Market Research On The Internet, Advantages And Disadvantages Comparison With More Traditional Methods Writing Sample

Question:

d) Outline with examples the advantages and disadvantages of conducting market research on the internet compared with more traditional methods:

Introduction

Market research is critical in tourism industry. It helps understand the complexity of tourist behavior and motivation. Market managers seek to understand customer behaviors and the characteristic market dynamics (Pereira, 2015). Market research is an important facet of business strategy. For one to succeed in a highly competitive market environment, market research is imperative. It provides answers to business needs and helps an organization make decisions that will make companies move forward. According to Romaniuk and Huang (2019), through market research an organization can base its decisions on solid data instead of assumptions. There are a broad category of market research and these categories include, brand research, marketing campaign evaluation, competitor research, customer segmentation research and usability testing research. Market research can adopt either internet or traditional method depending on the nature of the research. A decision to adopt either of the methods is dependent on cost benefit analysis anchored on the assessment of advantages and disadvantages of the method adopted.

Internet Research

The Digital revolution has promoted a massive growth in internet use at the household and commercial levels. The internet has become an important source of information, and social media platforms have provided more direct consumer research opportunities and helped understand consumer behavior. Digital functionality such as email, video streaming, messaging and others have given researchers a new way to capture information. The same helps customers and researchers work together to explore new ideas. For example, researchers can conduct online surveys through digital technology platforms, explore new ideas from relevant marketing databases, and access customers. Digital communication technologies such as Microsoft Teams, Google Meet, Zoom and Facetime allow a moderator to see and hear interviews in remote locations or across borders.

Research indicates that internet marketing provides quantitative research tools such as online surveys, focus groups, online communities, bulletin boards and insight platforms. Furthermore, a ballooning range of multi-functional research platforms can prove vital for online market research (Sanjuan, 2021). Also, social media sites such as Twitter, Instagram and Facebook provide an ideal environment for market research.

Advantages

Digital research has abroad range of benefits, especially in the tourism and hospitality sector, and some of these advantages are as follows:

  • Ease of communication

The internet is at the core of Information Technology (IT) and the internet facilitates communication within the research framework. For example, through the internet, researchers can administer online surveys. Zoom and other video and audio streaming technologies such as Facetime can be used to reach the target audience. For market research, a researcher can use IT to conduct virtual interviews and reach thousands of customers (Sanjuan, 2021). The ease of communication saves time and money, and the strategy is ideal when targeting a broad demographic. It is also convenient and cheap because one can conduct an interview in the comfort of their home or office. Through these technologies, a researcher can work from home with much ease due to improved communication.

  • Cost-effective

Research indicates that internet research is cheap or cost-effective. The internet creates a comparatively economic avenue for information dissemination of articles and information. For example, when conducting internet market research, credible information can be accessed from credible and authentic marketing databases. Examples of market research databases include BCC Research, Business Source Ultimate and eMarketer (Zhang et al., 2017). Research databases are organized pools of data used to store, manage and retrieve data. Market research database information includes market insight, consumer, and industry information. For instance, one can tailor search words to match a specific industry. For example, database search can be tailored to retrieve hospitality and tourism data. Market research databases have peer-reviewed articles, statistical accounts, books, or a combination of all relevant materials on a particular marketing subject. The databases are cheap since some are free while others charge a nominal fee, making them relatively cheap compared to traditional research methods.

  • Wealth of information

The internet is considered a wealth of information, which means that there is a broad range of information on different subject matters (Zhang et al., 2017). One can access a wealth of information online depending on the nature of the market research, whether on consumer behavior or brand loyalty. The internet opens up a broad range of information sources and is suitable for all types of research. For example, when conducting brand awareness research, it is easy to get relevant data online, and the same data can be valuable in the research process.

  • Fast and efficient

Research indicates that internet research is fast and efficient because some digital media provide almost an “instant” sample (Zhang et al., 2017). For example, a Twitter poll would provide immediate results. For example, when conducting targeted market research on brand recognition, it is cheaper and faster to use online platforms, especially social media sites such as Facebook.

Disadvantages

  • Information overload

The internet provides an excessively large amount of data and information published by experts and amateurs in different disciplines. Therefore, sometimes it is hard to distinguish between what is not genuine and what is not, which can compromise the quality of a research outcome. Anyone can publish information online, so there is theft of information, plagiarism, and non-authentic publication. Due to a large amount of online information, a researcher must sieve and determine the desired quality. For example, it is advisable to use peer-reviewed journals and books when conducting market research or any other form of research. Mathrani et al. (2020) argue that internet research quality depends on the data used. Establishing the authenticity and credibility of online data is a serious challenge to internet research.

