Marketing For Hospitality And Tourism Free Essay

Introduction

Tourism and hospitality enable cultural exchange, employment opportunities, and infrastructural development. Tourism and hospitality require a business-friendly environment to thrive. Favorable legal regulations and a calm political environment allow tourism companies to stay afloat in the business. Furthermore, stable suppliers and reliable customers promote tourism among different countries. Natural scenery, beautiful flora, and fauna, among other tourist attractions, positively impact tourism. Environmental factors that affect flora and fauna significantly impact the industry. Abercrombie & Kent, a hospitality and luxury travel services provider, is affected by the external business environmental factors. A service marketing mix that includes the ‘seven Ps’ model benefits tourism and hospitality. The InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) applies the service marketing activities to attract potential client. This research paper explores external environmental factors affecting Abercrombie & Kent and (IHG) service mix marketing analysis.

Abercrombie & Kent LLC Overview

Abercrombie & Kent LLC offer luxury travel services to tourists internationally. Furthermore, the company offer additional products such as foreign currencies exchange, clothing, and global phones (Abercrombie & Kent, 2019). Tourists’ traveling services is the company’s primary product allowing individuals explore the world. With its headquarters in the US, the company received recognition among the top tourism and hospitality companies globally. Abercrombie & Kent enables tourists to visit different destinations and make holiday plans (Abercrombie & Kent, 2019). The company competes with other travel agencies such as Black Tomato, Nomad Hill, and Scott Dunn.

External Environmental Factors Affecting Abercrombie & Kent LLC

A business’ external environment include factors outside a business’s internal environments affecting a company’s operations. External environmental factors present either opportunities or challenges to a business. Companies often have no control over the external environment but can use the setting to identify growth opportunities (Pulka et al., 2021). The external environment includes political, legal, economic, social-cultural, technological, physical, and ecological factors: PESTLE analysis. While the government can control legal, political, and economic elements, physical and environmental factors are natural and cannot be controlled by businesses and the government (Torgler, 2021). Like any other business, various external environmental factors affect Abercrombie & Kent’s operations.

Political Factors

Politics includes the activities associated with a country’s effective governance, including improving people’s standards. Politics is significant for tourism and hospitality industry growth since it determines new laws and infrastructural development. Countries like China and Egypt have the most attractive tourist attractions and supportive governments (Habibi, 2022). Abercrombie & Kent’s operations have been stifled by the political differences and disagreements among the European Union members (Phan & Stachuletz, 2022). Tourism and hospitality thrive in a calm political environment. The company’s operations were negatively affected during the unstable political climate between the US government and other develop countries like China. Abercrombie & Kent has its main operations in the US that has stable political climate enabling the organizational survival.

Legal Factors

Abercrombie & Kent is a multinational company that is affected by international laws on business, environment, and labour rights. The company enjoys the dependable and favorable US commercial legal system. However, the company also operates in countries with harsh tax laws making it difficult for the company to thrive (Khan, 2020). Meanwhile, favorable tax laws in the US and other developed countries like Canada encourage Abercrombie’s & Kent’s business growth and expansion (Khan, 2020). Furthermore, friendly immigration laws in the US, Canada, and China boost the company’s operations since the tourists easily obtain travelling documents (Morgan, 2021). The international laws prohibiting poaching and deforestation help protect the natural environment that attracts the company’s clients. Therefore, favorable laws and regulations are beneficial to Abercrombie & Kent’s operations in the various countries.

Social-Cultural Factors

Abercrombie & Kent operates in different countries with different social and cultural values. The cultural values and social norms are critical for tourism and hospitality since they create distinctiveness in the crowded industry (Lehto et al., 2020). Countries such as India and South Africa have multifaceted communities with distinguished cultures attracting tourists. Social norms shape the interaction among the locals and the tourists and determine the likelihood of tourists’ visitation (Osipova & Kazmina, 2021). Consequently, the company’s operations thrive in countries with distinct culture and social values that attract visitors. Abercrombie & Kent makes more profits in countries with distinct social activities and cordial culture.

