House of Kebab is a fast food outlet owned by locals and will have the image and detail presentation to position it as an international franchise.
House of Kebab endeavors to provide tasty cuisine at reasonable prices, all the while fostering a friendly atmosphere and distinctive packaging. We acknowledge the rising desire for fast food kebabs and shawarmas, rendering House of Kebab an outstanding choice. With the fast food sector becoming more cutthroat, distinguishing one’s establishment from others proves arduous. Our main objective is to establish a prominent presence in Kuala Lumpur, ideally within a renowned residential area. Following this, we aim to expand our footprint by launching additional stores in neighboring locales.
The main objective of House of Kebab is to offer a unique dining experience that appeals to young customers who want to enjoy meals with their friends and family. We strive to provide high-quality food at an affordable price.
House of kebab offers a variety of specially crafted shawarma wraps that are similar to sandwiches. These wraps typically contain shaved meat such as lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or a combination of these meats. They also include kebab, which is thinly sliced meat or chicken made from minced and seasoned meat. These delicious wraps are served with unleavened bread, fresh salad, and sauce. The meat, commonly lamb, chicken or beef, is grilled on a vertical spit that rotates.
Our store will provide a display cooking experience where customers can observe the entire process of cutting and frying our famous Turkish Kebab and Shawarma. Additionally, they can explore our in-house brochures to gain more knowledge about Kebab and our unique sauces. The store will have a lively fast food atmosphere with a vibrant counter and a menu showcased on the wall.
House of Kebab is a privately held company that will be registered as a Limited company. The ownership will be divided equally among Sarawanan, Mahendran, Che Rosmawati, and Emmanuel, each with 25% ownership. Our goal is to thrive in this industry by developing a unique and innovative menu that distinguishes us from competitors.
Our objective is to always keep costs in check and adopt a cautious approach to growth policy in all areas. Despite having enough funds for multiple store openings, we prioritize prudence when making business decisions. Our main goal is to sell top-notch products and guarantee customer satisfaction in every category, including food and store merchandising.
Our goal is to ensure complete customer satisfaction and maintain superior service compared to our competitors. We prioritize the crucial aspects of the fast food industry, namely brand and image, which are important in marketing communications. Additionally, we strive to promote positive values within our company culture and business philosophy. Furthermore, we analyzed our business using Porter’s 5 forces model for further insights.
The fast-food industry comprises various companies that provide a range of products and services to fulfill customer requirements. These offerings can be seen as similar options.
Managers have a crucial role in analyzing the competitive forces in the industry’s environment. This analysis allows them to identify threats and opportunities that can be either protected against or benefited from by the company. Porter’s five forces model helps managers with identifying and analyzing these competitive forces within the industry. According to this model, stronger forces restrict established companies’ ability to increase prices and generate higher profits. By utilizing this model, managers can recognize potential new opportunities or threats that may affect their business operations.
Obstacles preventing market entry
The fast food industry is highly competitive and constantly sees new competitors emerge, making it challenging to enter. To stay in the market, businesses must create strong barriers that new competitors must overcome. The most effective barriers in the food industry include providing a diverse menu and maintaining a significant price gap with rivals.
Offering a product at a lower price can make it more appealing and help businesses achieve economy of scale by increasing production and reducing costs. Unlike upscale restaurants, fast food establishments do not have expensive ambience or fine dining experiences that drive up costs. Consequently, fast food operators can lower fixed costs like rent, in addition to benefiting from mass production. These factors enable them to offer lower prices and capture a larger market share.
Having a high market share is essential for businesses as it leads to increased profits and the possibility of expanding. Therefore, effective marketing strategies are crucial in order to attract customers. McDonald’s provides a great illustration of this by utilizing tactics like introducing mascots such as Ronald Mc Donald and offering Happy Meals to appeal specifically to children. These initiatives not only establish a unique brand identity but also differentiate their products. However, a downside is that many competitors often imitate and adjust these same tactics for their own businesses.
For entering an industry, having adequate capital and establishing a strong brand name are crucial. Sufficient investment is required to lay a solid business foundation. Additionally, creating a reputable brand will provide the business with a competitive advantage by fostering customer loyalty. A prime illustration of effective branding is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), known for its fried chicken. KFC’s unwavering meal quality showcases their exceptional branding approach.