  • Threats of virus

The internet is awash with threats of malware and computer viruses. Criminal activities such as phishing can pose a serious threat to a research process. Vayansky and Kumar (2018) argue that computer phishing is a serious threat to Internet users and can hinder access to quality data for marketing research.

Traditional Research

Traditional research methods involve either verbal or face-to-face conversations in real-time. For example, interviews, qualitative focus groups, and ethnography (Zhang et al., 2017). A qualitative focus group involves exploring ideas, while ethnography involves observing people in particular settings to examine their unconscious influences (Truman, 2022). For example, a researcher can study consumer behavior within a locality, a city or a community. Unlike internet research, traditional research involves practical research activities such as administering questionnaires and conducting an experiment: However, just like internet research, traditional research has characteristic pros and cons.

Advantages

  • Probe, intervene and challenge

Traditional research methods such as face-to-face interviews allow the researcher to probe and seek, unlike internet research, where a researcher cannot seek clarity from the primary source of the data. Apart from probing, one can challenge ideas and facts presented in traditional research methods(Mathrani et al., 2020). For example, when conducting an interview and you discover that the interviewee is giving incorrect responses or exaggerating their responses, the best thing to do is challenge their claims and assertions.

  • Observation of non-verbal cues

Traditional research methods allow one to gauge the accuracy and quality of responses through non-verbal cues such as tonal variation and body movement. It is possible to tell if someone is deceitful by facial expression (Mathrani et al., 2020). Voice intonation and general behavior can help gauge the quality of responses. Non-verbal communication during primary data collection in traditional research methods provides an extra texture and richness to information and gives it deeper insight. These features are not present in internet research which adopts secondary data such as journals, articles and books.

Disadvantages

  • Expensive

Traditional research methods are more expensive compared to Internet research. The cost of collecting data through experimentation and ethnography demands serious investments. Some organizations have developed Research and Development(R&D) departments to conduct primary research on issues such as organizational performance. These departments are well-funded, which clearly indicates that traditional research methods are expensive and resource-intensive.

  • Time-consuming

Unlike internet research, where information is readily available online, and one has to choose from a wealth of information, traditional research methods engage traditional data collection methods such as observation and experimentation (Short et al., 2009). These methods are rigorous and time-consuming. For example, one might spend months or years observing the target population when conducting an ethnography. Administering questionnaires and conducting interviews are also time-consuming.

  • Ethical implications

Traditional research methods such as experimentation have ethical requirements that must be met. While internet research has minimal ethical implications since most of the information is available online, traditional methods require the research to seek consent from the target sample population (Short et al., 2009). Institutional and stakeholders’ approval must also be considered when collecting primary data. Issues such as informed consent and permission from relevant authorities must be addressed.

Conclusion

Conclusively, while traditional research methods are authentic, dependable and in most cases verifiable, companies are shifting towards digital research. Automated research also known as internet research, is relatively cheap compared to traditional research methods. Organizations are adopting digital research to keep pace with tech-savvy consumers. These organizations are utilizing research software to gauge brand performance, consumer behavior and other brand perspectives such as brand loyalty. For example, most marketing research is conducted using cloud-based data technology, which is cheap and convenient compared to traditional methods such as observation and experimentation. Technological advancements are pushing marketers to adopt digital market research, especially in the hotel and tourism sector.

Bibliography

Mathrani, A., Umer, R., Susnjak, T., & Suriadi, S. (2020). Data Quality Challenges in Educational Process Mining: Building Process-Oriented Event Logs from Process-Unaware Online Learning Systems. International Journal of Business Information Systems1(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijbis.2020.10027967

Pereira, I. (2015). Ethnography Goes Digital: Researching Professionals Using a Qualitative Mobile App. International Journal of Market Research57(2), 308-312. https://doi.org/10.2501/ijmr-2014-023

Romaniuk, J., & Huang, A. (2019). Understanding consumer perceptions of luxury brands. International Journal of Market Research62(5), 546-560. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470785319891109

Sanjuan, E. (2021). The Digital Market Act and Market Failures in Digital Platforms – A Brief Reflection on Its Relevance. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3875158

Short, J., Ketchen, D., Combs, J., & Ireland, R. (2009). Research Methods in Entrepreneurship. Organizational Research Methods13(1), 6-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428109342448