Technological Factors

Technological developments have significantly contributed to the growth of the tourism and hospitality industries. Technology has made communications and transportation easy within the tourism industry. The advancements in information technology have led to website development among hotels that allow remote bookings and reservations (Borges-Tiago et al., 2021). For instance, companies like Abercrombie & Kent have advanced websites to make reservations and feedback on their services. Furthermore, technology has significantly contributed to the company’s advanced marketing activities (Borges-Tiago et al., 2021). Technology-led marketing activities enable Abercrombie & Kent to advertise their services locally and internationally. Technology help Abercrombie & Kent save on operational costs and enhance customer service and experience among tourist companies.

Physical Environmental Factors

The physical environment encompasses mineral formation, climatic conditions, vegetation coverage, and other ecological factors. The physical environment is crucial for tourism and hospitality since it helps determine travel patterns among tourists (Lehto et al., 2020). Adverse weather conditions such as storms negatively impact tourism since air transportation is risky during storms (Proebstl-Haider et al., 2021). Meanwhile, countries’ calm weather conditions attract tourists due to smooth movements to tourist destinations. Favorable climatic conditions such as rain and fresh air enable wild animals’ growth, attracting tourists. Therefore, Abercrombie & Kent receives more tourists in areas with favorable climatic conditions than in countries with harsh climate. Furthermore, the company receives more clients during summer holidays than Winter.

Economic Factors

Abercrombie & Kent is a multinational company affected the trends in the global economy. Economic factors include interest and tax rates, governmental activities, wages, and other factors determining a country’s financial status. High tax rates negatively affect tourism and hospitality since the companies record less return on investment (Habibi, 2022). Favorable tax rates attract tourists due to affordable travel and accommodation costs. Furthermore, changes in the inflation rate affect products and service prices among countries (Phan & Stachuletz, 2022). An increase in the inflation rate leads to increased raw materials and products costs crucial for tourism (Phan & Stachuletz, 2022). Government policies on employee wages can also affect the tourism industry, mainly depending on human resources. Economic factors affect Abercrombie & Kent’s operations since they determine service and product costs.

Abercrombie & Kent’s Micro Environment

The microenvironment consists of the factors affecting business operations, but the companies can control them. Customers, suppliers, and competitors form the microenvironment are significant to tourism and hospitality (Leyva & Parra, 2021). The micro-environment factors determine the competitiveness of the tourism and hospitality industry. The tourists’ choice of travel destination determines the profitability among countries. Alternatively, stable and dependable suppliers among tourist companies help boost business profitability. The microenvironment is significant for competition and business growth.

Customers

Tourists are attracted by various sites, cultures, and sceneries among multiple countries. Therefore, countries with the most attractive tourist attraction sites receive many tourists. The tourists’ travel choices are influenced by factors like political stability, climate, and cultural values among their destination countries (Gidebo, 2021). Consequently, Abercrombie & Kent has invested in marketing its services in the global market to attract potential customers. The majority of the company’s clients are from the highly developed countries such UK, US, and Canada bringing high revenues. While Abercrombie & Kent has a broad consumer base, the company invests in the various marketing activities to attract more clients.

Suppliers

The suppliers include those people and organizations supplying hotels and other tourism-related companies with raw materials, food, and other products. Abercrombie & Kent also rely on the motor service industry that provide and repairs its vehicles. The suppliers boost the industry by providing quality and international standard goods (Hoe & Mansori, 2018). However, the suppliers are affected by factors like economic and political. An unstable economy with increased taxes would increase supply prices (Al-Thaqeb et al., 2020). Furthermore, the suppliers would supply companies that pay well, increasing competition. Increased supplier power affects the business since the suppliers provide their goods and services at their desired prices that are expensive. Therefore, suppliers affect operations in the tourism and hospitality industries.

Competitors

The tourism industry is highly competitive due to unique tourist attraction sites among the different countries. Furthermore, the advancing technology has increased competition among tourism-related companies. Consequently, many competing companies adopt e-commerce and digital marketing to sell their services and goods. For instance, Black Tomato, Nomad Hill, and Scott Dunn have adopted e-commerce giving them competitive edge over Abercrombie & Kent. Companies that have adopted the technology receive many tourists due to efficient and affordable services. Abercrombie & Kent’s dependable suppliers enable the company remain competitive in the global market (Abercrombie & Kent, 2019). Increased competitors in the industry reduce revenues among companies.

