Markers Of Roman Virtue In Western Civilization Free Writing Sample

The value of the Roman Republic was seen as the virtuous life of every Roman. Although the qualities are not clearly stated in historical sources, one can understand the basic values ​​from the general impression of ancient monuments of art. The development of understanding of the concepts of virtue and the past makes it possible to better trace history and incorporate the achievements of ancestors into modern life. Identity, which could manifest itself in various forms, was considered the main component of Roman virtue.

Identity is an important aspect of the human psyche, the need to find means of expression that would emphasize belonging to a particular social group. One of the main ways of expressing identity for the Romans was the display of the physical body. In order to pose themselves in the world in a specific way, the Romans used special clothes, cosmetics and hairstyles. Different identities were demonstrated through the generally accepted symbolism of clothing. For example, Ovid emphasizes the importance of black attire during funeral ceremonies as a means of expressing religious identity (Ovid 124). With the help of clothes, one could understand gender, ethnic and religious affiliation, age and social status. According to external markers, individual identity and compliance with the status of an ideal Roman were assessed.

A Roman could demonstrate their social status not only during the life itself, but also after the death. The second component of Roman identity can be considered how the Romans desired their posthumous image. Funeral bas-reliefs are indicative; they were erected by people of different social statuses, from slaves to artisans. These monuments signalized how the dead would have liked to be precepted during life. Cicero argues that if the soul survives after death, it would be most noble to covet posthumous glory (Cicero 238). The Romans wanted to be remembered after death, left in history, in accordance with their lifetime position. Funerary bas-reliefs offered to accurately determine the representative of what social class and status was buried here.

The Romans gave great importance to life after death, but earthly existence should have been marked by virtuous activities, such as work for the good of society. Many wealthy Romans were involved in the political life of the polis. According to the Roman proverb, “obligatio est iuris vinculum”, obligations are the foundation of law (Frier 14). Being a responsible citizen is virtuous because it contributes to the preservation of order. Therefore, self-presentation and expression of identity could be directly manifested through political statements and involvement. Public speaking or defending the actions of a politician could allow the Roman to show his high position and present himself as a worthy citizen of the policy.

The bringing of certain values can signal what period of its development a particular society or nation is going through. Significance of self-identity was emphasized from the beginning of the Roman Empire until the beginning of the third century, when the empire began to expand, taking on various cultural influences. The manifestation of identity during this period is especially important, since this is a time of great territory gains and great losses. Culture expanded, absorbed new trends, and it was especially important to show identity in order to preserve the roots and demonstrate adherence to Roman ideals. In troubled and difficult times, a person is especially drawn to demonstrating their own origins and belonging, so self-identification for the Romans becomes of key importance during this period. The same can be said about the modern world, in which the understanding and expression of identity plays an important role.

Identity was a marker of Roman virtue, since it offered to demonstrate true commitment to Roman ideals, to show the dignity of a citizen of the polis. In the modern world, the manifestation of identity can also be a manifestation of pride and responsibility for the place of one’s origin or life. However, in modern society, the concept of identity is interpreted in a broader sense, remaining an aspect adopted from the Romans and characterizing the very thinking of Western civilization. Identity, belonging to a certain category of citizens is especially important in times when the world society is in crisis. People tend to strive to unite in the face of common threats. However, in the modern Western world, identity has become a significant part of not only a unifying factor, but also a manifestation of personal value. Awareness of oneself, one’s past and present play a significant role in the formation of personality. The value of identity is an undoubted marker of the entire Western civilization, a unifying component that emphasizes the value of each individuality.

Thus, identity is one of the basic Roman virtues during a significant historical period. Identity could manifest itself both in appearance: clothing, jewelry, perfume, funerary decorations, as well as in actions that define a responsible Roman citizen. With the help of these manifestations, the Romans could clearly indicate their gender, age, position both during life and after it ended. The expression of identity took on particular importance during the vast imperial conquests, when cultures interpenetrated each other and a clear distinction was required to preserve their own uniqueness. The desire of people for self-expression that demonstrates identity has survived through the centuries and has become an integral part of the concept of Western civilization. Currently, the concept of identity has become more extensive and associated with the aspect of the value of both the community and the individual.

Works Cited

Cicero Marcus Tullius. On Life and Death. United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2017.

Frier, Bruce W. A Casebook on the Roman Law of Contracts. United States, Oxford University Press, 2021.