Truman, S. (2022). Undisciplined: Research-Creation and What It May Offer (Traditional) Qualitative Research Methods. Qualitative Inquiry, 107780042210983. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778004221098380

Vayansky, I., & Kumar, S. (2018). Phishing – challenges and solutions. Computer Fraud &Amp; Security2018(1), 15-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1361-3723(18)30007-1

Zhang, J., Sun, L., Liu, Y., Wang, H., Sun, N., & Zhang, P. (2017). Mobile Device–Based Electronic Data Capture System Used in a Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial: Advantages and Challenges. Journal Of Medical Internet Research19(3), e66. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.697

Uranium Mining Fundamentals Free Writing Sample

Abstract

Uranium is a very important mineral in the world. It provides nuclear fuel that is used to generate electricity. It is also a mineral from which many other synthetic trans-uranium materials are manufactured. Despite the important use of uranium, it is a toxic metal that occurs naturally and has no biological properties. It occurs naturally in various materials like camotite, brannerite, also uranite. It is found in sands of monazite and phosphate rocks. For it to be made less toxic, when extracted it is purified to oxide also known as the yellow cake.

Due to the toxicity associated with mining uranium, it is advisable to implement best mining practices and operations that regulate the release of uranium harmful chemicals into the environment. The practices are also meant to not only protect the environment, but also the uranium miners, equipment suppliers, electricity generator personnel, and service producers. To make sure that best practices have been implemented in mining uranium, there are policies, ethical declarations, and principles put in place for uranium mining companies to adhere to. The principles to ensure sustainable mining are supported and affirmed by key and relevant international organizations, one of them being the International Atomic Agency.

They are also reinforced and approved by the global mining communities by use of useful national and international associations who cover the processing and extracting of uranium.

Australia is one of the largest uranium miners. The country implements the best mining technologies to minimize the negative effects that uranium can cause on the environment and its living things. To do so, it implements the uranium mining principles put in place. They adhere to sustainable development, implement practices that ensure safety, and a healthy and protected environment, assume social responsibility and comply with requirements, laws, and regulation principles particularly the Safety Standard Principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Managing hazardous materials is another policy that the country strictly adheres to. The radioactive and no-radioactive uranium residues, products, and waste materials are highly toxic and contaminate the environment. To minimize such risks, the mining firms should manage the contamination by taking actions to treat the hazardous materials as well as their sources.

Uranium operation practices in Australia involve the application of current and best practices. The nature of the mining solution should not compromise groundwater, the mining radiation should protect and be integrated into all mining facets, rehabilitation, and mining completion. The monitoring wells are situated effectively to contain mining solutions and to provide early warning in case of any dangers. The solid radiative residues are disposed of safely in a facility that ensures full management of the radiation. Therefore, Australia being a large producer of uranium, ensures sustainable mining by implementing the best technological mining practices and disposal techniques.

Introduction 

Uranium is a weighty metal mined underground that is used as sources of concerted energy. The mineral is mostly found between big rocks. However, exposure to chemical materials of the uranium is harmful to both humans, animals, and the environment. When inhaled it causes kidney damage to animals and humans and also damages the respiratory duct.

The current and leading practices of mining uranium are implemented to ensure that uranium compounds and waste products are not released into the atmosphere and environment to cause harm to the harm. They include monitoring wells and lined ponds, monitoring the discharge of uranium waste products to the environment and the environment receiving it, ensuring uranium wells and mines and mills comply with mining regularities, and protection of all waters and downstream. The different mining methods used in Australia include open pit operations, underground operations, in-Situ leash operations, dredging operations, and strip-mining operations. The mining method depends on how deep the uranium is in the rocks and the nature of the environment surrounding them. Despite the environmental and health risks associated with uranium compounds, there are other mining risks that people can be exposed to (Dinis and Fiúza, 2021). They include noise, UV exposure, whole-body vibration, thermal stress, Musculoskeletal disorders, falls, death, and chemical hazards. All these need to be kept in mind when mining uranium.

The aim and objective of this paper are to conduct a critical review of three scholarly articles talking about the current and leading practices for uranium operation in Australia and around the world. Learning the best practices of mining uranium will equip us with knowledge on how uranium is safely mined, safely transported, and safely disposed of to prevent the environment, animals, and people from being exposed to its radiation components. Also, the critical review will enlighten the principles regarding safe mining, use, and disposal of uranium products.