Competitors face a major challenge in attracting customers due to customer loyalty, even when prices are lowered. Moreover, complying with government policies is a crucial barrier for entering the market because non-compliance would lead to product failure and an inability to gain market share. In the fast food industry of a Muslim country, it is essential to clearly indicate pork-containing products as ‘Non Halal’ through signage on packaging and in restaurants where they are sold.
In order to avoid a substantial loss of purchasing power, it is crucial that the product is Halal as Malaysians, who are primarily Muslims, will refrain from buying non-Halal items. Unobstructed market channels play a vital role in ensuring efficient distribution and marketing of food products. Considering the wide accessibility of the fast food industry to a large customer base, it is imperative that product distribution is streamlined and made convenient, particularly when strategic locations such as towns or office areas are chosen for selling these items. While traditional placements for fast food joints include town centers and proximity to offices, there has been an emerging trend of locating them at petrol pumps to cater to customer convenience. House of Kebab effectively tackles entry barriers through employing these strategies.
House of Kebab has successfully overcome all major obstacles to entering the market. We have analyzed each obstacle individually:
- Government Regulation Kebab being a food traditionally from Middle Eastern country it is well in demand for Malaysians whom vast majority are Muslims. Government Halal requirements are also addressed and met via procuring meat from suppliers whom already hold a Halal certificate. This way one barrier is well addressed.
- Marketing Strategy House of Kebab’s marketing would be done via all print medias and also online expiate web pages. This in a way will promote House of Kebab to the high number of Arabian experts whom are in this country. Due to lack of Kebab fast food outlets in Malaysia, House of Kebab’s marketing activity will be able to overcome another form of barriers to entry.
- Location House of Kebab’s locations are well chosen to be suburbs of Klang Valley where Malay population are significantly higher. Locations such as Pantai Dalam, Shah Alam and Klang were chosen. This in turn would be another giant step forward for House of Kebab to overcome the barriers of entry.
- Competitor’s Reaction Competitor reaction against House of Kebab is expected to be significantly lower compared to other fast food outlets due to its core business being Kebab. In Malaysia there are very fewer fast food outlets selling Kebabs. This equates to no direct retaliation from other giants such as McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken. This in turn will prove to be a positive factor for Rose Kebab’s success.
‘Powerful suppliers have the ability to capture a larger portion of the value by implementing higher prices, restricting quality or services, or transferring costs onto industry participants.
Powerful suppliers can have a negative effect on profitability in certain industries where price increases cannot be applied to counter rising costs. A prime example is Microsoft, which has implemented barriers that hinder access to its software, consequently leading to decreased profitability within the PC industry. Nonetheless, supplier influence varies across different sectors. In highly competitive and easily accessible markets such as the fast food industry, supplier power does not exert a substantial impact.
McDonald’s, KFC, Burger King and other leading players in the fast food industry are facing tough competition and a simple entry and exit process. Consequently, they cannot justify high prices compared to the increasing number of competitors. House of Kebab, as a fast food chain, recognizes this reality and has implemented the following strategy to counter any negative actions by rivals:
- Establishing our own poultry farm with a strong emphasis on organic and healthy products.
- Providing recreational rooms for our customers at no additional cost across all our locations.
- Organizing affordable weekly children’s parties.
Conducting regular customer surveys is crucial to identify areas for improvement. At House of Kebab fast food chain, we take a defensive strategy by constantly improving our menus and offering a variety of dishes based on our customers’ suggestions. In a monopolistic setting where suppliers cater to multiple buyers and their products are highly demanded with no close substitutes, supplier power is higher. To address this, we have created a research and development (R&D) department and actively encourage local farmers to increase the production of our main raw material, chicken. We provide grants to help them acquire machinery for mechanized farming.
This strategy aims to maintain the availability of our raw materials and keep prices low among our suppliers. It also helps us avoid the high cost associated with switching suppliers. To give our suppliers less bargaining power, we have established a uniform standard for both meat and grocery suppliers. At House of Kebab, we have implemented a policy (Memorandum of Understanding) with our suppliers. This policy prevents them from entering our industry while also ensuring that we continue to provide grants and share research on improving farm products.