Abercrombie & Kent-Competitive Environment Analysis: Current Global Situation

Tourism and hospitality are highly competitive but profitable during the peak seasons. The global market remains dominated by high-end hotels and luxurious traveling agencies in countries with the most beautiful sceneries. Abercrombie & Kent has taken advantage of the favorable business environment in the US and other developed countries. Unfortunately, the onset of the novel coronavirus greatly affected the company’s local and global operations. Various governments-imposed travel bans restricted tourism activities among the countries (Riady et al., 2021). The closure of industries that promote tourism affected the sector due to the limited supply of products and services needed by the tourism company.

The hospitality businesses, including Abercrombie & Kent, were hit hard, leading to jobs and increased financial losses. According to an American Hotel & Lodging Association survey, about 71% of American hotels could not make it without federal relief (2020). Therefore, the covid 19 negatively impacted the tourism and hospitality industries leading to the closure of the businesses and stifling the economy. However, the discovery of covid-19 vaccines has led to economic recovery, and the industry is stabilizing.

Abercrombie & Kent-SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is used to determine the competitive environment of a business. Therefore, the analysis will help understand Abercrombie & Kent’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the industry. The analysis help understand the company’s position in the global market.

Table 1: Abercrombie & Kent SWOT Analysis

Strengths Weaknesses

  • Excellent brand image and consumer brand equity
  • Diverse product portfolio attracting tourists with diverse needs
  • Successful track records that various global organizations have rewarded
  • A strong relationship with the suppliers and other members in the supply chain

  • The company has adopted a business model that the competitors can replicate
  • Weak inventory management
  • Lack of workforce diversity to cater to the foreign clients

Opportunities Threats

  • The company can take advantage of the growing technology to diversify its product and services
  • The company can use the increasing consumer disposable income to create new business models that are not easy to imitate
  • The global market has lucrative opportunities for luxurious companies such as Abercrombie & Kent
  • Increasing consumer preference and the entrance of new customers can help boost the company

  • Stiff competition within the market has led to increased buyer-bargaining power leading to low prices
  • International geopolitics has threatened the business due to strict border regulations among different countries
  • Natural disasters and pandemics such as the coronavirus threatens the business
  • The tourism and hospitality markets have recorded an increasing number of new entrants threatening the existing companies

IHG Service Marketing Mix Activities

Marketing is crucial for business growth since it helps attract potential customers and maintain existing customers. Technology has significantly improved marketing activities and has assisted in analyzing consumer behaviors. Furthermore, the invention of social media platforms has dramatically improved digital marketing activities. Companies like Trek Trave LLC and IHG have utilized digitization to enhance their marketing activities. A successful marketing activity considers the ‘7Ps’ model: product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and physical evidence (Parra-López & Martínez-González, 2022). The ‘7Ps’ marketing model is adequate for tourism and hospitality since the marketing activities are carried out by considering the critical business factors.

Product

Product means goods or services offered by a company to its consumers. The tourism and hospitality companies provide a wide range of products and services, including tour guides, guest rooms, and food. For instance, the IHG offers services including luxurious accommodation, conference venues among other hotel services. When marketing companies present their products or services to potential consumers, the marketed products and services ought to be unique and of high quality to attract potential customers (Parra-López & Martínez-González, 2022). Furthermore, the companies should have a broad product category from which the potential consumers can choose. Clients are often attracted to affordable, unique, and high-quality products.

Price

The price corresponds to the customers’ money for products or services. Companies identify effective pricing strategies that suit their brand positions. For instance, a penetrative pricing strategy is suitable for marketing products to a new market. Meanwhile, a value-based pricing strategy can be applied if the company’s products are considered valuable compared to other companies in the industry. A competitive pricing strategy is used when the company is in a competitive industry (Pholphirul et al., 2021). IHG has adopted competitive and value-based pricing strategies since it offers quality hospitality services. The competitive pricing strategy aims at selling products or services at prices similar to the competitors. Therefore, price and a pricing strategy are crucial during marketing since they can either attract or scare potential customers away.