Results and Analysis

Uranium is mined in three major different ways. Open-pit mining is used to mine uranium deposits that are near the surface. It involves forming a large pit where stripping and removal of large overlying rock are done. Secondly, there is underground mining. It is used to mine uranium products that lay deep into the ground (Saydam, 2022). These need disturbance of small surfaces and the amount of material that is removed from it is less than that of open-pit mining. Thirdly, there is the In-Situ recovery mining method. A large proportion of uranium comes from this mining method. The process involves groundwater being oxygenated and circulated through a porous orebody. The water then dissolves uranium oxide, which is then pumped to the surface of the treatment plant to be treated and recovered.

According to Ben Heard in his article on the “environmental impacts of Uranium mining in Australia”, he states that modern society cannot function without the attractive products that come from industries, despite the mining processes involving environmental impacts (Heard, 2017). Due to the latter fact, responsible mining processes have been implemented to recognise possible impacts, avert them, avoid, alleviate and manage them where mitigation is impossible. The latter is meant to cut across the entire life cycle of the mining process and throughout the closure. Mining requires careful administration, quality attention and inspection in Australia falls on the past, to-date and probable operations to be discovered in the future in pursuit of mining uranium. The literature concludes that the start of this consideration comes from the amalgamation and progression of a global movement of weapons and peace-keeping apprehensions with the inclusion of those who do test weapons in the pacific and Australia into mainstream environment objections to not only mining (Legislative, 2020). But also the succeeding use of uranium as a source of producing electricity in public power-generated infrastructures.

Uranium has always been rejected as a clean fuel by environmental movements despite its nuclear energy being used to displace over 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the successes that France has accomplished by using uranium technology to entirely displace the use of fossil fuel as a source of electricity.

According to Heard, one of the best practices of mining uranium is by ensuring human health and radiation hazard management (Heard, 2017). The environmental impacts of the extraction of uranium include the present impacts that occur in the mineral extraction sites to the unique chemical effects of uranium and its daughter products radioactivity. Despite the fact that the radioactive products are naturally produced, the mining process can be conducted in such a way that the materials are not made available to human exposure or the environment. The mining firms are advised to always have available nuclear medicine technology to counter the effects of radiation. Elevated radiation exposure has serious health consequences for human health (Hirth, et al., 2018). The letter fact has been documented in various scholarly articles over the year. Nonetheless, mining of uranium in Australia and across the world is undertaken without the raised-up radioactivity levels that are harmful to the environment and human health. The National Radiation Dose Register of Australia confirms one-half of the additional dose for professional airline pilots (Heard, 2017). Therefore, according to the article, it is evident that mining of uranium can be conducted under proper management of potential hazards.

Management of uranium mining impacts on the environment is another best practice that Australia practices. The country has a clear progression of environmental practices and outcomes that are evident. From the review of the four open-cut uranium mines; ranger, Narbalek, Mary Kathleen, and rum jungle, and complex underground operations, the have been improvements in managing the negative impacts of uranium mining. Further development is also observed in the in-situ recovery mines. The latter indicates that mining uranium in the present day is more sustainable and more health and environment friendly.

Some extraction impacts on the environment can be expected. However, their extent and the degree of impact are determined by the mining method and mining process. Some of the commonly expected environmental impacts include clearing of vegetation, land disturbance, water discharge, and chemical excretion. Tailing is considered to be most common in most mining. Tailing refers to a general term that denotes a mixture of crushed rocks and processing fluids from concentrators, mills, or wateriness. The production of the tailings is not exceptional or limited when it comes to mining uranium (International Atomic Energy Agency, Uranium 20202 Resources Production, and Demand, 2020). A large number of tailings are approximately 5-7 billion tonnes worldwide per year. Failure to properly manage them can lead to catastrophic outcomes (Hernandez-Santin, Erskine, and Bartolo, 2020). Acid rock drainage is considered to have the most serious long-term effect on the environment. Therefore, appropriate planning and management are needed.

According to Mr. Heard, mining and regulation practices have continued and will stay to advance. The Rum Jungle mine in Australia is the best example of mining that has undergone tremendous improvements concerning acid-rock drainage of metals. Knowledge of the environment has been a vital element in the continuous study and evolution of the practice. Due to these environmental researches, scientists have continued to provide additional transparencies on the environmental impacts that mining causes and the potential ways to minimize that. Therefore, the overall review of this article is that the ordinary and the method of mining and not the inanimate is the main distinctive characteristic between poor, acceptable, and good.