The size and concentration of customers, as well as the level of customer information and competitor concentration or differentiation, are the primary determinants of buyer power. Buyer power is one of the two horizontal forces that impact the allocation of value in an industry.
Kippenberger (1998) suggests that it can be useful to differentiate between the potential buyer power and the willingness or incentive of the buyer to use it. The willingness is primarily driven by the “risk of failure” associated with product usage. Buyer power is particularly strong in markets dominated by a few large players, like retailers and grocery stores, and when there are numerous undifferentiated small suppliers supplying large grocery companies, such as small farming businesses. Moreover, low switching costs between suppliers, like changing from one fleet supplier of trucks to another, can influence buyer power. Price sensitivity also impacts buyer power. Consequently, we believe that our House of Kebab offers a reasonable price in the market and potentially even lower than our competitors.
Our company’s vision is to achieve a significant market share within 3-4 years. This vision relies on the collaboration of our entire management team. Additionally, the purchasing power is influenced by production levels. According to the law of demand and supply, if there is high demand for a specific product in the market, its price will increase. Conversely, low demand will lead to a decrease in price.
Therefore, House of Kebab’s management has decided to continuously study market demand and adjust supply accordingly. Our sales team has already conducted research during this early stage.
When making a buying decision, the availability of substitute products is a significant factor to consider. The level of competition from substitutes depends on the ease with which buyers can switch to them. One important aspect to take into account is the switching cost for buyers, which refers to the one-time expenses associated with shifting from one product to a substitute. In our present circumstances, we have identified that our competitor could serve as an alternative if our current product fails to meet customer requirements. According to the review findings, customer economic power does influence buyer power.
According to our analysis, the sales of House of Kebab will generate profit as long as the current demand and buying power remain steady. The customers’ ability to negotiate and utilize their leverage increases when there are fewer customers and larger quantities are purchased. This situation also occurs when the customers make up a significant portion of the total sales for the selling industry. Additionally, the buying power is influenced when customers have the potential to integrate backward, particularly if the item they are purchasing is not a crucial input.
Our research on House of Kebab indicated that consumers play a crucial role in the Kebab market. The low competition in comparison to other fast foods gives them a significant purchasing influence. We expect favorable profit margins assuming the current market conditions continue.
THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES
Substitutes serve the same purpose as a product in an industry, but using a different method. For example, plastics are substitutes for aluminum, and email is a substitute for express mail. However, the threat level of substitutes varies. Some substitutes pose a direct threat, while others are indirect. For instance, day care services are threatened when baby-sitters are hired, and air-ticketing agents services are threatened when airlines choose to sell tickets online.
At House of Kebab, we have implemented a specific differentiation strategy to address the very evident and direct threat of substitutes in the fast food industry. Our main objective is to satisfy hunger, which is why we offer a unique and appetizing dish made with high-quality meat, accompanied by tastefully garnished soya sauce. In addition, when customers choose House of Kebab, they also receive a complimentary gift that may be a key-holder, ball-pen, or a 10% discount voucher for future purchases.
Our tagline is ‘Original Kebab with traditional dish; and the ultimate shawarma with a different taste’. Once again, our prices for kebab and shawarma are lower compared to our competitors as a part of our low price strategy. The Threat of Substitutes is significant when substitutes offer a better price-performance trade-off compared to the industry’s product. Substitutes that exhibit high value and satisfying traits can greatly diminish the profit potential of the industry, such as what happened to Kyros Kebab or Kebab Melawati due to the rise of kebab fast food.
Low consumer switching costs result in a high threat of substitutes, as consumers can easily obtain a lower-priced substitute. Technological advancements in other industries can also create substitution threats if the new product offers better value than the current product. At House of Kebab, we prioritize continuous innovation and improvement.
Rivalry Among Existing Firms
There are various ways in which existing competitors engage in rivalry, such as offering discounted prices, introducing new products, running advertising campaigns, and improving services. This high level of rivalry has a negative impact on the profitability of an industry. The extent to which rivalry reduces the profit potential of an industry is determined by two factors: the level of competition among companies and the basis on which they compete. The intensity of rivalry is highest if:
There is a large number of competitors or they are approximately equal in terms of size and power.