Place

The place refers to the location where the products are available to the customers. A company’s physical location and look determine the buyers’ purchasing decisions and could be influenced by the products or service availability (Pholphirul et al., 2021). IHG operates in countries like Dubai that have beautiful sceneries attracting more clients. The hospitality industry involves the availability of hotels near tourist attraction sites and accessible roads. For instance, hotels in coastal regions attract many tourists compared to those far away from the coastline. When deciding on the location of a hotel, tourist attraction sites should be considered.

Promotion

Promotion involves the activities carried out by the companies’ marketing departments to advertise their products and services. Furthermore, it requires communication and strategies supporting products and services. Integration of technology has bolstered promotional activities through social media. IHG has taken advantage of international trade fairs and sporting activities to promote their products and services (Pholphirul et al., 2021). The use of international communication media such as global Television and radio channels helps the company reach out to many potential customers. When choosing a product promotional activity, a company should consider its effectiveness and affordability.

People

The people are the core target of any marketing strategy and help determine the profitability of a business. Therefore, a marketing strategy should meet consumer needs and fill the market gaps. Marketing activity should involve an analysis of consumer behaviors and help determine purchasing patterns among the buyers (Parra-López & Martínez-González, 2022). Furthermore, a company’s employees should present the company’s values and culture that is attractive to consumers. IHG attracts high-end tourists, and takes advantage of the summer holidays and international conferences that encourage different stakeholders to market its services. IHG’s astute management and clients that are invited to luxurious services boost the company’s business operations in various countries.

Process

Business processes involve activities that result in product and service delivery. Companies invest in technology to improve product quality and service delivery. The use of e-commerce among hotels allows customers to choose their desired products and services. IHG has automated and digitized websites that allow clients from different countries choose their preferred services. Furthermore, the excellent IHG’s brand image helps the company attract many potential customers due to strong trust in the service and product delivery (Parra-López & Martínez-González, 2022). Effective business operations involve technology integration and quality products or service delivery.

Physical Evidence

Physical evidence promotes companies’ brand images since the customers can give feedback from their point of view. Many hotels invest in landscaping and other decorative activities to attract tourists. Furthermore, the adoption of an eco-friendly environment attracts clients that are concerned about nature. The physical evidence can also include a representation of a country’s culture that attracts tourists. Eco-friendly and attractive hotels support excellent brand images.

IHG Marketing Activities’ Analysis and Effectiveness

When it comes to product promotion, the company utilizes digital marketing and public relations. The company runs its adverts on various social media platforms, including global Tv and radio stations. Public relations are a vital marketing strategy of the company. The company has adopted customer loyalty programs that allow loyal customers to get free vacations and reservations. The company awards its clients with free flights and discounted services depending on how many times they use the company’s assistance.

The adoption of practical marketing activities has boosted the company’s brand image and positioning. The company is viewed as high-end and providing quality services to its consumers compared to its competitor Hilton (Figure 1). The excellent brand reputation has enabled the company to gain consumer-based brand equity (IHG, 2019). Consequently, the company records profits making it sustainable to acquire non-imitable products and services (Antikainen et al., 2018). The company should utilize the growing use of technology among the hotels to improve its innovativeness, expansion, partnerships, and service delivery.

Innovation involves identifying new ideas and business gaps and the use of sustainable solutions. Technological advancements have led to development of artificial intelligence that hotels can use to improved their service delivery. Formation of partnerships could help the IHG become competitive in the hospitality industries. The partnership would also help the company increase its products and service categories (Antikainen et al., 2018). Partnering with global hotels would help the company expand to new countries and attract more clients. Furthermore, adoption of digital marketing and introduction of customer loyalty programs would help the company attract more loyal customers and retain its consumer-base. While the InterContinental Hotels Group adopts an effective marketing activity, the company can improve on its innovativeness, expansion, and partnership formations.

