male should irrupt into the private life of a adult female.
Hindooism has been misused to warrant the subjugation of adult females in the state. It is a challenge to sexism every bit good as to the subjugation of the unborn kid. When amniocentesis became available in the 1970 s, female infanticide patterns became easier, households sought for antenatal diagnosing with the purpose of aborting any foetuss that turn out to be female. In a 1994 estimation, one million fetuses a twelvemonth were aborted in India entirely. Poor lower category households have been vulnerable to advertisement mottos for antenatal diagnosing: Spend 500 Sri lanka rupees Now, Save 5 Lakhs Later. ( 1 Lakh is equal to 100,000 rupees ) This slogan straight demonstrates the economic catastrophe a girl brings into the household with the dowery system.
Development of Sexism in India
Hindus are actively seeking to interrupt the rhythm of the force involved in abortion through instruction, self- consciousness, through matrimony reforms, urging safeguards to those who are non prepared to raise a kid, and see acceptance as an option. In the Indian province of Tamil Nadu, the main curate offers the White Cradle Program, cradles set up in infirmaries so female parents can go forth their babes anonymously, as an option to female infanticide. The authorities so finds adoptive places for these babes guaranting their adoptive households of fiscal aid till the kids reach the age of 21.
Male wellness workers have motivated other work forces to take an involvement in adult females’s wellness, aid with housekeeping, and support for adult females’s employment. Courses on gender and power have reduced force against adult females vouching better household planning.
From life in India for 3 old ages of my life, as a female I can associate to the facts that I researched on sexism in India. I have one time lived among this traditional male-dominated society where adult females were discriminated, disrespected and harassed. Many of the inside informations in this research undertaking backed up my personal thoughts, experiences and basic cognition. Women autumn victim to the traditional caste and dowry systems in the patriarchal Hindu India.
- Dunn, Dana. 1993. “Gender Inequality in Education and Employment in the Scheduled Castes and Tribes of India,” Population Research and Policy Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 53-70.
- Chakravarthi-Bhatkal, Svati The Ethnic Woman International India s Working Women Speak Out Against Harassment Third World Network Features, March 25, 1998 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thefuturesite.com/ethnic/indiawom.html
- Doctrine of Pro-Life motion ( degree Celsius ) Hindus on abortion ( Number of Disciples: 781m ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fnsa.org/fall98/ and hypertext transfer protocol: //www.galwayforlife.ie/Philosophy_of_Life.html
- Rajshekar, V.T. DALIT: THE BLACK UNTOUCHABLES OF INDIA THIRD EDITION pp124. illus. 1995 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bookmasters.com/clarity/b0001.htm
- Leeman, Sue U.N. Issues Female Report, Associated Press September 20, 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.speakout.com/Features/1781/