- Industry growth is slow. Slow growth precipitates fights for market share.
- Exit barriers are high. These barriers keep companies in the market even though they may be earning low or negative returns. Rivals are highly committed to the business and have aspirations for leadership, especially if they have goals that go beyond economic performance in the particular industry.
- Firms cannot read each other’s signals well because of lack of familiarity with one another, diverse approaches to competing, or differing goals. The strength of rivalry reflects not just the intensity of competition but also the basis of competition. The dimensions on which competition takes place, and whether rivals converge to compete on the same dimensions, have a major influence on profitability.
The profitability of a business can be significantly impacted by rivalry, particularly if it focuses solely on price. This is because competing on price leads to a direct transfer of profits from the industry to its customers. It is often easy for competitors to identify and match price cuts, which often leads to retaliatory actions. Furthermore, prolonged price competition can result in customers paying less attention to product features and service. Price competition is most likely to occur when:
- Products or services of rivals are nearly identical and there are few switching costs for buyers.
- Fixed costs are high and marginal costs are low. Capacity must be expanded in large increments to be efficient.
- The product is perishable.
Competition based on factors other than price, such as product features, support services, delivery time, or brand image, is not as likely to reduce profits as it enhances customer value and can justify higher prices. It can also enhance the value compared to alternatives or make it harder for new competitors to enter the market. While non-price competition can sometimes reach levels that harm industry profitability, this is less probable than when price competition takes place.
Understanding the dimensions of rivalry is crucial, especially when considering if rivals are competing on the same dimensions. If competitors aim to meet the same needs or compete on the same attributes, the competition becomes a zero-sum game, where one firm’s gain is often another’s loss, ultimately leading to decreased profitability. However, if companies effectively segment their markets and target specific customers with their low-price offerings, this risk can be mitigated, ensuring that price competition does not necessarily transform into a zero-sum scenario.
Rivalry in an industry can be beneficial and increase overall profitability if each competitor focuses on serving the unique needs of different customer segments. This can be achieved through varying combinations of price, products, services, features, or brand identities. This type of competition not only enhances average profitability but also leads to industry expansion as it caters to a larger range of customer groups. Industries that cater to diverse customer segments have a greater potential for positive-sum competition.
With a strong grasp of the structural foundations of competition, strategists have the ability to influence the direction of rivalry in a positive manner. As mentioned earlier, the fast food industry is experiencing rapid growth, leading to increased competition among existing companies in terms of sales, profits, and market share. Consequently, each company is striving to acquire a larger portion of the market and boost their sales. For example, KFC and McDonald’s engage in intense competition as they vie to enhance customer service through initiatives like introducing new menu items and implementing home delivery services.
The fast-food industry is dominated by a few large companies with significant financial resources and a strong competitive position. This enables them to outperform smaller rivals and deter new entrants. The industry also benefits from a high demand for its products, particularly in Malaysia, where this demand is expected to persist. Moreover, the introduction of microwaves has further amplified the need for fast-food items that can be conveniently and rapidly prepared in these appliances.
By providing companies with a greater opportunity to sell more and increase their profits and market share, this would assist in moderating the competition. Additionally, the future demand for fast food may be influenced in various ways by demographic and social trends. Thus, it is evident that decreasing rivalry allows companies to raise prices and augment profits. Conversely, an increase in competition among established competitors could result in the opposite outcome.
Whenever demand and profit are high, there will be a flood of new entrants hoping to enter the market. The industry may be consolidated, with a few large companies dominating (oligopoly), or with just one company (monopoly). In such an industry, companies are interdependent, meaning that the competitive actions of one company directly impact the profitability and market share of other competitors.
House of Kebab plans to open an outlet in the sub-urban area of Pantai Dalam, which includes Pantai Hill Park, Shah Alam, and Klang. This location is chosen because it is predominantly inhabited by the Malay community, who place importance on ‘halal’ local products over American products. Additionally, Pantai Hill Park is dominated by expatriates from the Middle East. This strategic move aims to mitigate competition, allowing all companies to increase sales without negatively impacting each other’s market share and profits. However, it is important to note that a decrease in demand may intensify rivalry among industry players as they vie to retain their market share and revenue.