Conclusion

The tourism and hospitality industries are among many countries’ highest foreign income earners. Like any other business, the industry is affected by external and micro factors. External factors include political, legal, environmental, economic, technological, and social-cultural factors. Companies have no control over the external environment and can do very little to improve the environment. Factors like technological developments have boosted the industry’s innovation. The companies can control Micro-environment factors like customers, suppliers, and competitors. Marketing is crucial among hotels and other hospitality companies since it helps attract potential clients. When marketing, the companies should consider the ‘7Ps’ model. The hospitality and tourism industry is lucrative and can be effective if the companies adopt efficient marketing strategies.

Efficient marketing strategies

References

Abercrombie & Kent. (2019). The Pioneers of Luxury Travel. Web.

Al‐Thaqeb, S. A., Algharabali, B. G., & Alabdulghafour, K. T. (2020). The pandemic and economic policy uncertainty. International Journal of Finance & Economics.

American Hotel & Lodging Association. (2020). Survey of hotels on financial crisis [review of survey of hotels on financial crisis]. AHLA. Web.

Antikainen, M., Uusitalo, T., & Kivikytö-Reponen, P. (2018). Digitalisation as an enabler of circular economy. Procedia Cirp, 73, 45-49.

Borges-Tiago, M. T., Arruda, C., Tiago, F., & Rita, P. (2021). Differences between TripAdvisor and Booking. com in branding co-creation. Journal of Business Research, 123, 380-388.

Gidebo, H. B. (2021). Factors determining international tourist flow to tourism destinations: A systematic review. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 12(1), 9-17.

Habibi, N. (2022). The Belt and Road Initiative in the Eastern Mediterranean: China’s Relations with Egypt, Turkey, and Israel. Web.

Hoe, L. C., & Mansori, S. (2018). The effects of product quality on customer satisfaction and loyalty: Evidence from Malaysian engineering industry. International Journal of Industrial Marketing, 3(1), 20. Web.

IHG. (2019). InterContinental Hotels Group PLC. Web.

Khan, S. (2020). COVID-19: Tourism at Crossroads! What Next. J. Tour. Sustain, 3, 32-40.

Lehto, X., Davari, D., & Park, S. (2020). Transforming the guest–host relationship: A convivial tourism approach. International Journal of Tourism Cities.

Leyva, E. S., & Parra, D. P. (2021). Environmental approach in the hotel industry: Riding the wave of change. Sustainable Futures, 3, 100050.

Morgan, D. (2021). Safety Management in the Adventure Tourism Industry. In Tourist Health, Safety and Wellbeing in the New Normal (pp. 373-387). Springer, Singapore.

Osipova, Y., & Kazmina, L. (2021). Arts and crafts, decorative and applied arts as a growth driver of educational tourism. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 273, p. 09004). EDP Sciences.

Parra-López, E., & Martínez-González, J. A. (2022). Service Marketing Mix. In Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Phan, T. H., & Stachuletz, R. (2022). Bribery—Export Nexus under the Firm’s Growth Obstacles. Economies, 10(2), 28.

Pholphirul, P., Rukumnuaykit, P., Charoenrat, T., Kwanyou, A., & Srijamdee, K. (2021). Service marketing strategies and performances of tourism and hospitality enterprises: implications from a small border province in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.

Proebstl-Haider, U., Hoedl, C., Ginner, K., & Borgwardt, F. (2021). Climate change: Impacts on outdoor activities in the summer and shoulder seasons. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 34, 100344.

Pulka, B. M., Ramli, A., & Mohamad, A. (2021). Entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial network, government business support and SMEs performance. The moderating role of the external environment. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.

Riady, R., Fita, G. A., Utami, A. N. F., & Tahawa, T. H. B. (2021). Global Trade Restrictions during Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research & Social Sciences, 2(1), 173-177.

Torgler, B. (2021). The power of public choice in law and economics (No. 2021-04). CREMA Working Paper. Web.

The Story Of Telemachus In ””The Odyssey” By Home”

Numerous books exist in the world, presenting to readers various aspects of life. One of the most renowned literary works is the epic The Odyssey that represents the fascinating stories of Odysseus and his son Telemachus (Homer, 1996). While both characters go on complex journeys, Telemachus’s quest reflects the search for one’s identity, showing the growth of a person from a young boy to an experienced man.