Ovid. Fasti Book 3. India, Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Sociological Analysis Of One Who Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest Film


Sociology focuses on the bond created between various institutions, including schools, religious centers, health facilities, and the community, with individual beneficiaries of the institutions. Many theories that have assisted in understanding the sociocultural characteristics of people have studied sociological elements. These paradigms include; conflict, structural-functionalism, and symbolic interactionism theories (Berkeley, 2022). Moreover, these paradigms have been used to analyze various concepts in films and novels to bring a clear picture of the intended message of the authors and the editor’s creative works. For instance, in “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” film, sociologists reviewed many societal aspects that the author intended to use in passing information to the public. According to the film, the main characters, Patient McMurphy and Nurse Ratched, fall on opposite sides in believing in the best possible processes to handle cases in the ward. Therefore, sociologists try to evaluate various communities’ societal beliefs and practices. However, the primary teaching from the film “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” is that inclusion and consensus methods should be considered while treating patients with mental health issues.

Society must therefore use a friendly approach to people convenient to them with good intentions, understanding, and inclusion in societal operations. This paper emphasizes two of the three social paradigms evident in “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” including; conflict and symbolic interactionism theories. The paper also expounds on the conflict between McMurphy and Nurse Ratched in managing the ward’s patients and the competition’s implications (Berkeley, 2022). On the other hand, the social interactionism theory shall dwell on the behavioral aspect of various characters in society, including the deviant traits of McMurphy and Nurse Ratched’s reactions to the mentally ill patients admitted to the hospital.

The Conflict Theory

Karl Max developed the conflict theory after pondering the social problems humans face. According to him, society continuously faces conflicts due to the competition to obtain limited resources for daily activities. As such, the theory emphasizes that for the maintenance of order in society, power and domination must be in existence. These two aspects surpass the conformity and consensus conflict resolution notions deemed ineffective (Dorst, 2019). Furthermore, various assumptions revolve around the conflict theory that human beings are self-centered and that society functions continually with limited resources. Lastly, conflict is unavoidable and pervasive between and within societal groups (Rina et al., 2021). For example, the battle depicted in “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” film as evident in the hospital operations as conflicting actions arise between the patients and the nurse.

Randle McMurphy, a mental health patient admitted to the hospital for health monitoring after showing complications in prison, found himself at loggerheads with Ratched, the nurse in charge. The patient often had conflicting ideas with the nurses on how mental health activities should be done. This, therefore, brought about a conflict between human decency and the institution’s powers. The health institution had a rule that the person with a mental health condition could watch specific staff as recommended by the experts. However, when Randle was admitted, he introduced the idea of watching the game’s behaviors (Leise, 2018). The idea was rejected by Nurse Ratched, who strictly followed the institutional regulations. A vote count toward McMurphy’s theory was unsuccessful, making him feel not included in the decision-making (Rina et al., 2021). However, the institutional rules were to be obeyed, and no complaint was expected from the side of the patients.

Symbolic Interactionism Theory

According to symbolic interactionism, people react to aspects of their surroundings based on the personal meanings they ascribe to them. For example, meanings can be generated and changed through social interaction by communicating with others using symbols. According to this view, people exist in both the natural world and the symbolic environment. A process known as symbolic interaction uses characters stored in the mind to animate mutual meaning and values. On the same note, the film “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” uses several symbols to identify most characters based on their behaviors (Leise, 2018). Moreover, through the film, Ken Kesey skillfully shapes and reinforces the idea of how society corrupts young brains. The mental ward combination effectively represents the isolation of those with mental illnesses.

Randal McMurphy, for instance, has been symbolized in the film as having deviant behavior and has acted as a savior to mental health patients. Randle’s strange behavior, which included his involvement in statutory rape, resulted in his expulsion from society (Rina et al., 2021). Randle had previously displayed deviance by acting contrary to societal norms before he started this activity. Randle also defied the jail terms forcing him to spend the rest of his jail term in mental healthcare behaviors (Leise, 2018). He also went contrary to the institution’s will by not following the orders. Nonetheless, his deviation from the mental institution’s policies was advantageous to some patients. He empowered his fellow patients through his deviance, bringing them joy, freedom, and power, thus symbolizing the savior.