There are strategic, economic, and emotional reasons that keep companies in the industry, even when profits are low. If there are high barriers to exit, companies would become stuck in an unprofitable industry with unstable or declining demand. This would create excess production capacity and intense price competition, as companies would lower prices in order to get rid of their unused resources.
The exit barriers in the fast food industry include significant fixed costs for severance pay and investments that cannot be sold off. Furthermore, if a company relies heavily on the industry as its main source of income and lacks diversification, it faces additional challenges. The competitive structure in this industry is concentrated, with a small number of large companies holding substantial financial power. This advantage allows them to outperform their smaller competitors and discourage new entrants.
The fast food industry has a significant demand for its products, and this demand is expected to continue in Malaysia. The introduction of microwaves has also increased the demand for fast-food products that can be quickly and easily prepared in microwaves. This can benefit companies by increasing their opportunities to sell more and increase their profits and market share. Additionally, various demographic and social trends may impact the future demand for fast food in different ways.
It is evident from this statement that when competition decreases, companies can raise their prices and increase their profits. On the other hand, if competition increases among existing competitors, the opposite can occur.
After conducting a thorough analysis using Porter’s Five Forces Model, the shareholders have high confidence that House of Kebab will achieve significant success if the aforementioned strategies are implemented effectively.
The current advantages of House of Kebab that contribute to its strong market position are:
- Fewer competition in the Kebab Fast Food industry
- A well crafted strategy which includes two of very strong strategy which is low cost and product differentiation.
- A qualified and competent management team
- Prior experience dealing with meat suppliers
- High sales potential locations for Halal Food
- Strong emphasis on customer satisfaction.
There are three fundamentals that Colgate-Palmolive stated; which are:
- Caring The Company cares enough about the people, among Colgate people, customers, shareholders or even business partners. Colgate is committed to act with compassion, integrity, honesty and high ethics in all situations, to listen with respect to others and to value differences. The Company is also committed to protect the global environment, to enhance the communities where Colgate people live and work, and to be compliant with government laws and regulations.
- Global Teamwork All Colgate people are part of a global team, committed to working together across countries and throughout the world. Only by sharing ideas, technologies and talents can the company achieve and sustain profitable growth. Continuous Improvement Colgate is committed to getting better every day in all it does, as individuals and as teams. By better understanding consumers’ and customers’ expectations and continuously working to innovate and improve products, services and processes, Colgate will “become the best. “
- In 1986, Colgate-Palmolive had very ambitious objectives for its launch of the Cleopatra Soap line. They wanted a 4. 5% market share for year of 1986 as well as getting 100% distribution of Cleopatra with retail accounts. They did not want to compete on price, as they wanted to position Cleopatra soap as premium quality soap and to generate interest in their brand through strong media and consumer promotions. In 2005, Colgate had succeeded $15. 9 billion in sales.
Colgate-Palmolive have various health care products which focus in niche market; means that each of their specific products have focused in fulfilling specific market’s needs. Colgate Palmolive serves their customers by differentiating the products for each target market. They create different flavors of toothpaste and make some alterations to be focused on people with different age groups and with different preferences. The following must be some examples of their products with its target market:
- Precision Toothbrush. Precision toothbrush is made for people who are really concern about oral health issues such as fighting plaque and gum disease. This kind of people usually does not really care about the price as they more care about the effectiveness of the toothbrush.
- Colgate Junior (Softsoap Kids, toothpaste, etc) This product is specifically manufactured for 4 to 9 years-old-kids. Colgate-Palmolive targets mothers or parents which concern about the oral health of their children. There’re various flavors of toothpaste that can attract children, such as orange flavor and strawberry flavor. Colgate Optic White Toothpaste This toothpaste is produced for people who are concern about oral hygiene and really concern about personal appearance. Many customers for Optic White Toothpaste might be female, because women usually worry about their look.