According to the article, there is a high possibility that contemporary mines will come into existence due to the continuous evolvement of mining processes. The latter is rather an observation and not an argument for contentment (Tabelin, 2022). Thus, with determination, the negative impacts associated with the mining processes of uranium can be completely managed and give chances for the increment of more satisfactory outcomes.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports the implementation of best practices when it comes to mining uranium. Peter Woods, in his article on “Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining – IAEA Recommendations”, indicates that over the last two to three decades of uranium mining, the vitality of realizing and reducing the environmental impacts of mining has become more rampant and accepted (Woods, 2019). The IAEA has well-known standards put in place to support sustainable extraction and mining of uranium and thorium not only in Australia but also across the world. It is also very well known for the safety standards that it has put in place for protection against radiation. It also provides guidance concerning the uranium production cycle and acts as a provider and gathering of information on environmental, technological, geological, and regulatory aspects.

To provide public health, the mining site designs and quality of construction should ensure maximum protection. Lined ponds, wells, environment receiving a discharge, and downstream should be continuously monitored to ensure that ware waters and water users are protected. The latter is also meant to ensure that the mill and mining facilities are 100 percent compliant with the IAEA policies.

Air, ground, and quality of water should also be maintained by managing deep good injections, liquid effluents, and groundwater. The mining process should also ensure limited surface disturbance through decommissioning and reclamation plans (Erskine, et al., 2019). Today, uranium miners receive 2.5 mrem per year as compared to those exposed to normal background radiation who receive 1.8 mrem (Scissons, 2019). According to a study done in 2010, modern miners of uranium are likely to receive more haphazard exposure to uranium radiations from the natural environment and their homes than from occupational exposure.

Peter Woods 2019 goes ahead to identify the current situations in uranium mining. According to him, mining of the commodity is highly regulated in Australia, unlike in other parts of the world, mainly in developing countries (Woods, 2019). Practicing safe and environmentally friendly production of uranium is not only beneficial to the world but also to consumers and producers too. The latter is because mining uranium has a legacy of causing health and environmental issues that are difficult to be reversed (International Atomic Energy Agency, BEST PRACTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF URANIUM MINING, 2017). To prevent this from happening, today’s leading practices in mill sites and uranium sites as well as in other nuclear facilities are operated under independent agencies that have obligation to report to the head of parliament or state. The latter has resulted in improvements in modern uranium mining sites. The successful companies have come up with strategies to reduce or completely deal with the negative effects on the environment and communities associated with mining and processing uranium.

There are a number of challenges that are associated with mining uranium. These are experienced not only in Australia but also by the rest of the world. They include radiation protection of the public and the environment, ensuring safety and health of workers, preventing contamination of both underground and surface water, management of waste rock, and management and treatment of tailings (Mudd, 2022). To deal with these challenges, mining uranium in Australia is conducted under a code of practice and safety guide. It protects against radiation and radioactive waste during the mining process. To ensure that radiation exposure is managed and minimized, the radiation protection international commission established standards that should be adhered to protect mining workers. To begin with, the mining body should justify. The justification should highlight the net benefits that the society, those exposed, and the environment will receive. Secondly, it should follow the optimization principle. The latter dictates that risks and radiation doses be maintained low as possible while considering both economic and social factors. Another principle is the limitation. Exposure of a person should be subject to risks and dose limits while considering the social and economic factors.

To ensure proper handling of uranium, the following steps should be followed.

  • Education and training programs should be implemented
  • Exposure to mining workers should be regulated and limited such that when one is exposed to radiation, he or she is not allowed to work in the mines for a certain duration of time.
  • Dust should be monitored and controlled. The latter can be achieved by the use of sophisticated ventilation and detection systems. In an extremely remote area where the ore is of high grade, techniques to remotely handle the situation should be employed.
  • Radiation detection equipment should be used to detect the extent to which workers have been exposed to uranium radiation materials. The latter will help determine when to give the workers a break from being exposed to more than the recommended radiation substance.
  • There should be routine monitoring of surface, air, and water contamination
  • Also, high levels of personal hygiene should be strictly imposed on the people handling the uranium oxide concentrate.

According to Woods, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is known to come up with Australia’s national framework to protect the environment and the public against radiation exposure (Woods, 2019). These regulations are implemented through license conditions and jurisdiction legislation. The provides the pivotal background which contains protection fundamentals against lonising radiation. (Legislative, 2020) It also has various codes that relate to the mining of uranium and the associated processes. These regulatory codes include a code for practice and a safety guide for protection against radiation and radioactive waste management in mineral processing. The radiation protection series is a safety guide to ensure that the naturally occurring radioactive materials are contained.