Nurse Ratched exemplifies contemporary society’s oppressive automation, dehumanization, and masculinization. Ratched did not study deviation; instead, she just opposed every action of the insane patients. The majority of Ratched’s acts towards insane patients defy social psychology. Instead, they expose her lack of knowledge of academic and social psychology. However, Nurse Ratched’s behavior is consistent with Sykes and Matza’s neutralization hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, conformists frequently aim to satisfy higher authorities and denounce perceived deviants, deny harm, and deny responsibility (Dorst, 2019). Nurse Ratched consistently engages in these acts by depriving the patients of their rights, treating them like inanimate objects, and making their lives into mindless rituals. Furthermore, she works tirelessly to maintain the mental health facility’s institutional culture.


Sociology focuses on the relationship between various institutions, such as schools, religious institutions, healthcare facilities, the community, and the people who benefit from the institutions. Numerous ideas that have aided in the comprehension of human society have studied sociological aspects of culture. Conflict and symbolic interactionism sociological theories have been reviewed in the film. Karl Max considered the societal issues people encounter as he developed the conflict theory. According to him, societal conflicts are a constant result of rivalry for the limited resources needed for daily activity. The conflict between human and institutional decency in the above film is evident as McMurphy and Nurse Ratched have conflicting opinions (Rina et al., 2021). The symbolic interactionism theory holds that people respond to elements of their environment based on the personal meanings they assign to them. For instance, Randal McMurphy, who has behaved as a rescuer for mental health patients, is portrayed in the movie as having aberrant behavior. Nurse Ratched is a prime example of modern society’s oppressive mechanization, dehumanization, and masculinization.

Sociologists endeavor to choose the right party in light of societal values. The main lesson from “One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” is that people with mental health concerns should be treated in various ways. Just like the government has rules and regulations, at some point, harsh laws are lowered in favor of the citizens in critical situations (Berkeley, 2022). Therefore, society must employ the most acceptable strategy for dealing with individuals that is convenient for them, along with goodwill, comprehension, and inclusion in social activities.


Berkeley, B. (2022). Evaluating Complementarity in Sociological Worldviews and Sociological Methods of Data Collection. Open Access Library Journal, 9(7), 1–11.

Dorst, A. G. (2019). Translating metaphorical mind style: machinery and ice metaphors in Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Perspectives, 27(6), 875–889.

Leise, C. (2018). Ken Kesey’s One Flew over the Cuckoo’s nest: Damming the Columbia River and traumatic loss. ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 25(1), 62–79.

Rina, K., Menon, V., & Kumar Padhy, S. (2021). One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest: The chronicles of Stigma and a proposed socio-cognitive-emotional-behavioral Model for understanding its Genesis in COVID-19. Psychiatria Danubina, 33(3), 378–385.

Historical Facts Of Tourism Development

Tourism development is related to many factors, including the desire to learn about different regions’ cultural and social characteristics. In addition, tourism has been facilitated by technology and the development of transportation, which has allowed people to move to almost any point on the planet. From a historical perspective, tourism developed through the emergence of special tours and trips for business reasons and cultural enlightenment.

Cultural enlightenment was available to wealthy individuals who traveled to demonstrate wealth. From the mid-17th to almost the late 18th century, the English used tourism as a status symbol to learn about the arts and sciences of other countries. This era was called the Grand Tour and became a symbol of educated, highly intelligent young nobles (Rodriguez, 2020). The main targets were France and Italy, from where young Englishmen sought the origins of civilization and the development of art. The main destinations of the Grand Tour were acquaintance with antiquity, the Renaissance period, and Catholic travel.

Business travel became popular in Europe by the mid-18th century, when economic ties were needed to build up, and population mobility was needed. Nascent diplomacy required Europeans to travel to spread science and boost economies by spreading inventions. Thomas Cook & Son were the first to lay the foundations of tourism as entertainment, making it a reward for work (Rodriguez, 2020). Tourism from Europe to the United States seemed most valuable because it represented a very different culture and way of communities. The rise of scientific inventions, including the airplane and the automobile, allowed tourism to rush into a new reality of mutually beneficial trade relations. Tourism became not only an object of cultural enlightenment but also part of countries’ capital.

The history of the tourism development is related to two travel destinations. The first is the Grand Tours of the English in Europe for cultural enlightenment and collecting data on science, art, and religious pilgrimages. The accumulation of knowledge capital led to the second direction – building diplomatic, trade, and economic relations between countries, beginning in the 19th century. Consequently, tourism occupied a solid economic niche in the international relations of many countries, allowing them to develop in the international arena.


Rodriguez, C. P. (2020). Travelling for pleasure: A brief history of tourism. Europeana.

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