While Telemachus has to overcome several struggles on his way, it is important to analyze not the struggles themselves but how they change the character’s personality. At first, Telemachus is portrayed with a “heart obsessed with grief,” daydreaming about his father driving out his mother’s suitors rather than doing something himself (Homer, 1996, p. 6). Telemachus says that he is “not so certain” that he is Odysseus’s son, which may indicate him not being certain of his own identity if his origin is questionable (Homer, 1996, p. 9). While Telemachus does attempt to resist the suitors, he is not taken seriously as some refer to his orders as “tiresome threats” (Homer, 1996, p. 24). Telemachus is also unsure of his decisions, and even when Athena, his Mentor, calls him “brave and adept,” his heart is still “aching” (Homer, 1996, p. 27). Telemachus begins his journey as a person doubtful of his identity and choices.

As the story progress, Telemachus changes gradually with the help of Athena. The goddess encourages him not to be shy, and Telemachus listens to her with “the heart Athena herself inspired” (Homer, 1996, p. 34). With her assistance as well, king Nestor reassures Telemachus that he should never be “a coward or defenseless,” even though the young man starts losing hope, thinking that his father would never return (Homer, 1996, p. 34). However, when Telemachus finally reunites with his father, he says of himself, “you’ll sense the courage inside me,” indicating one of the many changes in his personality (Homer, 1996, p. 273). With support from others, Telemachus becomes a strong and brave man.

To summarize, Telemachus’s journey, during which he encounters various people and situations, promotes changes in his personality. Although he doubts himself throughout the epic, with some assistance from others, Telemachus finds strength in himself as a son of Odysseus. From a young daydreaming man who mostly speaks and gives orders, Telemachus turns into an experienced and skilled person who is not afraid to act and fight.

Reference

Homer. (1996). The Odyssey. (R. Fagles, Trans.). Penguin Classics.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy In India: Reasons For Happening And Results

On December 3, 1984, in Bhopal, India, there happened to be a gas leakage of methyl isocyanate (MIC) from a pesticide manufacturing plant located in the city. The tragedy resulted in the loss of lives and other adverse negative effects on the community in Bhopal. At least 3,800 people died, and another 11,000 victims were left disabled in many ways. The health effects were dire and are still felt to date, like many families that lived in the affected locality still suffer from illnesses caused by the leakage (Browning 1). This outrageous disaster was one of the worst industrial accidents in the world, which in turn has seen the implementation and enforcement of numerous policies to evade such accidents. Since the accident, preventive strategies, company disaster preparedness, and the international environmental safety standards and other guidelines have been set and are then used globally by industries. Despite all these government policies enacted on industrial behavior, a significant threat to the environment still remains due to the fast and under-regulated industrial growth where vast environmental degradation has significantly affected human health in the regions.

The UCIL plant in Bhopal leaked about 28 tons of toxic gas that spread throughout the city, affecting many people living in and even out of the surrounding. The pesticide factory built by UCIL had three tanks that contained 60 tons of methyl isocyanate (Kok et al. 11). On the fateful evening of December 3, 1984, plant operators began their maintenance routine checks in a pesticide factory owned by Union Carbide Indian Limited (UCIL). Some of the activities included flushing out contaminants by washing the pipes with water to keep the filter system clean (Browning 3). Unfortunately, an overflow device from the filter system downstream was blocked. Water started flowing back via a leaking valve into the vent system. Later in the night, a fragile pipe permitted water in the prevalent tank.

A valve that remained to protect the tank, known as the nitrogen outflow, was later known to be leaking since the engineers were previously unable to pressurize it. The tank exploded off the walls emitting the hazardous chemicals inside (Diamond 2). Despite the security and safety systems set to curb and stop such leakages by UC, the toxic emission rapidly spread into the city, killing instantly and maiming others physically. In this case to cite, if safety procedures had been followed, a slip blind could have been installed to get a non-penetrable seal amid the pipes; hence water couldn’t have flown that far.