Other RPS codes are a safety guide for predisposing and managing radioactive waste, a guide for classifying radioactive waste, a guide for assessing, monitoring and evaluating, and recording occupational radiation doses administered to workers, a guide for safe transportation of radioactive materials, a guide to protection of the environment against harmful impacts of radiation, and code for protection of radiation against exposure situations (Erskine et al., 2019).

The uranium mining legislation is mainly focused on Mining approvals, Uranium exports, Radiation licenses, Radiation protection, Reporting obligations, Environment, and Health and safety of miners. It also deals with closure, global environment and health effects of accelerating background radiation, and safety and health of people from immediate vicinity who could have been exposed to and affected by radioactivity from dust, waste, or air among others.

According to the article, the uranium mining legislation of Australia has a regulatory framework that governs uranium mining in the country (Raval, 2020). The regulatory framework is very complex and varies between territory, state, and commonwealth jurisdictions. One of the regulatory acts is the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. The act protects the health of the environment and humans from harmful radiation effects (International Atomic Energy Agency, Uranium 20202 Resources Production, and Demand, 2020). Uranium and its bi-products transportation are regulated through this act, hence minimizing radiation effects. Another Act is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act of 1987. Its major objective is to ensure nuclear materials that are within Australia’s jurisdiction are secure. According to the legislation, one should have a permit and approval from safeguards of Australia to possess nuclear materials.

Additionally, the Atomic Energy Act of 1953 requires uranium miners to notify the minister upon discovery of thorium or uranium. The ministers have the power to acquire information on the substances. Another conservation act is the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999 (EPBC). This Act dictates that the commonwealth be involved in uranium mining actions and processes. The latter is because the mining activities have the potential to significantly impact certain environmental aspects. Therefore, according to Woods, uranium mining legislation, Acts, and sustainable development bodies are put in place to ensure that the process of mining uranium is less harmful to the environment and human health.

Uranium has been the world’s most important mineral for producing energy for the last 60 years (WORLD NUCLEAR ASSOCIATION, 2022). The material is mined and then concentrates on many other metals. While the material is mostly used to generate electricity, a small percentage of it is used to produce isotopes, and others are used in marine propulsion. The largest producer of uranium in the year 2021 was Canada, followed by Kazakhstan (Cameco) and Namibia.

The largest producing of uranium in the year 2021

(WORLD NUCLEAR ASSOCIATION, 2022)

Mining processes of uranium in conventional mines involve crushing the ore, liberating the mineral particles, and then leaching the materials in tanks containing sulphuric acid, which then dissolves the uranium oxides. The solution then undergoes a processing process to recover the uranium from the gold tailings. Other times the mining process involves the use of a physical beneficiation process that concentrates the ore and increases the head grade before it is taken to be chemically treated.

Most of the ore contained in barren rocks or other materials are minerals that remain undissolved after the leaching process. after the tailings have been separated, uranium is then recovered by filtering the remaining solution. The following is the mill chemistry mining process;

Mill chemistry mining process

(WORLD NUCLEAR ASSOCIATION, 2022)

The modern mining industry of uranium was born in the middle of the 20th century during the rapid social and industrial change and in the atmosphere of concern about the production of nuclear weapons. The need to mine uranium outweighed the need to protect the environment and the workers against the harmful uranium non-radioactive and radioactive substances (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2017). However, during the last quarter of the 20th century, the world realized that the careless mining of uranium has been exposing not only the environment but also the living things in it to hazardous health effects. It then began to take care of the total environment. Legislation and operation procedures were developed to ensure environmental protection. The Uranium industry became very much involved in the change and environmental standards were put in place to minimize the adverse impacts of uranium on workers, the environment, and the people surrounding it.

Protection of the environment and living things in it could only be assured by putting some measures into place. The development of uranium mining and production facilities contributed greatly to practicing sustainable mining. In addition to the modern best mining facilities, guiding principles have also been implemented. Environmentally, economically and socially acceptable society can only be achieved by following the basic guiding principles of sustainable development. These principles are put in place to help develop uranium facilities.

One of the principles is the sustainable development principle. According to this principle, humanity has the ability to sustainable development by ensuring that they meet the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own need. This definition was given by the Brundtland Report and it is meant to issue a warning to the present generation (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2017). According to Brundtland, the present generation should use natural resources sparingly bearing in mind that the present generation will need to depend on the same resources. It dictates industries balance social, environmental, and economic requirements within the management of good governance. According to this principle, the mining of uranium should not be exclusively focused on the economic impacts, but also on the social and environmental impacts as well.