- Colgate Wisp The innovative toothbrush from Colgate, which can be easily carried everywhere since its size is quite small, and users don’t even need a water when they use it. There is also freshening bead between the brushes that can release a burst of freshness in a mouth. This product is suitable for people who give attention to the mouth freshness at anytime or anywhere they do their activities. Executives and teenagers are the perfect target market.
- Lady Speed Stick Antiperspirant contains active ingredients that can control odor and wetness for 24-hour. Colgate targets active women who have underarm problem.
Colgate is moving on an industry where there are many competitors produce similar products with competitive price. Some of Colgate’s biggest competitors are stated below:
- Unilever Close-Up whitening from Unilever can be a threat for Colgate’s Optic White toothpaste, since close-up’s price is cheaper. However, the quality of both products is quite different, as Optic White toothpaste is more effective in whitening teeth. Thus, Colgate can steal some of Unilever’s customers who really care to the effectiveness of whitening formula.
- Procter & Gamble ( P & G )
- Johnson & Johnson Johnson & Johnson is well-known as a producer of kid’s health care products. It can be a competitor for Colgate Junior.
- However, again, Colgate can still compete with them by offering a different and unique touch.
- Avon products, Inc.
- Henkel KGaA For oral product P&G is one top of Colgate competitor. For personal care, Unilever still hold market with its affordable price especially in Asia. Based on hoover. com, Avon products, Inc. Henkel KGaA, and Johnson & Johnson are three top Colgate’s competitor in America area for home care products like beauty soap, and body care.
Core strategy marketing mix
- Communications and Promotions For promotion the company has sales promotion which is concern of all promotion apart, such as: advertising, public relation, direct selling and personal selling. Some communication & promotion strategies are stated as follows:
- • The important thing is to provide market awareness to their target market. For example, by placing counters that offers free samples to the targeted consumers • Advertisements through media (Print & Tele). For example is promotion through magazines, newspapers, billboards, T. V channels
- • Use of cartoon characters which are favorite in ids like Tom & Jerry, Snoopy etc (It will be decided on the basis of market research). This promotion strategy is suitable to be used by Colgate Junior to attract kids. Promotional mix like personal selling also can be used to promote Colgate’s products. The company provides special offers for customers that can attract them to purchase the products. In special offers, the customers can find the toothpaste, toothbrush, and mouthwash with the cheapest price.
- Product Policy Colgate’s product is a product that adds value and benefit to a customer. It also has a proper function that meets the wants and needs of targeted consumers. Each product is created by paying attention to its hygienic process. The product has uniqueness, innovation and differs from all similar products available on the market.
- Core Product: Colgate’s core product is the health care products such as toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, etc. One of their products is Colgate Junior toothpaste with orange flavor that is produced for kids. The benefits of this product are stated as follows:
- • Prevent Tooth Cavities and remove Stains Freshening mouth and avoid bad breath
- • Reduce Plaque
- • Strengthen tooth
- Design and style: The design and style for Colgate junior are set to be attractive and eye-catchy for kids by putting cartoon characters such as Tom & Jerry. So the product is designed not only to solve mouth problems, but also to be pleasing for kids through unique design.
- Features: orange gel with cooling crystals.
- Packaging: Colgate puts a cartoon characters like Tom & Jerry and Spongebob Squarepants in its tube & package to attract kids.
- Channels of Distribution
Conventional marketing channel: We will have a conventional marketing channel since we have a distribution channel structure in which Colgate Palmolive places its products in the shops of retailers or sales them to the wholesalers and they do not work like a single team. Manufacturer Wholesaler Retailer Colgate uses indirect selling because its marketing manager thinks consumers are spread throughout many areas and offer prefer to shop for certain product at specific place. Colgate has more 500 locations including South and Central America, Europe, and Asia.
For its products Colgate use Retails such as Wal-Mart, Publix, Kmart, and Wholesaler such as BG, Costeo &Sam’s Club, and ReGo Trading, Inc. However, for Colgate toothpaste distribution also through dentist, plastic surgeon, and drug store. Customer Relationship Management Colgate is trying to build and keep relationship with customer through a few ways. As Colgate offers customers’ need by create toothpaste products beside on age categories. In the official website, Colgate offers some services such as games for Colgate kids.