There came about several theories as to why the tragedy happened. One of them being the sabotage theory that implicated one ‘Mr. Verma is a disgruntled employee who caused the leakage after being transferred unlawfully from his former place of work by his boss (Diamond 3). The decision was actively challenged in India by UCC managers and workers from the factory, who claimed the theory to be null and blamed the failure of the factory’s design and management to be the cause of the disaster. There was no elaborate system that could inform the public living adjacent, no emergency plans, and totally no systems to disseminate information on emergencies to the people living around except a loud siren in the factory. Investigations done indicated that plant operators in the firm were not well trained. The Indian management at the plant had entirely employed locals as the only workforce in the plant. The analysis of the event further revealed that the Bhopal plant mass-produced more MIC than it could process immediately hence loads of storage in the tank.

The processing capacity of MIC in Bhopal was much lower; hence, enormous quantities were stored for months. This issue implied that UCC adopted inadequate safety measures in Bhopal. There were no emergency corrosive scrubbers to neutralize any gas leak, and there was reliance on manual observation since there wasn’t any digitized monitoring of processes and instruments. The MIC tanks had never been nitrogenized since their last production in October 1984 and the turning off of the refrigeration unit in June 1984 (Diamond 3). A survey conducted shows devastating indication that the UCC administration was well conscious of the safety issues before the tragedy but ignored all the warnings (Browning 2). It included deficiencies in instrument maintenance programs and the safety valves and high personnel turnover in operations. From Nichols’ (1981) perspective, these flaws reflect the Indian value system, which is characterized by strong in-group identity and loyalty.

In March 1983, the factory received a letter from a local attorney Shah Nawaz Khan threatening legal actions. Major violations included the storage of hazardous contents, contaminating water and soil with toxic waste, and posing risks to the health of the communities that lived adjacently (Diamond 2). The investigation established that the organization could have prevented this tragedy, ensuring maintenance programs regulate and actively gauge the replacement regularity for valves, instrumentation, and alarm systems. This precaution could have been taken by conducting a weekly review of safety valves and maintenance documented comprehensively. The high MIC production could have been in line with the processing capacity (Diamond 2). This measure could have reduced the period in which methyl isocyanate could have been stored in the tanks.

Furthermore, the MIC storage facilities should have been fortified with scrubbers that are well designed to operate in such hasty conditions to counteract any evading MIC. The field tanks for storage should have used cooling systems built on chloroform that is non-volatile with MIC than those based on brine which is very volatile. The factory could also ensure extensive worker training packages to best practices and effective strategies in emergency mitigation and management and provide their workforce with enough protective gear and equipment.

In conclusion, UCC has consistently denied accountability for the leakage at Bhopal since UCIL played an overall administrative role in the factory’s management. The occurrence in India clearly shows that the rapid industrialization in third world countries without strict adherence to safety policies and environmental regulations will have dire consequences to the social, political, and more; global economic sectors as the industrial toxic and hazards contamination are tied to the worldwide market dynamics. Numerous human rights institutions have raised concerns to transnational companies that conduct businesses globally, ensuring that they oblige to work under the given frameworks internationally.

All transnational businesses and enterprises respect the right to a healthy and clean environment. Companies should be responsible and accountable for all environmental and health impacts of their activities. Transnational firms and enterprises shall and will always have to respect the precautionary and prevention principle. Upon exhaustion of use of their products, corporations must ensure efficient methods of assembling the remains effectively (Browning 2). Business enterprises are also supposed to take adequate measures to avoid damaging the environment and reduce the perils of accidents. The corporation can implement this proposition by enacting the most accurate management practices and equipment.

Works Cited

Browning, J. B. “Union Carbide: Disaster at Bhopal.” Union Carbide Corporation, 1993.” Web.

Diamond, Stuart. “The Bhopal Disaster: How It Happened.” New York Times, 1985. Web.

Kok, Tze Lin, et al. “Bhopal Gas Tragedy–The Scar of Process Safety.” Loss Prevention Bulletin, vol. 269, 2019, pp. 11-13. Web.

Nichols, Edwin J. “Philosophical aspects of cultural differences.” Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 1981.

error: Content is protected !!