The second principle is the ALARA principle, also known as the “AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE” principle. It protects workers against exposure to harmful uranium radiation (Legislative, 2020). The radiation exposure needs to be kept as low as possible while taking both economic and social factors into account. In addition, this principle dictates the allowable exposure of radioactive and non-radioactive substances to the environment, animals, and individuals to be minimized regardless of the benefits that the whole society reaps from it.

The third principle is the precautionary principle. The concept of the precautionary principle requires effective environmental management to prevent, anticipate and correct the causal agents of environmental degradation. The lack of full scientifically proven impacts of mining activities should a reason enough to postpone the activity (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2017). A project should be conducted under the application of the best guiding principles that ensure that the four cornerstones for sustainable development are implemented. the key environmental aspects of the latter include; promoting responsible stewardship of the environment and natural resources with the inclusion of past damage remediation, minimizing environmental damage and waste products across the entire supply chain, practicing prudence where there are uncertain or unknown impacts, and operating within the limits of ecology to provide protection to the natural capital.

The precautionary principle environmental aspect key objective is to focus on extending sustainable development to the social aspect. To ensure the social aspect is well maintained, costs and benefits of development should be fairly distributed to all living members, fundamental human rights should be ultimately respected and reinforced. The latter can be made more effective by involving political and civil liberties, economic and social freedoms, cultural autonomy, and personal security (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2017). Additionally, improvements should be sustained over time by making sure that the present depletion of natural resources does deprive future generations of the luxury of eating the fruits of nature.

Conclusion

The current and leading uranium practices preferred in Australia and around the world are practices that protect the environmental aspect, the social aspect, and the economic aspect. With Australia being one of the major manufacturers of Uranium, it has implemented the best uranium mining practices. These include in-situ mining practices and underground and open-ground mining. All these are conducted in a manner to reduce the release of radioactive and non-radioactive materials into the environment.

To ensure sustainable mining of uranium in the country, various agencies and nuclear energy bodies have come up with Acts and codes of conduct to govern uranium mining bodies. Also, sustainability principles have been developed and implemented. Therefore, the future generation is protected and will have the luxury of enjoying natural resources since these sustainability principles ensure that natural materials are not completely depleted.

References

Dinis, M. D., & Fiúza, A. (2021). Mitigation of uranium mining impacts—A review on groundwater remediation technologies. Geosciences, 6(3), 45-63. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11060250

Erskine, P. D., Bartolo, R., McKenna, P., & Humphrey, C. (2019). Using reference sites to guide ecological engineering and restoration of an internationally significant uranium mine in the Northern Territory, Australia. Ecological Engineering, 22(5), 45-76. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925857419300242

Heard, B. (2017). Environmental impacts of uranium mining in Australia: History, progress, and current practice. A policy paper commissioned by the Minerals Council of Australia, 4(2), 12-28. Retrieved from https://www.minerals.org.au/sites/default/files/EnvironmentalimpactsofuraniummininginAustralia_May2017_WEB.pdf

Hernandez-Santin, L., Erskine, P. D., & Bartolo, R. E. (2020). A review of revegetation at mine sites in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, and the development of a state and transition model for ecological restoration at Ranger uranium mine. Journal of Cleaner Production, 5(3), 12-54. Retrieved from v

Hirth, G. A., Grzechnik, M., Tinker, R., & Larsson, C. M. (2018). Australia’s proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: How integrated is it with radiation protection of humans? Annals of the ICRP, 66(43), 47-59. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0146645318756842

International Atomic Energy Agency. (2017). BEST PRACTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF URANIUM MINING. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA, 2010, 7(4), 6-46. Retrieved from https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1406_web.pdf

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The Collapse Of The Soviet Union Free Sample

Introduction

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) has been recognized since time immemorial as the collective goal among different countries to participate in the same activities. USSR allowed only 15 countries to participate when it began, although Russia was a skirmish with them.[1] However, Russia was very decisive in outdoing other countries to become one of the superpowers. This meant that other countries were supposed to be aware of Russia’s position all along. The First World War was the beginning of the factors that finally resulted at the end of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[2] The article from the class readings backed this statement by indicating that the transition of the communist regime and the dismantling of other unions that were formed previously also steered up the Collapse of the Soviet Union. People had begun sacrificing their lives on behalf of their loved ones to promote patriotism. The author of the class reading has constantly insisted that domestic and international factors led to the end of the USSR.[3] This essay intends on evaluating the main argument and claim of the class reading’s author alongside their identified message. Similarly, the author made through which the author disseminated the information about the factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.