That purpose is to have fun while learning the basics of brushing and flossing. Beside that Colgate build community group SmileTalk® for exclusive savings. Customer can become a member by sign up and can get information about health. In that website, customers also can share a photo of their best (Colgate smile) when using Colgate toothpaste, or can create free e-card by using own customers photo. Colgate also create media page for innovation and product ideas. So customers can submit their ideas about what products they want. References Colgate-Palmolive Company. (n. d. ).
History Of Gabriel Garcia Marquez Speech Analysis
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate of 1982 for his work One Hundred Years of Solitude, demonstrates his remarkable ability to blend reality and fantasy, ordinary and extraordinary aspects. Through his acceptance speech, Marquez explores Latin America, his personal background, and the fundamental nature of humanity.
Marquez’s speech focuses on the challenges faced by Latin America, including corruption, destruction, and anarchy. It aims to convey a political message to Europeans and Americans by highlighting the prevalent political and economic crisis in the region. Marquez emphasizes issues such as widespread unrest, lack of stability in governance, poverty, and underdevelopment that have become characteristic of Latin America.
The “Madness” that plagues Latin America continues despite the liberation from Spanish rule. The region has been marred by numerous wars and military coups, resulting in countless lives lost and millions displaced. The tragedy stems from the absence of a unified National Identity, vital for preservation rather than self-destruction. This lack can be attributed to centuries of Spanish domination and recurring conflicts that have hindered Colombians from forming a new identity.
The absence of an ideological identity contributes to the Latin American’s sense of confusion in the global context. Furthermore, it emphasizes the harshness of underdevelopment and poverty. Several themes discussed in his speech are also present in the book, which uses Macondo as a fictional representation of Colombia and Latin America’s historical reality. The inhabitants of Macondo experience periods of growth and success, but they constantly encounter devastation.
Latin American history is characterized by a recurring pattern: a new leader emerges with great optimism, promising progress and modernity, but inevitably meets a brutal end. Waves of military coups follow one after another, with the populace no longer bothering to remember the most recent dictator in power. This sense of inevitability permeates the entire novel. The book portrays the seventeen military campaigns led by Colonel Aureliano Buendia as a representation of The Violence – a twenty-year-long conflict between conservatives and liberals battling for control.
The main characters in the novel are influenced by their pasts and the complexity of time. They frequently encounter ghosts throughout the story. These ghosts represent the past and its overwhelming influence on Macondo. The ghosts and their recurring presence are deeply connected to the unique history of Latin America. Macondo and the Buendia family have always felt like ghosts, disconnected from their own history. They are not only victims of the harsh realities of dependence and underdevelopment, but also of the ideological illusions that perpetuate these social conditions.
The destiny of Macondo is both doomed and predestined from its inception. The concept of fatalism symbolizes the specific role that ideology has had in perpetuating historical dependence, by rigidly constraining the interpretation of Latin American history and rejecting alternative potentials. The story appears to validate fatalism in order to depict a sense of being trapped. Time plays a intricate and multifaceted role in the overall narrative. While the history of Latin America follows a linear progression, it also imparts a circular notion due to recurring wars, unfulfilled promises, and subsequent assassinations.
Within the Buendia family, the names and attributes of the Jose Arcadios are consistently imbued with curiosity, rationality, and immense physical fortitude across six generations. On the other hand, the Aurelianos tend to embody seclusion and tranquility. By utilizing the alchemist’s laboratory found in the Buendia household, the novel delves into the concept of immortality or everlastingness amidst the limitations of human existence, emphasizing the circular nature of history as a metaphor.
The male Buendia characters can find solace in this place, whether through Jose Arcadio Buendia’s attempts to analyze the world with reason or Colonel Aureliano Buendia’s endless creation and destruction of golden fish. Additionally, the text consistently conveys a sense of inevitability, the recognition that time is all-encompassing regardless of perspective. In the present moment, Latin America is comparable to a blind man navigating a desert.
The search for a national identity is contentious and filled with challenges. Each country has its distinct period in history that defines its identity, but Latin America is still in search of its own. Marquez is critical of the indifference shown by the western world towards Latin America’s efforts to achieve its social goals. While it is acknowledged that Latin America has its fair share of chaos and stubbornness, the west only sympathizes instead of offering genuine support. This forms the essence of Latin American Solitude, a sense of isolation that is both geographical and ideological.