The author’s main argument

The Soviet Union was founded to sustain the economic status of the members that joined it. Russia was one of the countries within the union, although it gradually began to have a dire quest to become one of the superpowers. Seeking recognition among other members was the in thing for Russia because all they thought about was to get their economic status moving to the higher sides. The Bolshevik revolution and other wars occurred due to preceding challenges not being foreseen.[4] The class reading affirmed that people were concerned about owning the rights to handle their territories. However, other countries such as Russia were self-centred because they foresaw the economic gro3wth and fame they would acquire in the long run.

The author’s central claim

The Collapse of the Soviet Union was witnessed because of the domestic and international factors that had aroused over time. This meant that many nations had begun to observe the economic changes that USSR members had made over the years.[5] Moreover, this acted as a wake-up call for civilians since they needed to support their federal governments. Most people wanted to attain financial freedom as per the author’s ideology. The class reading emphasized that the Soviet Union also collapsed because of other unions founded over time. For exemplar, the communist regime is one of the unions that acted as an eye-opener for many people.

Domestic factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union

The communist regime was one of the domestic factors that culminated in the Collapse of the Soviet Union. According to the author, communism was the strategy people used to acquire properties together.[6] This meant that the income would be diversified because large pools of resources were available. However, the communist regime advocated for the proper use of all the available resources. This is because optimization would help the unrecognized countries to gain economic strength in the end. The members of the Soviet Union were regarded as wealthy because their economic growth increased by the day.[7] Furthermore, the union had been created with the intent of ensuring that trading activities were appropriately conducted. The dismantling of the centralized unions that had been in existence was another domestic factor that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union. The class reading highlighted that most civilians in many upcoming countries were labourers; hence they had come together and formed their unions. The unions were wholly dedicated to enabling each civilian to voice their problems without being ashamed of whatever they were going through.[8] This resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union because people had begun realizing their rights and ways through which their economies would be bettered.

International factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union

The more excellent opening up to the west was one of the factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union. This meant that many countries had begun acquiring a perfect knowledge of how well they would run their trading activities. According to the class reading’s author, governments did not need to join the Soviet Union since they were only dependent on them because of their expertise in running trading activities.[9] This was no longer the case because the Soviet Union had had internal conflicts for quite some time. A significant percentage of the union’s members sought to be renowned as superpowers. The economic growth of such nations had grown over the years; hence it had gathered both allies and enemies in the process. Moreover, the Soviet Union was bound to collapse since people referred to it as discriminative, a vice that entirely stained its reputation.[10] Economic pressures are also international factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Countries that the members of the Soviet Union earlier undermined began to go through the transition face. The organization was founded in the 19th century when numerous people were not learned.[11] However, heading on to the 20th century, as indicated by the author, gave people the need to gather knowledge about issues or events that were essential to them.

The credibility of the author’s message

Both the domestic and international factors resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union. The author highlights the elements and their examples and goes to the depth of explaining them.[12] This ascertains that the information they gathered was good while their work is credible. Furthermore, it is easy for someone to relate to the written piece because the key points are noticeable. The author was keen enough to have used topics and sub-0topis to explain the Collapse of the Soviet Union.

Conclusion

The Soviet Union has been recognized as the most renowned organization within the 19th century that created a lot of controversies. It had 15 members known for their rapid increase in the overall economic growth yearly. However, other countries had a low Gross Domestic Product because of the minimal change in the entire economy. In the light of this, the Collapse of the Soviet Union happened due to both domestic and international factors. The domestic factors were the commencement of the communist regime and the dismantling of highly recognized unions. The communist regime was wholly dedicated to ensuring that people maximized the available resources. This was conducted through the acquisition of property through combined effort. The unions that were dismantled had been created by labourers, although with the Collapse of the Soviet Union, they would retain their rights. Likewise, the economic pressures and more significant move to the west were the factors that resulted in the Collapse of the Soviet Union.

Bibliography

Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[1] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[2] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1990-1991

[3] Ibid

[4] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[5] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[6] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[7] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991

[8] Ibid

[9] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.

[10] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.

[11] Ibid

[12] Alex Pravda. (2010). The Collapse Of The Soviet Union 1990-1991.Pdfvol 3 Ch 01.