The novel’s central theme revolves around solitude, which is expressed in various forms. The residents of Macondo are always searching for an identity beyond their town, as they have looked to the west for modernization ever since the Spanish dominion ended in Latin America. This modernization brought about an epidemic of forgetfulness in Macondo, causing people to forget the names and purposes of everyday objects like tables and chairs.
Colombian modernization was as detrimental to Colombians as Spanish colonization had been for the indigenous Indians. Smallpox claimed the lives of approximately 95% of the Indians, surpassing the casualties caused by the Spanish right of conquest. Macondo’s epidemic of sleeplessness serves as a nostalgic longing for the “better days” of its barbaric and primitive past. In Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude, the political violence that characterizes Colombian national history finds its parallel in the life of Colonel Aureliano Buendia. His wars against the treacherous Conservatives ultimately benefit foreign imperialists who wield politico-economic power in Colombia’s national affairs.
The private police force owned by the banana plantation owners, also known as the United Fruit Company, is used to unjustly attack Colombian citizens. The lack of concrete support from the western countries towards Latin America indicates their perception of these Latin Americans as uncivilized individuals who engage in looting and violence. Marquez’s speech provides an intriguing perspective on Magical Realism, particularly within the framework of his novel. The novel depicts a fictional narrative set in an imaginary location.
The fabricated extraordinary events and characters in One Hundred Years of Solitude convey a true history. Gabriel Garcia Marquez uses his fantastical story to express reality, as myth and history coexist in the novel. The myth serves as a means to communicate history to readers. The novel achieves magical realism by seamlessly blending the ordinary with the extraordinary. Marquez masterfully employs tone and narration to create a harmonious fusion of reality and magic.
Marquez effectively combines the extraordinary and ordinary by using a consistent tone in the novel. Through concise and casual descriptions of events, he downplays the remarkable aspects, resulting in a seamless integration of reality and magic. The unimpressed tone strengthens this effect, leaving minimal doubt for readers regarding the unfolding events. Nevertheless, it also encourages readers to question the limits of reality.
Marquez denies the perception that his writing is magical and instead believes it reflects the extravagant reality of Latin America. This portrayal of barbarism, harsh actuality, and madness may appear magical to outsiders. However, this communication of the true reality exposes a deep sense of solitude in which comprehension is lacking. The absence of magic is integral to the overall pervasive solitude in Latin America.
In the novel, Remedios the Beauty is depicted as flying away while folding sheets in the yard, which is based on a childhood incident of Gabriel Marquez. What is remarkable about this scene is not the fact that a girl is flying, but rather the complete lack of emotion displayed by those on the ground. Fernanda’s main worry is not the supernatural occurrence, but rather the loss of her sheets. Marquez skillfully blends the ordinary with the magical, creating a seamless combination. As the Buendias become more isolated from the outside world, they also become more self-absorbed and detached from others.
The egocentricity of every family member is apparent in the characters of Aureliano and Remedios. Aureliano lives in his own private world while Remedios destroys the lives of four enamored men with her beauty. Throughout the novel, it seems that no character can find true love or escape the destructiveness of their own egocentricity. However, eventually, the selfishness of the Buendia family is shattered by Aureliano Segundo and Petra Cotes. They discover a sense of mutual solidarity and the joy of helping others during Macondo’s economic crisis.
The pattern of finding love is repeated by Aureliano Babilonia and Amaranta Ursula. They decide to have a child, hoping it will bring a fresh start for the Buendia family. However, the child turns out to be the feared monster with a pig’s tail. Despite this, the appearance of love brings a shift in Macondo, leading to its destruction. Marquez concludes his speech with an undying hope.
Despite the destruction and poverty, as well as the despotism, Latin America has not surrendered. The love depicted in Marquez’s novel symbolizes his vision for his homeland, Colombia, a country abundant in love. He concludes by envisioning a new utopia where individuals are not dictated on how they die, where love is authentic and happiness is attainable, and where races that have endured one hundred years of isolation will finally have a second chance on earth.